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第二篇:应用文大全 192700字

考研英语应试指导

第一部分 应用文写作

第一节 私人和公务信函

一、概述

书信是日常生活中常用的文体,是用以交涉事宜、传达信息、交流思想、联络感情、增进了解的重要工具。书信一般可分为商务信件或公函(Business Letter or Official Correspondence)和私人信件(Private Letter)两大类。值得注意的是,英语书信的写法与汉语书信有一些明显区别,应特别加以区分。

英语书信通常包括下面几个组成部分:信端、信内地址、称呼、正文、结束语、签名、附件、再启等。下面我们将逐个进行介绍。

1.信端(Heading)

信端即信头,一般包括写信人的地址和写信日期。一些正式信函的信端还包括发信人或单位的电话号码、电报挂号、电传、传真和邮政编码等。

西方国家中有些信端甚至还有单位负责人的姓名、职务和职称等。

信端的目的是使收信人一看便知道书信来自何处,何时发出,便于复信和查阅。用一般的信纸写信时,信端应写在信纸的右上角,若字数较多,可从信纸中间或偏右的地方写起。若字数较少,可适当多向右移一些,使整个信端的重心落在右上角。

信端的写法主要有并列式和斜列式两种。从目前情况来看,前者更为常用。

采用并列式时,每行开头要左对齐;采用斜列式时,每行开头逐次向右移二三个字母的距离。 例如

(1)并列式

16 Fuxing Street

Haidian District

Beijing

Post Code: 100035

People’s Republic of China

Tel: 63211234

Aug. 20, 2004

(2)斜列式(Indented Form)

16 Fuxing Street

Haidian District

Beijing

Post Code: 100035

People’s Republic of China

Tel: 63211234

Aug. 20, 2004

写信端时,先写发信人的地址,地点的名称按由小到大的顺序排列,然后与其它项目和发信日期。具体次序是:第一行写门牌号和街名;第二行写区名、市(县)名、省(州、邦)名,往国外寄的信,还要写上国家的名称;国家名称的前面加上邮政编码,其后可写上电话号码,最后一行写发信日期。如果写信人的地址是机关单位的名称,则将其作为第一行。如果写信人的单位没有门牌号码和街名,则第一行可写上所在班级或专业组的名称;第二行写系、科、室名称;第三行写学校名称;第四行写市(县)、省(州)名称;然后再写邮政编码、国名、电话号码、发信日期等项。

如果使用标点符号,则在每行末尾加逗号,最后一行的末尾加句号。但当前的信件中行末大都不加标点符号,但在每行之内该用标点符号的地方,仍要用标点。

特别要注意的是,门牌号码和街名之间要加逗号。月份和日期之间不可用逗号。在西方国家,城市名称之后往往写有字母或数字(如 New York, 103),表示城市的邮政编码。

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关于发信日期的写法,应注意以下几点:

①年份应完全写出,不能简写。

②月份要用英文名称,不要用数字代替。

③月份名称多用公认的缩写式。但 May, June, July, 因为较短,不可缩写。

④写日期时,可用基数词1,2,3,4,5,??28,29,30,31等,也可用序数词 lst, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, ??28th, 29th, 30th, 31lst等。但最好用基数词,简单明了。

日期可有下列几种写法:

① Oct. 20, 2004

② 10 May., 2004

③ 3rd June, 2004

④ Sept. 16th, 2004

其中,①最为通用。

2.信内地址(Inside Address, Introductory Address)

信内地址收信人的姓名和地址,写在信纸的左上角,从信纸的左边顶格开始写,低于写信人地址和发信日期一二行,也分并列式和斜列式两种,但应与信端的书写格式保持一致。其次序是,先写收信人姓名、头衔和单位名称,占一二行,然后写地址,可占二至四行,例如:

①并列式

Ms. Joanna Kerry

Peking University

Haidian District, 100871

Beijing

China

②斜列式

Ms. Joanna Kerry

Peking University

Haidian District,100871

Beijing

China

3.称呼(Salutation)

对收信人的称呼应自成一行,写在低于信内地址一二行的地方,从信纸的左边顶格开始写,每个词的开头字母要大写,至于末尾处的符号,英国人用逗号,但美国和加拿大英语则多用冒号。称呼用语可视写信人与收信人的关系而定。

给外国人写英文信时,称呼用语要注意以下几点:

①对没有头衔的男性一般称呼 Mr. 。Mr. 用在姓氏之前或姓氏和名字之前,不可只用在名字之前,例如对的称呼,应该是:Mr. 或 Mr. White, 不可是:Mr. Phil。若称呼多个男性,则在姓名前用 Mr. 的复数形式 Messrs. 。对一般以人名为名称的公司和企业常用这种称呼,例如:Messrs. Black and Brothers 布莱克兄弟公司。

②对女性一般称呼 Mrs., Madam 或 Miss。Mrs.用在已婚女子的丈夫的姓氏之前,或姓氏和名字之前,一般不用在名字前 Madame 此词可以单独使用或加在丈夫的姓名之前 Mrs. 没有复数形式。若称呼多个女性,则在姓名前用 Mme. 的复数形式 Mmes. 而对以女子名字为名称的公司、企业可用 Mesdames 称呼。 Miss 多用于未婚女子,此词可缩写为 Ms ,用于姓氏之前或姓氏和名字之前,一般不用于名字之前。

③对收信人的称呼,也可用头衔或职位的名称,不分性别。例如 Professor (缩写为 Prof.),Doctor (缩写为 Dr.), General (缩写为 Gen.) 。这些称呼都放在姓氏之前或姓氏和名字之前,如 Prof. (Phil)White等。

④对外公函中对收信人的称呼,可用 Gentlemen (而不是 Gentleman),Dear Sir (s)和 My dear Sir(s)等。Gentlemen 之前不能加 Dear, 后面也不能带姓名。用 Sirs 时,前面常用 Dear 一词,但也可单独用 Sir。若收信人是妇女,则无论已婚或未婚,都可单独使用 Madam 或其复数 Mesdames。

⑤对外国高级官员的称呼,如国家元首、政府首脑、部长、大使、公使和特使等,可用(Dear)Sir, (Dear)Mr. Chairman,(Dear)Mr. Premier, (My dear)Mr. Ambassador,Your Excellency (复数为 Excellencies)。

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⑥对君主制国家的国王和皇帝等男性君主,可以 Sir 称呼,对女王、女皇和皇后等女性君主,可用 Madam 称呼。有时也用 Your Majesty 称呼以表示。客气和尊敬Your Majesty 可兼指男性和女性,其复数为 Your Majesties。

⑦对王室成员,如太子、王子、亲王和公主等,一般可用(Dear)Sir 或(Dear)Madam 但在正式尊称时,一般用 Your Highness (复数为 Highnesses)。

收信人称呼

先生(男人)Mr./Esq.

夫人(已婚)Mrs.

小姐(未婚)Miss

夫人、小姐统称Ms.

夫妇俩人Mr.and Mrs.

两位或两位以上男子Messrs

两位或两位以上女子(已婚)Mesdames

两位或两位以上小姐(未婚)Misses

常见的头衔(汉英对照)如下:

教授Professor

博士Doctor(Dr.,Ph.D.)

医学博士Medical Doctor(M.D.)

总统或校长President

主席或董事长Chairman

副主席或副董事长Vice Chairman

副总统或副校长Vice President

首相Prime Minister

总理Premier

省长或州长Governor

市长Mayor

参议员Senator

大使Ambassador

秘书长Secretary General

一秘First Secretary

二秘Second Secretary

院长Director,Dean

副院长Vice Director

系主任Dean,Head,Chair

馆长Chief Librarian,Curator

阁下Excellency

神甫Father

4.信的正文(Body of the Letter)

信的正文每段第一行应往右缩进约四五个字母。在写事务性信件时,正文一般开门见山,内容简单明了,条理清楚。在写私人信件时,信写好之后若有什么遗漏,可用 P. S.表示补叙。

5.结束语(Complimentary Close)

结束语是写信人表示自己对收信人的一种谦称,只占一行,低于正文一二行,从信纸的中间或偏右的地方开始写。第一个词的开头字母要大写,末尾用逗号。结束语视写信人与收信人的关系而定例如写给机关、团体或不相识的人的信,一般用:

Yours (very) truly, Yours (very) faithfully,Yours (very) sincerely, 等等。

写给上级和长者的信一般可用:

Yours (very) respectfully, Yours (very) obediently, Yours gratefully, Yours

appreciatively, Your obedient servant, 等等。

写给同志或同事的信一般可用:

Fraternally yours, Comradely yours,等等。

写给熟人或朋友的信可用:

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Yours, Ever yours, Yours affectionately, As ever, Yours sincerely Yours devotedly, (Most) Fondly yours, Yours excitedly, Intimately yours,等等。

写给亲属或挚友的信一般用:

Yours, Ever yours, Yours as ever, As ever, Yours affectionately, Lovingly yours, (Much) Love, With Love,Lovingly, Your loving son, Your most affectionate, Your devoted friend,

Devotedly, 等等,意即:“您的”、“永远是您的”、“您的亲爱的”、“您的爱子(孩子、姐妹、侄、侄女、祖母)” 、“您的挚友”等。

写给挚友的信有时也可用:

Yours hurriedly, Yours hastily, Yours in haste, 等等。

写信给挚友,表示歉意时,可用:

Contritely yours, Regretfully yours, Yours in (with) regret, Yours in (with) deep remorse 等。

在欧洲一些国家里,多把Yours 放在 sincerely等词的前面。在美国和加拿大等国,则多用,把 yours 放在 Sincerely 等词之后。Yours 一词有时也可省略。

6.签名(Signature)

信末的签名一般低于结束语一二行,从信纸中间偏右的地方开始写。若写信人是女性,与收信人又不相识,则一般在署名前用括号注上 Miss, Mrs.或 Ms.,以便对方回信时知道如何称呼。有的还有署名后写上自己的职称、职务或头衔

7.附件(Enclosure)

信件若有附件,应在左下角注明 Encl. 或 Enc.。若附件不止一个,则应写出2(或3,4,5等)Encls.,例如:

Enc: Resume

Encls:Grade Certificate

8.再启(Postscript, 缩写为 P. S.)

再启部分用于补叙正文中遗漏的话,一般应尽量少用,正式的函件中更应避免使用。

二、注意事项

首先,写信者应设身处地想到对方,尊重对方的风俗习惯。

其次,英文信应该行文流畅、言简意赅,避免冗长。这就是说,写信者应用尽可能少的文字表达其必须传递的信息,而且写信者应将其所需传递的信息表达清楚,以免对方产生误解。书信交往,同样需要以礼待人。因而在写信过程中,要避免伤害对方感情,措辞上多选用些礼貌婉转词语。

最后,除了避免语法、拼写、标点错误外,信中所引用的史料、数据等也应准确无误。

三、常用句式

常用的起首语有:

1)Thank you for your letter dated Dec.22,1969.

2)Many thanks for your letter of Sept.5,1997.

3)A thousand thanks for your kind letter of June 5,1997.

4)Your kind letter of November 22th arrived this morning.

5)Your letter which arrived this morning gave me great comfort.

6)In reply to your letter dated 4th July,I want to say?

7)Thank you very much for your letter of August 2 and the gift you sent me on Christmas Eve.

8)What a treat to receive your kind letter of May 5th!

9)It is always a thrill to see your nice handwriting.

10)First of all I must thank you for your kind assistance and high attention to me .

11)With great delight I learn from your letter of this Sunday that ?

14)I am very much pleased to inform you that my visit to your country has been approved.

15)I wish to apply for teaching position you are offering.

16)I am too excited and delighted at your good news.

17)I am very obliged to you for your warm congratulations.?

常用的结束语有:

1)Awaiting your good news,

2)Looking forward to your early reply,

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3)Hoping to hear from you soon,

4)We await your good news.

5)I hope to hear from you very soon.

6)We look forward to your reply at your earliest convenience.

7)I look forward to our next meeting there in Los Angeles.

8)Your early reply will be highly appreciated.

9)Any other particulars wanted we shall be pleased to send you.

10)The help you give me is sincerely valued.

11)I hope everything will be well with you .

12)Please let us know if you want more information.

13)I hope you always enjoy yourself.

14)I wish you very success in the coming year.

15)Please remember me to your family.

16)With best regards to your family.

17)All the best.

18)With love and good wishes.

四、分类举例

1)私人介绍信(Private Letter of Introduction)

例1

Directions: One of your classmates and friends Li Fang will go to a university in New York to study for several months. Please write a letter to an American friend in New York and introduce Li Fang to him/her.You should write about 100 words and do not need to write the address.

Dear Mrs Mark,

I am giving Miss Fang Li, a classmate of mine, this note of introduction to you and Mr. Mark, when she goes to visit New York City. Miss Li is my good friend. She is invited by a university to study there for a few months. She is a kind young lady. I believe you will enjoy meeting and knowing each other and become friends. It is my hope that you will kindly invite her to stay in your house for a few days.

Kind regards

Very affectionately,

×××

*It is my hope that ... 是一个强调句式,意同 I hope that.

stay in your house 表示在你家小住。

例2

Directions : Your friend Mary Brown will go to Washington D. C. next month. Write a

letter to Tony who is there and introduce Mary to him. You should write about 100 words and do not need to write the address.

Dear Tony,

This letter will introduce my best friend Mary Brown of whom you’ve often heard me mention. She is going to be in Washington D. C. next month to lecture. I want very much to have her meet you there.

And this seems like an excellent chance for you to meet each other. I think both of you will have a lot in common. So far as I know, you both are interested in modern literature. Once you meet her, you will really enjoy her company. Any kindness to her will be duly appreciated by me.

Yours affectionately,

×××

* 这是一个向朋友介绍朋友的介绍信。Tony 和 Mary都是写信人的朋友,在他看来,他们志同道合,有共同爱好,所以希望他们相识,信中说“you both are interested in modern literature once you meet her, you will really enjoy her company”。

2)应聘信(Accepting Request for an Interview)

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例1

Directions: You have just received a letter from a company, which replied your

application for a job and asked you to go to the interview on August 30. Please write a reply which is about 100 words and you do not need to write the address.

Dear Mr. Wang,

Thank you for your reply of August 20 about my application for a position. It came to hand this morning as a pleasant surprise. I am glad to tell you that I will attend the

interview at the time you set for the morning of August 30. I will bring along full details of my testimonials as you suggested.

I would like to introduce myself to the company and hope to be a member of it. I would certainly spare no effort to acquit myself to your satisfaction.

Yours respectfully,

×××

*come to hand 表示收到。set 表示设定时间。 spare no effort 不遗余力。

3)推荐信(Letters of Recommendation)

例1

Directions:You are preparing to introduce your student to sb. Write a letter about 100 words and express your opinion clearly.

1) what the referee want to obtain

2) the reason you want to introduce him or her.

3) the opinion and suggestion of yourself.

You do not need to write the address.

Dear Professor Smith,

It is my pleasure to recommend my student Mr. Wang Gang for admission to your department for pursuing a master degree in accounting.

I am engaged in accounting teaching at a university in Beijing China, I enjoy my work and all of my Chinese students, who are so clever and friendly. However Mr. Wang Gang excels almost any others. He is not only outstanding in the field of accounting but also gifted for the English language, for he seems to understand almost every word I say in class. As concern as his personality, I find him honest, responsible, and cooperative. I bet you’ll like him too.

I recommend him enthusiastically. If you need further information regarding Mr. Wang Gnag, do not hesitate to contact me.

Best regards,

Sincerely yours,

×××

*be engaged in 表示从事(??工作),as concern as关于、提及

例2

Directions:You are asked to write a recommendation of your student for a position of marketing clerk about 100 words please express your reason clearly.You do not need to write the address.

Dear Mr. Manager,

I am writing this letter to recommendate my student Wang Gang who is seeking the position of marketing clerk of your company.

He says you are satisfied with his presentation at the interview and require

recommendation to be attached to his exceptional academic performance in the college.

As his political instructor, I think Mr.Wang is well qualified for the position he seeks. He always ranks among the top five in his grade, has passed CET-6 and obtains a certificate of intermediate computer skills. Mr. Wang is a studious, selfless, and aspiring young man, and he is awarded the title of Three Good Activist by the college every year.

I believe he is a good candidate worthy of your consideration.

Your sincerely,

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×××

*interview即面试, be well qualified表示完全具有资格、很合格

例3

Directions:You are going to write a recommendation for sb. as you will introduce him or her a job. Please express your idea clearly about 100 words.You do not need to write the address.

Dear Sirs,

I take delight in recommending Mr Wang Gang to the Education Department of your

university.

Mr Wang is a conscientious and strong-minded young man. He was first trained for two

years in Beijing Normal University and assigned to work as a high school teacher. His desire, however, was to instruct English in a university. Then he entered the Beijing Institute of

Education to study English for another two years . His academic record was exceptionally good, especially in American literature course.

Now, He has graduated from the institute and hopes to study further abroad, which will benefit his future employment prospect and may help fulfil his desire.

I should appreciate it very much if you would consider him.

Yours sincerely,

×××

*take delight in表示很乐于(做某事)。

例4

Directions: Your are asked to write a recommendation for a student. Please give your suggestions and express your opinions clearly about 100 words.You do not need to write the address.

To Professor Zhang,

I have the pleasure of writing this letter of recommendation for Mr. Li Ming, who is a student of mine. He wishes to be considered an applicant for the MS course of biology at your college.

Mr. Wang is a gifted young man. He has devoted his heart to his study and research. Not only has he obtained A’s in all major subject areas, but he has also published several articles in the school journal, illustrating his originality and his deep understanding of science. For his competence, he is respected by everyone who knows him.

I feel sure that, if he is accepted by your college, he will be able to develop his

talent to its fullest potential. I sincerely hope you will give him favorable consideration. Yours cordially,

×××

* 推荐信经常使用一些褒奖的形容词来描述被推荐人。以下是一些常用的描述品行和能力的词语,供大家参考:bright, clever, capable, gifted, talented, ingenious, outstanding, prominent, diligent, assiduous, industrious, conscientious, hardworking, humorous, good-humored,

cooperative, compromising, competent, original, innovative, ambitious, creative, original, innovative, inventive, imaginative, firm, persistent, persevering, resourceful, kind-hearted, generous, honest, helpful, cheerful, considerate, devoted, dedicated, committed, promising, far beyond the average person等。以上各词应根据语意选择,但不要过于堆砌。

4)祝贺信(Letters of Congratulation)

例1

Directions: Please write a letter of about 100 words to congratulate your friend Li Ming, who did well in the passed college entrance exam and has been enrolled in Peking

University.You do not need to write the address.

Dear Ming,

We are very happy to know that you have successfully passed the college entrance

examination this year and have been admitted into Peking University. Allow us to give our most sincere congratulations on this exciting occasion.

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You have all along been working hard at your professional studies, and you are excellent in most subjects. Your success shows that only hard work can yield good results.

We take this opportunity to express our best wishes to you. Wish you greater achievements in your college education.

Yours cordially,

×××

*对朋友高考胜利的祝贺信应包括对其所付出努力的肯定,对其成绩的祝贺和对未来的祝福。 例2

Directions:Your friend Steven and Jenny have just had a new baby boy. Please write a letter of about 100 words to congratulate them.You do not need to write the address. Dear Jenny:

How happy you must be to have a beautiful new baby boy.The happiness in my heart is just the same with you. Now you've experienced the joy that only a new mother knows as her baby is put into her arms for the first time.

I am sure that the little stranger must look like his father and some years later he will be a smart fellow.

May the years ahead be filled with good health and good fortune for you and Steven and your little What's-his-name.Best wishes to all of you!

Very sincerely yours,

×××

*庆贺孩子出生的信一般都写给孩子的母亲

例3

Directions:Your high school classmate Zhanghong has just graduated from Cambridge

University. Please write a letter to congratulate her.You should write about 100 words and do not need to write the address.

Dear Zhanghong:

How time flies! Here you are graduating from Cambridge University and planning to find a job in a computer cooperation in the United States.

Congratulations on the job well done while at university and good luck to you during your new career.

I wish you success in all your undertakings and hope you'll find your career a source of great joy and happiness.

Any time when you come back home,I wish you would come to my place.Then,we may recall our high school life.Everything will be well with you —I believe.

Sincerely yours,

×××

*写作时要充分挖掘导语中的有效信息,特别是high school classmate等细节信息。

例4

Directions:Bill got a Doctorate in literature for Tsinghua University. Write a letter to congratulate him.You should write about 100 words and do not need to write the address. Dear Bill,

I got the news from Mike that you have received a Doctorate in literature from Tsinghua University. I congratulate you for this. To have reached this milestone in your scholarship at a young age is really great. It means, I believe, years of assiduous study and hard work on your part. And it is an achievement you can be well proud of. As your best friend, I hope you can reach higher level in your study and do more contribution to the society. My best wishes to you!

Sincerely,

×××

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* 朋友年轻有为,获得博士学位,应该祝贺。正如信中所说,这一成就是“多年来刻苦学习和努力工作的结果”(years of assiduous study and hard work)。英文有一句成语:No sweet no sweat. 世界上不劳有获的事情是没有的。

例5

Directions: Write a letter of congratulation to a friend who win the scholarship in

Tsinghua University. You should write about 100 words and do not need to write the address. Dear Jiang,

I take great pleasure in sending congratulations to you on your winning the scholarship to the Tsinghua University of American literature.

While I’m not a little surprised, I’m all happy to get the good news. I know you have got excellent marks for all the courses you took. It is great to know that you have achieved the goal you set for yourself. It is an award that you richly deserve. I’m really proud of you.

Warmest congratulations.

Cordially yours,

×××

* 这是一封祝贺信。字词之间流露出祝贺的诚意,如“great pleasure”,“not a little surprise”,“great”

例6

Directions: You have just found an article about your friend Jim’s success in research on Jinghua newspaper. Write a letter to him to congratulate him. You should write about 100 words and do not need to write the address.

Dear Jim,

We are very happy to learn from today’s Jinghua newspaper the great news of your success — A paper on Teaching Theory. You can’t image how pleased we are.

It is a well-deserved recognition of your remarkable work. We are lucky in having you among our friends, and we are so proud of you and happy for you.

Please accept our warmest congratulations.

Yours cordially,

×××

* 写作中应擅用破折号,以达到简单明了的目的。It is a recognition of 表示这是对某人某事的认同和肯定。

5)求助信(Letters of Asking for Help)

例1

Directions: You want to study further for a Master’s degree and you are preparing for the entrance exam. Since you have difficulty in English, you should write a letter around 100 words to ask for help from your good friend Fang.You do not need to write the address. Dear Fang,

I am sorry that I have to ask a favour of you, with the hope that you will be kind to help me.

I have been longing to apply for the entrance examination for MA candidates for a long time because I want to pursue advanced studies.Unfortunately I find myself far from the required standard, especially my very poor English. At this moment, the personal friendship leads me to approach you with the request, whether you can manage to give me some

constructive guidance. I promise to be a diligent student. If you agree, I will come to your house once a week at a time most convenient to you.

Thank you very much for your kind help on many occasions in the past.

Your friend,

×××

*Thank you very much for your kind help on many occasions in the past.

多次承你帮忙,不胜感激!

例2

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Directions: Suppose you are a senior majored in physics and plan to study further abroad. Please write a letter of about 100 words to professor Li and ask him to write a reference for you to a U. S. university.You do not need to write the address.

Dear professor Li,

I am a undergraduate from the Department of physics and I fortunately took a major course on which you lectured. Your lessons impressed me deeply.

As a senior, I face the choice between hunting for a job and continuing to study. I prefer to apply for a chance to pursue a Master’s degree abroad.

I have taken required English exams and got excellent scores. What’s more, I have

finished my personal statement, which is attached to this letter. I’m now writing to ask if you can write a reference for me, which will greatly facilitate my admission into a U.S. university.

Best wishes for your health.

Your Student,

×××

*在请求别人写推荐信时应写明自己的目的和打算,并为对方提供相关信息。

例3

Directions:You plan to apply for admission to Harvard University. You want Mr Black help you with money. Write a letter to him to tell him.

1) The reason for your letter.

2) The sum of money

3) How you make your living in the U. S.

You do not need to write the address.

Dear Mr. Black,

I have applied for admission to Harvard University. As I have no relatives in the United States and I have no enough money for the tuition. I must find a financial guarantor. You know, in applying for a student visa, an affidavit to support must be submitted from an individual who will assure this opportunity. It plays an important role for my chance to enter the Harvard University. Could you do me a favor to be my financial guarantor. If I

really have the chance of coming to the U. S., I will undertake part-time employment to cover all the living expenses.

Please write to me soon.

Yours sincerely,

×××

* 出国留学需要有人经济担保。如果是到美国留学,那么你的美国友人要填写一份担保书(affidavit of support),保证你在美国学习期间的学费和生活费用。

例4

Directions:You are preparing to ask for some help from your teacher,write a letter that:

1) detail what you want he or she do for you.

2) express your thanks to your teacher.

You do not need to write the address.

Dear Ms Wang,

I make bold to write this letter to ask you to do me a favour. I have tried to translate several short chinese stories into English for a part-time job. As it is the first time for me to do a translation work, I think there must be many errors and awkward expressions of Chinese English for my lack of experiences. I sincerely hope that you would read over my

manuscripts and correct my mistakes and sociolisms. Also could you please give me some other suggestions on my translation work.

Thank you for your help with great respect!

Your faithful student,

×××

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*. 请人帮忙除了通常所说的ask for help,也可以用do sb a favour来表达。表示很诚恳地希望什么时,可用句型“I sincerely hope that?”

6)求职信(Letters of Applying for A Job)

求职信的内容一般包括以下部分:

1)写信的缘由;

2)个人情况简介,例如;年龄、性别、文化程度、工作经历、工作技能、个人专长等;

3)推荐人或证明人姓名以供录用方查询;

4)约定面试时间。通常随求职信附上个人简历和两三封推荐信。

例1

Directions:You are ×××, an to—be graduate from JiLin University, majoring in English. Write a letter to a company applying for a position, Your letter should include

1) an introduction of yourself.

2) your qualification for the position.

3) asking for an interview.

You should write 100 words or so, you don’t need to write the address.

Dear Sirs,

I am a graduatee from Jilin University of Foreign Language Institute. As a student of English for Business, I hope to work in a foreign company after graduation.

In the past four academic years, I have proved myself to be a straight A student, awarded a succession of scholarships. My English is particularly good and German happens to be my

second foreign language, which will live up to the requirements set by a wholly-owned foreign company like yours.

I apply for the position of assistant to your marketing project manager. You will find me a good team player, self-motivated and eager to learn. I believe I can be of value to your company.

I should be very happy if you would arrange an interview with me.

yours sincerely,

×××

*Live up to符合arrange an interview安排面试

例2

Directions:You are a senior of computer science. You’d like to be an intern for an IT company. Write a letter to present your willings:You should clear:

1)your education background.

2)your purpose of being an intern.

You should write about 100 words and don’t need to write the address.

Dear sirs,

I am a senior of computer science in Beijing University of Technology. I would like to work as an intern in your company. As I have a wide interest in computer, I will do whatever job assigned to me, in software development or in technical support. One of my advantages is that I am able to work conscientiously under pressure. The more challenging my task is, the better it will be done.

My main purpose is just to put into practice what I have learned from the classroom in the past few years and to learn about my own ability in practical work. Remuneration is not yet taken into consideration.

I am enclosing a resume and looking forward to hearing from you.

Yours respectfully,

×××

*put into practice付诸实践

例3

Directions:Suppose you graduates from Business School of Peking University.Please write a letter to a director and apply for a chance of further study. The number of words is no less than 100 words and you don’t need to write the address.

11

Dear Mr. Director,

I am interested in your graduate Program of International Management. I have just graduated from the Business School of Peking University, holding a bachelor degree and awarded the Title of Excellent Student.

I should be most obliged to you if you would send me your catalogue and necessary application forms at your earliest convenience.

Enclosed please find my resume attesting to my outstanding academic performance at the Business School of Peking University.

Thank you for your consideration.

Yours sincerely,

×××

*这是一封本科毕业生写给研究生导师的信,把它归入求职信是因为二者在写法上基本上是一致的。 例4

Directions:Write an application for employment. The application should be presented the details of your personal references. You should write about 100 words.

APPLICATION FOR EMPLOYMENT

POSITION APPLIED ManagerAsistant

AVAILABILITY TO COMMENCE July 1st, 2004

NAME×××

ADDRESSNo. 8 Suzhou Street, Beijing.

TELEPHONE 86—010—××××××

E-MAIL shuangboshi @ 163. com

SEX MaleHEIGHT175 cm

DATE OF BIRTH Dec .12, 1981

MARITAL STATUSNO

NAME OF SPOUSENO

HIS OR HER OCCUPATIONNO

EDUCATIONMaster

NAME OF SCHOOLBeijing, Foreign Language

DURATION OF STUDIES2001.9~2003.7

MAJOREnglish

DEGREE OBTAINEDMaster of English Art

EMPLOYMENT RECORDA Foreign Company

COMPANY NAMENeo Company

EMPLOYED FROM2003.7TO2004.7

POSITION HELDsecretary

GROSS SALARY PER MONTH3.000 RMB

REASON FOR LEAVINGHoping for more challenges and chances

*工作申请表一般包括申请人最基本的信息且言简意赅,多用省略句。

例5

Directions:Please write a letter of about 100 words to a university to apply for a teaching post.You Should not write the address.

Dear Sirs,

I am sending you my resume for consideration of acceptance to teach English within your University this coming summer or Fall/Winter semesters.I do have high qualifications with much related experience.

If your University has a need in my field of expertise,I would be very happy to discuss any possibilities.Please feel free to call,fax or write me at the address below.

Thanks so much for receiving my resume.I believe I will be able to hear from you soon.If for some reasons you currently do not have any available positions,please keep me on file for my future availability.

Sincerely,

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×××

*求职信的末尾可写上如果不予聘用,可将本人纳入备选档案。

例6

Directions:You are applying for a position of teaching English as a second language to a University. Write a letter about this. You should write no less than 100 words and the address is not necessary.

Dear Sirs,

I would like to apply for any position of teaching English as a second language that become available in the semester of 2003.I am a professional artist and have taught at the university level.

Chinese art is special interest to me,and I took an introductory class in Far Eastern Arts before completing my Master's degree.If no position is available teaching English as a second language,I could contribute by teaching courses in the recent history of Western art. I enclosed my resume,which indicates my teaching experience and my work with people of various backgrounds.

Thank you for your consideration.

Sincerely,

×××

*此文指出了在最优选择之外提供其它选择的表达法。

例7

Directions: You are preparing for a application because you want to get a position in a company. Please write the letter in about 100 words. You don’t need to write the address. Dear Mr. Director,

I have learned from the newspapers that you are employing an administrative secretary. I am very interested in this position.

I have worked as an administrative secretary for a economic company in Beijing for three years, so I have some understanding of the counting. I graduated from Peking University, holding a bachelor degree. Having obtained certificates of CET-4 and CET-6, I find myself fluent in both spoken and written English. In addition, I am also quite familiar with computer skills.

Enclosed please find my resume.

Looking forward to your early reply.

Yours sincerely,

×××

*你申请某公司的职位,一定要对这家公司有一定的了解,尤其要注意它所提出的各项要求。例如,公司对英语和电脑有所要求,写信人就说自己已经通过大学英语四级和六级,并且熟悉电脑。最后还附上简历。这样写法对求职是十分有利的。

例8

Directions: You are applying for the post of programmer in a company. Your letter should include:

1) your current situation

2) your reasons for applying.

You should write no less than 100 words and don’t need to write the address.

Dear Sir/Madam,

With reference to your advertisement in Guangzhou Daily on 20 May 2004, I am writing to express my interest in applying for the captioned post.

I am presently a programmer at Success Securities.Ltd, and my 2-year contract will expire soon. By applying for the post I am looking forward to switching to a larger, more

sophisticated and more computerized company so that I can enrich my professional knowledge. I am confident that my 2-year solid experience will enable me to meet the challenges which a large company poses.

13

Please refer to the enclosed resume for the technical details of my past duties. I would be available for an interview at your convenience. Thank you for your attention to this application.

End:resume Yours truly,

×××

* expire期满、到期,switch to,改变,switch positions,换一换位置。sophisticated adj. 高级的、尖端的。please refer to the enclosed resume for??相关详细情况请参阅附带的简历。

7)邀请信(Letters of Invitation)

例1

Directions:You are planning to ask your friend to join an outing. Express your idea clearly as follows:

1) details about what you are going to do

2) when and where you will go out.

You should write no less than 100 words and don’t need to write the address.

Dear Li Ying,

Haven’t seen you for a long time. How have you been? I am missing you all the time. As the weather is splendid now, Jack、 Lucy and I have made a plan to go out to the countryside by bike. Each of us may take food for the picnic, which we will have at the hillside. The countryside must be very lovely, with grass and trees growing flourishingly, flowers full

bloom and bright sunshine. We can enjoy the scenery to our hearts’ content, at the same time and take some pictures as a memory . It is possible for us to meet at the bus stop 8 a. m. I am sure we will have a good time. Do come and join us.

Yours always,

×××

*. 邀友交游时的语言可以比较轻松、简单而不用太正式,例如一些简单的问候“How have you been?” 和邀请语句“Do come”

例2

Directions:You want to invite Mr. Wallace to give a speech on “American literature”. Write a letter to him and say.

1) the purpose of the invitation.

2) the time of the lecture

It should be less than 100 words.

You don’t need write the address.

Dear Mr. Wallace,

We know that you are an expert on literature. As students in English major, we want to know some details about literature. We should be very grateful if you could give a talk on “American Literature” to students of the English Department on Saturday, April 19. If this subject does not suit you, any other similar topic would be welcome as well.

We have already had several very interesting talks from distinguished visiors from various countries this semester and we look forward eagerly to the opportunity to benefit from your experience and wisdom.

Sincerely yours,

×××

* 本文是邀请外国专家做讲座的邀请函。信的言辞应表示诚意,如“我殷切期盼”(to look forward eagerly to the opportunity),还要表示尊重,如“从您的阅历和智慧中受益”(to benefit from your experience and wisdom).

例3

Directions: Write an invitation to Mr John Sze, inviting him to be the calligraphy competition judge.

The number of the words is no less than 100 words and you don’t need to write the address.

Dear Mr Sze,

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The 20th Taiwan Chinese Calligraphy Competition, organized by the Good Hope Association and Modern Trade Ltd., will accept entries from 3 March to 15 April 2004

As a renowned expert in Chinese calligraphy, you are cordially invited to present as a member of our panel of judges. We would also like to invite you to give away the prizes at the prize presentation ceremony, and to deliver a speech to the audience.

Details of the Competition are as follows:

1.Aim:

To help raise the standard of Chinese calligraphy among primary and middle school students, and to arouse their interest in traditional Chinese culture.

2.Contestants:

Primary Division:students of Primary 6 or below. Junior Middle School Division: students of 14 to 16. Senior Middle School Division: students of 16 or above

3.Selection procedures:

First-stage selection by respective schools, second-stage selection and final decisions by the Panel of Judges.

4.Date of prize presentation ceremony:

15 July 2004 (tentative; details to follow)

I would appreciate it if you would give me a reply at your earliest convenience so that the necessary arrangements can be made soon without delay. In case of queries, please do not hesitate to contact me at 24088507 during office hours. Thank you.

Yours sincerely.

×××

Chairperson

Competition Planning Committee

* Calligraphy Competition 书法比赛,panel of judges.专家裁判,或专家仲裁组tentative adj. 暂定的,in case of queries:如有置疑。

例4

Directions: write a letter to invite your colleagues to participate in a family party. The follows should be included

1) the reasons of invitation

2) time and location of the party

It should be no less than 100 words and don’t need write the address.

Fiona:

I will go to a food party at Karen Yius place together with colleagues of the Accounts Department at 4:00 p.m. this Sunday to celebrate the fourteenth anniversary of his marriage. Everybody is expected to bring a dish and a bottle of wine of his or her own. If you feel

interested, please join us at the main entrance of Pioneer Plaza at 3:00 p.m. sharp that day, and don’t forget your dish and wine. We do hope you come and are expecting to see you then. With best wishes.

Sincerely yours,

×××

* 邀请信语言应简明真诚,形式通常有正式和非正式两种形式。本文是同事之间的邀请,并且参加的是家庭聚会,所以用非正式形式即可。

8)感谢信(Letters of Thankness)

Directions:Your friend Jenny gave you a hand when you were in depression because of your mother’s death. Write a letter to express your thankness.

1) the reason for the letter

2) What you will do to

overcome the sorrow.

The address is not necessary and it should be no less than 100 words.

Dear Jenny,

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I do not need to tell you how greatly I appreciate all you have done for me these days and how grateful I am for the comfort and understanding you gave me when I needed them so desperately.

No one knows better than you how important my mother meant to me and what an aching void my life has become without her. But I am trying to take your advice and I hope that returning to my work next week will help heal the sorrow

I really do not know what I would have been without you. Thank you again for everything you have done for me!

Affectionately,

×××

* 假如你失去亲人,你会感到“悲伤”(sorrow或aching void),“迫切需要别人的安慰和理解”(need comfort and understanding desperately)。这封信就是对于别人在此时此刻所给予的帮助表示由衷的感谢,写信人说:“要是没有你,我真不知道该怎么做”(I really do not know what I would have been without you.),请注意英语句子的虚拟语气。

9)求学信(Letters of Applying for Study Chance)

改革开放以来,出国留学的热潮一直有增无减。对于一个渴望出国深造的人来说,写封好的求学信,至关重要。

总的来说,第一封求学信不要过长,只需写明自己的姓名、职业、学历、专业、入学时间以及通讯地址即可。待所申请的学校复函后,再按要求寄去所需材料,例如:简历、成绩单、学位证明、推荐信、经济担保书、健康证明、外语考试成绩等。

Directions: If you are a student of Tianjin University and you want to apply to the

Graduate School for pursuit of the International Business Program of the New York University. Write the applying letter like following:

1) Declare all your situations in Tianjin University.

2) What do you want to apply for?

You should write about 100 words and don’t need to write address.

Dear Mr Smiths,

Thank you for your last letter.

As your require, I have written a personal statement to give a detailed description of my academic and work experience in Tianjin University. I also wrote my reasons for my applying to your Graduate School for pursuit of the International Business Program.

I have two letters of recommendation for me. One of them is from an English Professor, which proves that my English has reached an advanced level. The other is from an economics professor, which certificates that I am good in the field of economics and business

management. Both of the letters will be mailed directly to you.

My GMAT score is 2160. I haven’t received my TOFEL score yet. But I will send it to you as soon as I know.

Best Wishes

Yours sincerely,

×××

*申请出国的求学信应包括PS.推荐信和相关英语考试的成绩,诸如TOFEL、GRE以及GMAT等,一般来说GRE和GMAT有一个即可申请,而TOFEL成绩则是去英语国家留学的必要条件。

10)请求信(Letters of Request)

Directions: You are about to write an application for you want to get a rise of your salary. Please express your reasons clearly in about 100 words.

September 10, 2002

Dear Manager,

I make bold to write this letter to you. One year ago I joined your firm as an apprentice, receiving $ 500 per month during the period of training. Now I became a full-time clerk afterwards for a few days, but my salary has remained the same. As the cost of living is

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rising, would you consider an increase of my salary? I will not wonder too much but the same as other clerks in our firm. I pledge myself to continue to serve the firm to the best of my ability .

Many thanks

Yours faithfully,

×××

* make bold to表示冒昧(地做某事)一般请别人帮忙或者要求加薪时可以这样用。full-time表示全职,part-time表示兼职。

11)祝福信(Letters of Regards)

Directions:You are going to send a letter to your friend for the new year. Please write it in about 100 words and do not need to write the address.

Dear Mr. Carter,

As a new year comes across the corner, it gives us great pleasure to say how much we have appreciated working with you over the past twelve months. It was a good memory for me which I always kept in my mind. Would you be the same with me? Last year was a wonderful year and we both got many benefits and progress from each other. I sincerely hope that our pleasant business relationship will continue for years to come.

Our staff here join me in wishing you a very Merry Christmas and a Happy and Prosperous New Year.

Yours sincerely,

×××

* 生意人在新年来临之际相互祝愿,主要关心的当然是“继续保持业务关系”(to continue the pleasant business relationship),并且“在新的一年里生意兴隆”(a Happy and Prosperous New Year)。

第二节 便笺(便条)和短信

一、概述

便条也是书信的一种形式。它的特点是内容简短,主要有临时性的询问、留言、通知、要求等。跟正规书信相比,便条的语言比较口头化,比如要通知某事只需这样开头:Just a line to tell you that ...而无须像正规书信那样This is to inform you that ...开头。另外,在便条中常出现省略现象,例如:“key to back door is under mat.”或者“key to back door under mat .”(后门钥匙在垫子下面)代之以“The key to the back door is under the mat.”。

结束时也无需结尾礼词,只需写上写便条者姓名。如果是关系比较近的人,则只需写上姓或名。 便条的日期通常写在右上角。一般只写上星期几或者星期几上午或下午,也可写上午、下午的具体时刻。日常应用中,写上几月几日的也很普遍。但一般不写年份,因为便条的内容多半是当日或近日内要办的事情。写便条时,不得事先准备,因此无固定格式,大多用手写。

二、注意事项

1.词句简洁,尽量避免应酬语和各种敬词

2.切忌内容空洞、言不达意。

三、分类举例

1)请假(Asking for Leave)

例1

Directions:You are about to write a Business Leave Note of about 100 words. Please describe these information clearly.

1) the reason you ask for the leave

2) the time and how long you will leave

Class 4, Grade 3

Aug. 22nd

To Department Office

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Secretary Li,

I’m sorry to apply for ten day’s leave from the Aug. 23rd to sept, 3rd instant. As I have to leave with the time is urgent. My father now in the hospital is badly ill. I have to go to see him and take care of him for a few days. You know I’m the only child in my family. Of course I will show you the telegram about my fathers illness which is recieved from my mother to support my application.

As concern as the missed lessons during my absence, I promise I will do my best to catch them on after I come back to the campus. Wish for your allowance.

Yours respectfully

×××

*本文是一封请假条,一般我们要向上级或老师请假,通常用的是ack for leave这个短语,请三天假可写作:ask for three days’ leave;因病请假则是ask for sick leave.leave在这里是名词用法,文中用的短语是apply for意为“申请”,含有更加郑重的意味,常用于下级对上级或晚辈对长辈的书面语中,“Only child”意为“独生子女”相应的,“独生女”译作“only daughter”而“独生子”译作

“only son”. As concern as.后面跟名词性结构,意为“涉及到,至于”与Concerning同意,两者可以互换。

例2

Directions:Your father is seriously ill, and you want to go back home. Write a note to the secretary and it should include.

1) the cause for leaving;

2) the days: from 16th to 21 st;

3) Catch on the lesson after returning school.

July 5th

Dear Miss Huang,

My sister called me last night, and she said that my father is dangerously ill. I beg to apply for seven days’ leave of absence from 16th to 21st instant, in order that I can see my beloved father.

I should be much obliged if you would grant me my application. As regards the lessons to be missed during my absence, I will do my best to make up for them as soon as I get back from home.

Sincerely yours,

×××

*本格式采用The Semi-indented Form(半缩进式),以前比较流行,现在人们也继续采用。I should be much obliged if you would...是一种客套语,表示“结果??,我当不胜感激。”“补课”的英文是to make up for the lessons。 as soon as意思是一??就。

2)约请(Invitation)

Directions:You have a ticket to the Russian National Ballet Troupe, which is visiting and you want to give it to your friend Alice. Write a note to her and say:

1) the time of the show,

2) the place where you will

wait for her

You should write about 100 words.

Sunday

Dear Alice,

Here is a piece of good news for you. The Russian National Ballet Troupe, which is now on a visit in Beijing, will give a performance in the Beijing Grand Theater tomorrow evening. I am sure that you will be happy to watch it. Here I leave you an admission card. The

performance will begin at seven o’clock sharp. I will wait for you at the theater entrance. Please let me know whether you are prevented from coming or not.

×××

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* 约朋友一起去看戏,可是朋友不在家,只好留下票子和一张便条,但又怕朋友来不了,所以在便条最后特地写上“如果你来不了,告诉我一声”(Please let me know whether you are prevented from coming)此文的wait for也可以用expect 代替。

3)道歉(Apology)

人非圣贤,孰能无过。在社会交往中,人们常常会出现一些疏忽、过失等。如果发生此类事情,就会给对方带来麻烦和不便。为了避免误解,不影响感情,在这种情况下,应写信给对方予以解释,以请求谅解。

此类信要写得及时,态度要诚恳,用词需谦逊。一般在信一开始就向对方表示歉意或内疚,然后说明原因并提出补救的办法。

例1

Directions: You have missed a date of your friend, now you have to write a letter for appologization in about 100 words.

May 20th

Dear Lily,

I am sorry I missed seeing you yesterday. I know that you must have been disappointed. I also feel worried and anxious in my heart. The fact is that my manager at the last moment asked me to prepare a urgent plan while I could not get to a phone to call you and yesterday I have worked late until about 8:30 p. m. I am terribly sorry.

However, I would like to ask you out this weekend to make up for yesterday. Please give me a chance and I am waiting for your reply.

×××

* 临时有事未能赴约,一定要把事情解释清楚并真诚的道歉,最好能有弥补(to make up),就像这封信里所说的那样,邀请对方周末再碰头(I would like to ask you out this weekend)注意英文句子you must have been disappointed中情态动词的用法:情态动词+完成时态,表示过去行为。这句话应该理解为“你当时一定感到很失望”。

例2

Directions: You have received a invitation from your friend, but you have already had

some guests in your house. Please express the reason you can’t go clearly in about 100 words.

6.April

Dear Lucy,

I do appologize for having to send this letter about Saturday night.

When I accepted your invitation, I simply forgot that Saturday was a holiday and that my own guests were not leaving until Sunday morning. It is difficult for me to make a choice. Though I also wonder to meet you very much. I could not very well go out by myself and leave the guests at my home.

I hope you know how sorry I am not to be with you this Saturday. Should I make a visit to you in my other spare time?

Thank you very much.

×××

* 自己家里有客人,自然不方便再接受别人邀请去做客所以可以明正言顺的表示拒绝或可另约时间。英文要强调谓语动词,可以加上助动词,例如:

I do apologize for being late.

He did come yesterday.

例3

Directions: You are already have a date with your friend but suddenly have another thing to do and you have to tell your friend that you can’t go. Express your reason clearly in about 100 words.

Monday 9:00 a.m

Dear Jane,

I am sorry to tell you that I won’t be able to come this afternoon because I have to go to the airport at 2:00 p. m. to meet an overseas visitor from Australia. I really have kept our datd in my mind all these days, however, I received my boss’ e-mail this morning, he

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asked me to go to the airport to meet one of his friends from abroad, it’s suddenly and urgent and I must go. Please forgive me. Would you please ring me up to make another time? Many thanks.

×××

* 因有事而不能赴约,只能另约时间(to make或to fix another time)。写信人Bluce很可能是英国人,因为他把“打电话”说成to ring somebody up,美国人通常说to call somebody。英国人打电话还可以说 to give somebody a ring,不要错以为别人要送你个戒指。与别人已经定好的约会却临时不能赴约时,应说明原因并诚恳地道歉,以期获得别人的谅解。

4)借物(Borrowing)

Directions:You are going to write a note for borrowing sth. please deseribe these information clearly.

1) the thing you ask

2) detailed what you are going to do with it.

3) how long will you take it.

Tuesday

Dear Xiao Wang:

I wonder if I could borrow your electronic dictionary for a few days. Now I am

translating some important articles. There are many new words which I have to look up the dictionary usually. I just have a paper dictionary but of course it’s not as convenient as the electronic one, which has a bad effect upon my velocity of my translating. So I think your electonic dictionary is more suitable for me to complete my work. I promise that I must be very careful of your dictionary and make no damage done on it. Thank you very much! Yours ever

×××

*字典是我们日常生活中常用的学习工具,但是千万不能直接从字面上认为“查字典”就是“check the dictionary”,而应该用“look up”这个固定短语来表达。

“影响??”有一个很地道的短语。“have effect upon/on”,后面接受影响的人或物,如果是积极影响就在have和effect之间加a good ,反之,就加“a bad”其他的形容词例如great, remarkable也可以用来修饰effect,此词在这里是名词。

5)回复友人问侯(Reply for Regards)

Directions:You have just had a operation, and received a note of regards from your friend Jenny. Now please write a reply to her to tell her your current situation.

You should write about 100 words.

Jan.8th.

Dear Jenny,

Thanks for your letter of sympthy I received the day before yesterday. The operation on my leg was a wonderful success. You know I had been suffering a lot from my leg since my

childhood. The operation removed the cause of trouble. It is quite worth having the operation. I am daily recovering from my illness. I’m confident I will soon be in the office again after proper treatment. Thank you for kind wishes.

My best wishes to all your family

×××

*这是对好友问侯便条的回复。形式简单,内容明了。过去完成进行时“I had been suffering?my childhood”表示动作从过去一直持续到现在。

第三节 备忘录

一、概述

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备忘录是一种录以备忘的公文。在公文函件中,它的等级是比较低的,主要用来提醒、督促对方,或就某个问题提出自己的意见或看法。在业务上,它一般用来补充正式文件的不足。它的内容可以分为以下几项:

书端(Heading);

收文人的姓名、头衔、地址(Addressee’s Name, Title, Address);

称呼(Salutation);

事因(Subject);

正文(Body) ;

结束语(Complimentary Close);

署名(Signature)。

二、注意事项

书端部分包括发文机关的名称、地址、发文日期,有的还包括电报挂号、电传号、电话号码等。许多机关有自己特制的信笺,在写书端时,其格式和标点符号的使用与一般信件的相同。收文人(或收文单位)的姓名、头衔、地址一项写在左上角编号处的下面,其格式与书信的写法相同。

称呼从左边顶格写起,对一般机关、团体的负责人一般用 Dear Sir, 对政府官员可用 Sir。 “事因”一项目前采用得较少。它可放在称呼语之前,也可放在其后,前面可加 Re或Docket,

Subject。如果此项写在称呼语之前,多从左边的顶格写起;若放在称呼语之后,一般写在信笺正中。它多采用不完整的句子,只需很少几个词,甚至一个词,目的在于使收文人对文中的主要内容一目了然,便于及时处理。

正文、结束语和署名等项与一般信件的格式相同。

三、举例

例1

Directions: Write a memorandum of about 100 words to the student service department and ask them to fix a telephone for each dormitory.

MEMO

August 16,2004

To:The leader of student service department

From: Li Ming

Subject:Telephone

Dear Sir,

I would like to remind you that we are in want of a telephone for each dormitory. As a university student, we need to cope with the daily increasing communications with teachers, friends and people outside the campus.

We need a telephone to get and send message, which is important for us. Though most of us have mobile phones and e-mail address, a telephone in the dormitory is after all the most convenient and cheapest tool of communication. I hope that you will pay attention to this problem and solve it as soon as possible.

Regards.

Yours,

Li Ming

*“remind”一词用法比较多,可以在后面直接接人或宾格,如“提醒我”译为please remind me.如果提醒某人某事则用remind somebody of something ,也可以在后面加从句,即“remind sb

that”,remind还有一个意思为“使想起”同样用remind?of?的结构,应注意与提醒某事区分。 例2

Directions:You are supposed to write a Memorandom of about 100 words to the leader of the supply section to borrow one more microscope for your biological experiment. It should include:

1) Why you need the microscope.

2) When you need it.

MEMO

21

August 12,2004

To: Mr. Gates, leader of the supply section

From:Li Ming of the biological laboratory

Subject:Microscope

Dear Sir,

I’m a student of biology department and we are badly in need of an extra microscope in order to improve our experimental work.

Our experiment will start on Friday, so please issue a microscope to us as soon as possible so that we can prepare better for the experiment.

With kind regards.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

*这是一封备忘录,在写备忘录的时侯,一定要注意它的格式,尤其要在开头写清楚是谁写给谁来备忘的,用From: To:两个单词即可。文中的“badly”是“非常的,迫切的”意思。短语“in order to”同下句的“so that”意思是一样的即:为了,目的是。不同的是前者后接动词原型而后者常跟目的状语从句 ,类似的短语还有“in order that”,用法与“so that”相同。

例3

Directions: If you are the teacher of the students’ Counseloris office: P: steelpes, and you have received a letter for requesting for paid education leave from a student. Write him a memo to reply him including details:

1) The result of his requirement.

2) The reason for rejecting.

3)some suggestions

You should write about 100 words.

To: Records Section

From: P/ Steelpes, Career Planning

Subject: Request for Paid Education Leave

Date: May 22, 2004

In response to your request for one year of paid education leave to take a degree in English literature, I have to inform you that we cannot authorize this leave.

While we appreciate your desire to improve your knowledge, we feel that English

literature is not directly related to your present position and to the goals of this organization.

I am aware of your great interest in literature, and I would like to point out that you could gain advantage to apply for leave without pay.

If you need another information on the above, do not hesitate to keep touch with me at any time.

P. Steels

* 首先要注意本篇备忘录的格式很标准。然后注意这个备忘录的个别词的用法,譬如:be aware of 注意到、当心的意思,point out 指出,request for 要求,in response to 反馈。

例4

Directions: You are a supervisor of a big company. The chief of operations wants to adopt the“punch-in”system to increase productivity. Write a memo to talk about this:

1) Does the “punch-in”system benefit the company?

2) If the company doesn’t adopt it, what else can we do to increase productivity. You should write about 100 words.

To. David Green, Chief of Operations

From: Tony. Party , Supervisor

Subject: Comments on the “Punch-in” System

Date: March. 22, 2004

This is further to your memo dated March. 20, 2004, in which you proposed that employees adopt the “punch-in” system.

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I fully agree with you that we must increase productivity. As far as your proposal that if the “punch-in” system is adopted, we would have a tighter control over the employees is concerned. However, I don’t think so. I personally think that, to accomplish this, we should give the employees more incentives to work faster. I feel that if we ( the supervisors) could meet with you , we could discuss different possiblilities to create such incentiveness. Your consideration of this suggestion would be appreciated.

Tony Party

* 此篇是对一篇备忘录的回复。生产主管认为实行打孔考勤制度(“punch-in”system),有利于增加生产效率。但督察却不这样认为。他认为“should give the employees more incentives to work faster”。

例5

Directions: You are a manager of administration office naming Vera. M. Bradford. The board of directors have decided to anew the Fitness Center. Write a memo to tell all the employees that:

1) How long will this project be last for?

2) Welcome the employees to provide suggestions.

You should write about 100 words.

To: Every Employees

From: Brian Aponte

Date: November 18, 2004

Subject: Fitness Center

The board of directors approved the idea for anew Fitness Center at its meeting yesterday. Work on the Fitness Center will begin right now and should be completed within 90 days. An employee representative from each division will be appointed to determine the type of equipment and programs that will be made available.

We are happy to be able to provide a facility that will contribute to the physical

fitness of all our employees. Your representative on the task force will contact you soon for your suggestions about activities and equipment.

Brian Aponte

Administration Office, Manager

* 这是一篇关于公司修建健身中心的备忘录。备忘录中说健身中心工作马上开始而且“completed within 90 days”。而且希望各部门代表与主办部门联系,征求关于活动和设备的意见。

第四节 摘要

一、概述

文章摘要是对所写文章主要内容的精炼概括。美国人称摘要为“Abstract”,而英国人则喜欢称其为“Summary”。

通常国际刊物要求所要刊登的文章字数,包括摘要部分不超过1万字。而对文章摘要部分的字数要求则更少。因此,写摘要时,应用最为简练的语言来表达论文之精华。论文摘要的重点应放在所研究的成果和结论上。

国际会议要求的论文摘要的字数不等,一般为200字-500字。而国际刊物要求所刊登的论文摘要的字数通常是100字-200字。摘要的位置一般放在一篇文章的最前面,内容上涵盖全文,并直接点明全旨。语言上要求尽量简炼。摘要通常多采用第三人称撰写。

科学书籍、论文和学术报告一般都附有内容摘要,这样可以节省读者的时间,使他们不必读完整个文章就能够了解它的主要内容。书籍摘要,一般放在封二或封三;论文和学术报告的摘要,一般放在正文前面。摘要应做到简明扼要,切题,能独立成文,使读者能准确地了解书籍的要义。写摘要时,最好用第三人称的完整的陈述句,文长一般不超过200个词。

摘要分陈述性的(Descriptive)和资料性的(Informational)两类。陈述性摘要只陈述书籍或文章的主题,不介绍内容。资料性的摘要除了介绍主题外,还应介绍文章的要点和各个要点的主要内容。 它可以包括三个组成部分

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①点明主题,解析文章或书籍的目的或意图;

②介绍主要内容,使读者迅速了解文章或书籍的概貌;

③提出结论或建议,以供读者参考。

二、常见句型

常见的摘要句型有:

1)This paper deals with...

2)This article focuses on the topics of (that,having,etc)...

3)This eassy presents knowledge that...

4)This thesis discusses...

5)This thesis analyzes...

6)This paper provides an overview of...

7)This paper elaborates on ...

8)This article gives an overview of...

9)This article compares...and summarizes key findings.

10)This paper includes discussions concerning...

11)This paper presents uptodate information on...

12)This article covers the role of chemicals in...

13)This paper addresses important topics including...

14)This paper touches upon...

15)This paper strongly emphasizes...

16)This eassy represents the preceedings of ...

17)This article not only describes...but also suggests...

18)This paper considers...

19)This paper provides a method of ...

20)This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze...

21)This paper offers the latest information regarding...

22)This paper is devoted to examining the role of...

23)This article explores...

24)This paper expresses views on...

25)This paper reflects the state of the art in...

26)This paper explains the procedures for...

27)This paper develops the theory of ...

28)This article reviews the techniques used in...

29)This paper investigates the techniques and procedures to...

30)This article is about...

31)This eassy is related to ...

32)This paper concerns...

33)This paper gives an account of ...

34)This article tells of...

35)This paper tries to describe...

36)This paper provides an analysis of ...

37)This paper reports the latest information on ...

38)The author of this article reviews...

39)The writer of this paper discusses...

40)The writer of this eassy tries to explore...

41)The aim of this paper is to determine...

42)The purpose of this article is to review...

43)The objective of this paper is to explore...

破题用语,一般有:

①The author of this article reviews (or:

discusses,describes,summarizes,examines)something??

②This article reviews (or:reports,tells of,is about,concerns)something??.

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③This article has been prepared (or:designed,written)??. ④The purpose of this article is to determine something??. ⑤The problem of something is discussed ??. 结论和建议,一般有以下几种写法: ①The author suggests (recommends,concludes)that??. ②This article shows that??. ③It is suggested that??. ④The author's suggestion (or:conclusion )is that ?? ⑤The author finds it necessary to ??.

三、分类举例

1)陈述型论文摘要。陈述型论文摘要(Descriptive Abstract)一般只说明论文的主题是什么,多半不介绍内容。

例1

ABSTRACT

This article extends Lehand and Pyle(1997)model to include the possibility that manager may exploit cooperate wealth through transactions with affiliated companies and/or

individuals.The results of our model show that the amounts of wealth exploitation are affected by several factors.They are inorderly managerial stockholding,the severity of penalty,the manager's risk attitude,firm's expected future cash flows,and the variance of future cash flows.What's more, the relation between managerial holding and the amount of

wealth exploitation is not seperate.Wealth exploitation rises with management share holdings before the break point.When managerial holding exceeds the break point,any further increase in the management holdings will decrease the amount of wealth exploitation.

例2

ABSTRACT

The effect of price limit on the stock return,volatility and the structural change is analyzed through a generalized autoregressive conditional heterscedasticity(GARCH)model.The interaction between stock returns and its volatility is permitted in each price limit

regime.While the stock return does not go up when the price limit goes down from 5%to 7%.The stock volatility,on the other hand,is substantially different across three regimes. The higher the price limit,the larger is the volatility.In end the GARCH model does not suffer from the structural change when price limits change.

例3

ABSTRACT

This issue presents a complete survey on the integrin,immunoglobulin,and selection

families cellular expression patterns on endothelial, resident cells and graft infiltrating cells in human stomach, heart ,and lung transplants.It describes the patterns of cellular expression and inducibility in different pathological conditions of the graft.It also

discusses the implications for the organ specific appearance of inflammatory reactions in human stomach,heart and lung transplants as for immunosuppressive and therapeutic

interventions.

例4

ABSTRACT

We classfied firm's finacing decisions into four categories:internal financing

banking,bank loans,convertible bonds and preferred stocks,and new common shares.

This paper uses pooled cross-section and time series data.When the adjusted data is

used,we find that B/M has explanatory power to stock returns for the new-issue category;C/F for the internal financing category.

The size variable is also significant in all categories.However,the sign is not

consistent.The convertible category has reverse size effect and others have size effects.As for the E/P variable,we don't find any additional explanatory power to stock returns for any category.The use of different definition of size hardly changes our results.

25

例5

Contact Problems in the Classical Theory of Elasticity

CONTACT PROBLEMS IN THE CLASSICAL THEORY OF ELASTICITY

by G.M.Gladwell

This article gives an account of contact problems in the classical theory of

elasticity.It begins from fundamental principles and aims to offer information on recent developments on this subject that the reader can take advantage to widen his horizon of contact problems.

例6

Use of Engineering Metals

Use of Engineering Metals

ABSTRACT

This article shows us the importance of metals in our daily life,especially in machine building and engineering construction.Metals that are used in industry are called engineering metals,of which the most widely-used is iron. Therefore,production of iron is very critical to the development of a nation.

例7

Pure and Applied Science

Pure and Applied Science

ABSTRACT

In this article ,the author holds that pure science is fundermentally concerned with the development of theories establishing relationships between the phenomena of the universe. On the other hand applied science,is directly connected with the application of the working laws of pure science to the practical affairs in the life,and to man's increasing control over the environment,thus leading to the development of new techniques,processes and machines.It is evident that many branches of applied science are practical extensions of purely theoretical or experimental work.It shows to us that these two branches of science are mutually dependent and interacting.

2)信息型论文摘要。信息型论文摘要(Informational Abstract)与陈述型论文摘要相比,略有不同。它除了介绍论文的主题外,还应介绍论文的主要观点以及各观点部分的核心内容。这种形式实际中相对少见。显然,这种形式的摘要较陈述型摘要长得多。例如:

例1

Probable Development of Agricultural Mechanization

Probable Development of Agricultural Mechanization

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the past achievements in agricultural mechanization and aims to

predict the developments in the immediate future.It is widely acknowledged that to cope with greater crop output,it is necessary to make use of more powerful equipment that is capable of more extensive work within the limited time.

The main problems are discussed under the following headings.

1)General Trend of Machanization

2)Mechanization of Crop Farming

3)Mechanization of Animal Husbandry

The article concludes that further progress of agricultural mechanization depends on,to a great extent,the development of mechanical industry,which should be spurred and encouraged. 例2

Cultural Factors in Translation and Their Transfer

Cultural Factors in Translation and Their Transfer

ABSTRACT

This thesis attempts to apply general knowledge of linguistics,anthropology and

translation to the research of cultural factors in translation and their transfer.

26

The thesis concludes a brief introduction and four chapters.The introduction presents the specific topic and raises several related issues.Chapter One is devoted to the relationship between language,culture and translation.Chapter Two focus on the categorization of cultural factors in translation.Chapter Three talks about three topics:translatability,major

translation methods of cultural factors,and the transfer of some important cultural

subcategories.The last chapter,gives an analysis of some inappropriate translations and draws a general conclusion for the whole thesis.

例3

ABSTRACT

Internationalization and liberalization of business activities have become two of the most significant phenomena for the successful operations of contemporary enterprises.At

present,the prevalence of national protectionism and the establishment of regional economic communites,have further enhanced many firms to take part in overseas investments in order that the tariff and non-tarriff barriers of the products could be reduced or eliminated.

Yet ,companies operate in different countries with different political,legal,economic,and social cultural surroundings might have different management styles and strategic operating patterns.Traditionally,the Japanese and the US management patterns are two of the most

important reference models for the operations of domestic enterprises.Thus, to promote the success of business internationalization activities,it would be very helpful for the domestic firms in Taiwan to evaluate the similarites and differences of the characteristics of business operations for the US and the Japanese firms especially on management

styles,organizational structures,and business performances.

Through a series of personal interview and mail survey,this study concluded the following findings:

(1)Firms with different investment origins(i.e.,Taiwanese,American,and Japanese

firms)tended to operate differently on constructs of cooperate objectives,organizational structures,competitive strategies, and management performances.

(2)For cooperate objectives,Japanese firms tended to emphasize organizational development objectives through educating and activating human resources,while American firms favor financial objective such as improving cash flow and profitability.For organizational structures,American firms achieved higher levels of delegation authority and operation

formalization than those of Japanese and Taiwanees firms.For competitive strategies,American firms tended to emphasize product differentiation and cost leadership strategies while Japanese firms favor process innovation and product differentiation strategies.

(3)Firms selecting process innovation and product development strategies tended to

emphasize both organizational development and sales growth objectives .These firms tended to be very sensitive on the potentials of industry development.In addition,firms adopting cost leadership strategies tended to emphasize sales growth objectives.In a word,these firms

seemed to exercise higher levels of formalization and standardization of business activities.

第五节 报告

例1

Directions:You are preparing for a field report,please write it in about 100words with such items as following:

①the current situation of the equipments

②your reason and suggestion

To:Mr.Zhao Minghua,president of Beijing University

From:Mr.Li HongJun,Dean of Studies.

Subject:Buying computers and videotape recorders.

Dear Mr.President:

27

Upon the request of the Equipment Division of the university,we have inspected the laboratory of the Physical Department and found its present equipments unsatisfactory to student, particularly to post graduates.Because there are fourty computers in our

laboratory,but there are almost ten times the students and 25 percent are postgraduates.The laboratory material is so shortage that the situation have to be improved at once.In order to enhance the effect of experiments,it is hereby recommended that twenty computers and ten videotape recorders be bought and issued to the laboratory.

Li HongJun

*.这是一份实地考察报告,要求将所看到的状况实事求是的反映出来。upon the request 表示在??的要求下,以request表示要求一般比较正式。postgraduates即研究生

例2

Direction:Take a report by the academic department of an association.Follows should be pay attention to:

1)the immediate schemes

2)detailed information such as dates,related persons and numbers

WORK-IN-PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE MONTH OF MARCH,2002

From:Anny lee, Head ,Academic Department

To:Mr Ng sik-hung,Chairman Shang Hai Evergreen Association

Ref:0091963

Date:2 April 2002

Ⅰ.Shang Hai Secondary School

1.The number of students for the month is:Form 1:329,Form 2:300,Form 3:500,Form

4:238,Form 5:234

2.The week starting from 17 March 2002 was scheduled as a "week".

3.Mental consult was scheduled to be March offered 2002 in the School Hospital within the period 29 to 1 May 2002.The persons in charge of the program would be staff of the Mental Health Society.

Ⅱ.Academic exchange

1.As one of the initiators,the Association has agreed to host the seminar"The fostering of talented personnel in Mainland China",to be held on 3 May 2002 in Shang Hai.

2.The Chairman has agreed to give a talk on behalf of the Association in a seminar on the exchange of talented personnel within South East Asia,which is scheduled to be held on 1 July 1997 in Tokyo.

[signature]

*.这是一份工作报告,这类报告应注意言之有序,无论是说一件事的始未,或多项事的情况,都必须有条不紊,思路清晰,并且言之有据,引用的数据要准确,事实的真相要客观地陈述。例3Directions:A ship accident took place in Chang Jiang.Please unite a research report to tell:

1)the cause of the accident

2)the results

3)the response of authority

To:Li Ming

From:Liu Hua

Subject:Ship Accident off West Coast of Chang Jiang,No Casualties.

Date:April.9,1999

Yesterday evening two boats collided in thick fog in Chang Jiang not far from Wu Han.One was a cargo ship carrying lumber,apparently on its way to Chang Jiang.The other was a National ferry on its regular run from Jiu Jiang to Wu Han.

However,because of the weather conditions,the captains did not realize the danger until a few seconds before the collision took place.Consequently,there was no time for them to prevent the accident.

Fortunately,there were no casualties among the crews or passengers,but both ships suffered badly damages.

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A spokesman for the port authorities said that a committee would be set up to determine the cause of the collision.

*这是一份非正式报告,有几点必须注意:开头就交待清楚写报告书的目的。详细阐述调查经过,尽量做到客观公正。

第六节 简历

一、概述

现代社会,人们在实现自我推销时,外语能力成了一项不容忽视的条件。因而,一份简洁,明了、富有说服力的英文简历会帮助你实现自我推销的目的。

在英语中,简历一般采用Resume 或 Curriculum Vitea 一词,偶尔也有Data Sheet或Vita,Vitae 的用法。

简历是就业时不可缺少的材料。它不是对自己的经历以及经验的一一列举,而是列出主要的且密切相关的材料。例如:经验、业绩、能力、性格等等,然后将这些相关信息用简洁有力的文字表达出来。写简历时,应身临其境地设想是推销员,并把自己当作产品推销。简历是人们寻求职业的重要手段,也是争取就业机会的第一关,因此,它必须写得出色,以便吸引雇主。通常一份成功的简历要遵循下列准则:

1)展现自己的优势和特长;

2)提供能吸引雇主的信息;

3)曾经取得过的成绩;

4)附上具有说服力的证明材料、证明人和推荐信。

5)格式美观,长度适中;

6)用词妥贴,语言简洁而不失重点。

二、举例

例1

Directions:You are applying for admission to qraduate law program and in need of a resume please write it to describe

1) your education background,qualifications and honors

2) experience

3) personal information

You should write about 100 words

RESUME

LI MING

203 APT 32 ALLEY 1324 NANJING RD (E)

SHANGHAI 20020, PRC

E-MAIL ADDRESS:Liming@sohu.com

OBJECTIVE:Seeking admission to graduate program of law

EDUCATION:Fudan University1999-present

Major in law

Shanghai No.1 High School1996-1999

QUALIFICATIONS:University graduation certificate and bachelor

degree to be conferred upon graduation(2003)

CET6 College English Test level 6 0ct. 2002

HONORS:First prize winner of Department speech contest Oct.2002

University scholarship for Excellent studeuts (2001,2002)

EXPERIENCE:President of Students’Union

2001-present

Editor of University Journal2000-2001

SPECIAL SKILLS:Good at public speech and debate

Proficient in English (fluent speaking and writing)

Expertise on commercial law

Good command of Word & Excel software

29

PERSONAL DATA:Date of Birth:8/21/1980

Sex:male

Marital Status:unmarried

Health:good

REFERENCES:Zhuang zhong

Dean of law dept

Fudan University

Law professor

*这份简历是仿照美式的,第一个项目就是“求职意向”(objective),开门见山,一目了然。请注意“学历”(Education)和“工作经历”(Experience),英文必须先写近的,后写远的,与中文恰好相反。西方强调个人特长,所以简历中最好提一下自己的特长(special skills)简历末尾给出推荐人证明你的英文和专业水平。推荐人应有一定的身份。

例2

Directions:You are applying for a job. please writing a resume to HR to describe:

1) your objective

2) work experience

3) Educational Background

4) personal information

RESUME

204 APT 2 ALLEY 328 YONGJIA RE TEL:64308991

SHANGHAI 200020,PRCEMALL:kalunz@163.net

Career Objective:A position of management job potential in the banking department specializing in Foreign change

Work Experience:

July 2001 to×××Inc.

Present Secretary to deputy manager of marketing

●draft business correspondence

●keep and update files

●Schedule deputy manager’s appointments

August 1999 to ×××Co. , Ltd.

June 2001Receptionist

●Telephone communication

●greeted clients

●manage correspondence

March 1998 to ×××Industrial Bank

May 1998 Intern

Educational Background:

Sept 1994 toShanghai×××University,Bachelor Degree in International Business Management July 1998Major in International Business Management

●key courses including English, Japanese,

Computer Operation, Business Management,Investment

International Commercial Law

Sept 1988 to Shanghai×××High School

July 1994

Personal Information:male, born in Shanghai, 11/12,1970, unmarried, healthy

References available upon request.

* 这是一份中式求职简历。这种简历重点突出自己的工作经历(Work Experience),同时对自己在每一项工作中的突出成绩进行详细描述,并用●标出,以引起对方注意,此简历较为详细地阐明了求职目标。

例3

Directions:You are hunting for a job. Please write a resume to describe your

1)job objective

30

2)education background

3)skills

Li Tao

P.O. Box 211,××University

6824××Road, Shanghai 200431

Tel:53688226 Email:Litao@

Job Objective Seeking an office building architectural designer position in a small-to-middle sized architectural firm

×× University, shanghai

EducationB.S. in architecture, June 2002

Completed four-year course of architectural design.

Counses included Urban Design,

Architectural Planning, Structural Engineering,

Interior Decoration, Office Facilities Management,

Computer-aided

Architectural Design

Special Skills▲Familiar with MS Words, MS Excel,

AutoCAD

▲Good command of building codes and standards knowledge

▲independent work ability

▲Proficient in English,(TOEFL 632, January 2001)

Summer Work job construction projects of ××

Company for the past three summers

Other InterestsSketching,painting, photography, developing films in

and hobbies references avail able upon request

*这是一份毕业生求职简历。它着重突出了自己已学课程(courses)和个人的技能(special

skills)文中B.S. in architecture,是建筑学士学位缩写。值得指出的是对在校生来说,平时的实习工作经历能为你的简历增分不少。因此该学生也介绍了与所求职位有着相似工作要求的summer work. 例4

Directions: You want to apply for a position as a manager of sale department. Write a simple resume to describe your working experience. It should be around 100 words.

RESUME

Tony Brown

123 Center Street

Centerville, La.

Telephone: (819) 988-6163

Working Experience

2000 to present Western Regional Sales Manager

ABC Electronic Corp.

Center, La.

Supervised sales force of 35 men selling computer

and MP3 components. Responsible for train

ing, the establishment and fulfillment of sales

goals. During this period, region’s sales rose

an average of 40% anually, compared to

previous rise to 28% . Presently employed by

the firm, but famile ownership prevents rising

any higher in the foreseeable future

* 个人简历不要太繁琐,一般一张纸就够了,本范例着重介绍了自己的工作经历以及取得的成就。如果是应届毕业生的简历,就会相对简单一些,由于没有什么工作经历,因此强调一下自己的已学课程就可以了。不同的简历侧重点不同,要区别对待。

31

第七节 其他

一、通知

通知是上级对下级、团体对个人部署工作、传达事情或召开会议时所用的一种文体。同级单位有事情要进行讨论或协商,也可以互发通知。通知分两种:一种是以布告形式,把事情通知有关人员;另一种是以书信形式,把相关事情传达给有关人员。一般说来,通知正文上面正中的地方往往有 Notice 或 NOTICE 一词作为题目,正文的下面是发出通知的单位名称。有时,发出通知单位的名称也可写在正文之前。发出通知的日期一般写在左下角;发出通知的人或单位的名称,可以写在右下角。这两项有时也可以省略。发出通知的单位和通知对象一般都用第三人称,但若正文前用了称呼语,则应用第二人称表示被通知的对象。

例1

Directions:If you are the organizer of a tour and you should give a notice to tell the tourists something about it. It should include:

1)Where is the destination of the tour.

2)What should the tourists pay attention to.

You should write no less than 100 words.

NOTICE TO TOURISTS

According to the schedule, the touring party will visit the Summer Palace and Tian Anmen Square today. You can leave your baggage in the Left Baggage Office and pick it up later this afternoon if it is too heavy to carry with you. The receipt of the baggage should be kept carefully because you will need it. We will come to the Summer Palace first and finish the tour at 2 pm. Then we are going to the destination of Tian Anmen Square without parking. So please don’t get off the sightseeing bus during the journey until the driver says that it is time for food and drinks or toilets. Please be on time!

* 这是一张旅行团张贴的布告,告知游客当天的活动以及注意事项。“行李寄存处”叫Left Baggage Office,这是美国英语。英国人管行李叫luggage,与此相对的,行李寄存处便是Left Luggage Office。领取行李,美语to claim baggage,英国人说to reclaim luggage。旅游车是sightseeing bus或coach. 例2

Directions:There are something important to tell the passengers of the plane. Write notice about:

1) Reconfirmation the reservation

2) What’s the validity of a normal fare ticket.

3) About the refund.

You should write about 100 words

Important Notice

RECONFIRMATION If you break your journey for more than 35 hours at any point and hold a continuing or return reservation, please reconfirm your intention of using the reservation. VALIDITY A normal fare ticket is valid for one and a half years from the date of issue if none of any portion of it has been used, or from the date of commencement if the carriage is commenced. When in doubt, please check with the carrier’s office concerned.

REFUND The refund should be made not later than 19 days after expiry date of the ticket and only refunded in the same country.

*以上是乘坐飞机的注意事项,包括来回票机座的确认问题(reconfirmation)、机票的有效期问题(validity)以及退票事项(refund)。在飞行前应着重注意这些琐碎的问题。

例3

Directions:You are a member of the students’ union You want to hold a lecture. Write a notice to the students to inform:

1) the topic and mainly contents of the lecture

2) time and place.

3) the professor who will give the lecture.

32

You should write about 100 words

NOTICE

Jontly sponsored by the Students’ Union and the Youth League Committee, a professional lecture naming “How the Tariffs changed after China entered into WTO”will be given by Professor Wang Yanqiong. This lecture is mainly about how the import and export polices

affect the development of economy, especially the tariffs. Some experts on WTO problems will be present too. They are going to have a discussion during the meeting. The lecture will be held in the terraced classroom No.5 of the building on Friday, October 1,2004 at 2:30 p.m. Welcome all the intelligent students to join in the lecture. Please be punctual.

Jointly sponsors:The Student’s union and The Youth League Committee

*在表示联合发起时,用Jointly sponsors加合作单位名称

例4

Directions:You are a secretary of the Dean’s Office. Professor Wang Ting is absent for health reasons. Write a bulletin to tell the students. A few of details should be clear:

1) why professor Wang Ting can’t come to work.

2) who will substitute for her

3) how long the situation will be kept

It should be no less than 100 words.

BULLETIN

Professor Wang Ting, English teacher of Grade Three, is temporarily prevented from coming to class for health reasons. Professor Xu Zhiyuan will substitute for her to instruct Listening English for two weeks. The first week, a movie will be given to practise the listening English, and the second week, there will be a class discussion. Professor Li

Chaoshan will substitute for her to instruct Conversational English for three weeks. The last week is for the final examination. The topic of this week will be “The Society and The

Humanrights”. You should collect some materials and prepare enough before the class. Please tell each other about the message and go to the class on time.

Dean’s Office

*“代课”用substitute表示。substitute可用做名词,例如his or her substitute。Substitute也可用做动词,有两种表示法:to substitute B with A 或to substitute A for B.“上课”,大学里一般用instruct。

例5

Directions:The Residents’Committee needs to hold a meeting to discuss the security in the residential area. write a notice to tell the residents that:

1) why the meeting is necessary.

2) The time and place of this security meeting

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2

NOTICE

It is reported by several inhabitants from this residential area that some strangers with dirty clothes (one of them has a scar on the face) have lately haunted this area. Some stealings have happened from time to time. So the Residents’Commitee decided to hold a meeting to talk about the problems concerning security in our residential area. The meeting will be held in Room 202 of Building No. 4, the time is from 2 to 4 p.m. of May 12, 2004. It is very important that at least one member of each household is requested to attend. Please be punctual and don’t forget to take the notebooks with you.

The Residents’ Committee

*“居民区”用residential area或residential quarters来表示,“居委会”有两种译法,一是the Residents’Committee,另一个是the Neighborhood Committee,两者皆可。

例6

Directions:You are the leader of the new Public Security Team, you should tell the residents about the security situation of the residential area. The details including:

1) the purpose of this new Public Security Team.

33

2) How to contact with the team.

You should write about 100 words

BULLETIN.

Recently, there have been several burglaries in our residential quarters. A few of

muggings have been reported by the inhabitants too. A public security team has been set up in order to maintain the order and security of this residential area. Everyone and each

household are expected to be on guard. If you see some strangers haunting around this residential area at any time, please be very cautious and careful. Should there be any emergency or you may be in trouble, please call 64941101 or you can go to Room. 1101. of Building No.9. to ask for help. Thank you for cooperating with the team.

Public Security Team.

*城市尤其是大城市人员流动频繁,犯罪率比较高,“撬门”是burglary,“偷盗”是theft,“拦路抢劫”是mugging,“掏包”是pickpocket,警卫或保安人员,是security guards.Should there be any emergency,是一种虚拟证据,有“万一”的含义。例如Should you be in trouble, please call 110. 例7

Directions:You are a guard of the Guardroom Residential Area. You want to notice

something to the inhabitants of this area. The followings should be clear:

1) What’s the purpose of this notice?

2) What should the inhabitants do if the situation mentioned happens?

You should write about 100 words

NOTICE

It is reported from the inhabitants and residents in our residential area that a few persons came to house holds to sell gas from time to time. They pretended to be the workers of the Gas Company and entered into the inhabitants’ home on the pretext of examination of the gasline. This kind of situations have happened several times. This activity is

illegitimate and should be forbidden. The Gas Company didn’t send anyone to check the gas or gasline lately. Should such people come again, please immediately contact the security guards. We will come over and interfere. The emergency number is 64492889. You can call at any time you need.

Guardroom. Plesidential Area

*小区居民,是residents 或inhabitants。to pretend冒充,on the pretext of。

例8

Directions:Suppose you are one of the organizers of English evening. Write a notice about it, which should include sponsor ,time, place and the program.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2

NOTICE

The afterclass Activities Group takes pleasure in announcing that under the auspices of the students’ union of English Department, annual English evening is to be held in the

students’ activity center on Saturday, Aug, 23rd, at 7:00 p. m. The program includes songs, dances, recitations, storytelling, skits and plays which are played all by students.

Admission tickets may be obtained on application to the afterclass Activites Group, Room 205, Office Building for free. It must be a good time to enjoy and relax yourselves. All are cordially welcome to give your encouragement to the players and cheer them.

*take pleasure in doing sth.很高兴做某事,under the auspices(复数)of ?由?举办,of后跟主办、赞助的人或单位。

例9

Directions: You are a resident in Hong Kong and need a larger flat. Write a bulletin including following details:

1) your reason for the larger flat.

2) your contact information

You should write no less than 100 words.

Dear Sir/Madam,

34

I am a permanent resident in Hong Kong and my present residence is Rm 206 Block 8, Kai Man Estate. I have been living with my mother, wife, younger brother and my two children in the above flat.

Not long ago, my brother died in an traffic accident. Because of this, his wife and his two children were allowed to come to Hong Kong from Mainland China to live with us. The

change from a 6-member family to a 8-member one has created a very crowdy living environment. I therefore would like to apply for a move to a larger flat in accordance with the housing regulations concerned. Below are my personal particulars for your reference:

ID Card No.: A 306955(1)

Contact Telephone No.: 3568496

Correspondence Address:

Rm 206, Block 8, Kai Man Estate, N.T.

Your consideration over this case will be highly appreciated.

Yours faithfully,

[signature]

* permanent resident 长久公民,in accordance with符合,Correspondence Address通讯地址。

二、海报

海报是人们日常生活中极为常见的一种招贴形式,多用于电影、戏曲、比赛、文艺演出等活动。海报中通常要写清楚活动的性质,活动的主办单位、时间、地点等内容。海报的语言要求简明扼要,形式要做到机关报颖美观。

海报的格式,通常有三部分组成,即标题、正文与落款。

海报的标题对于海报的宣传极为重要。因此标题的撰写昼做到简洁明快,新颖醒目,抓住读者的注意力,海报的标题形式通常有两种:一是直接使用“海报”(Poster)一词;另一种则是根据海报的内容,撰写标题。

海报正文是海报的核心部分,它是对海报标题的具体描述。语言要求形象生动,简明扼要。做到既有鼓动性,又不夸大其辞。正文的常见表现形式有:简介说明式,文学描述式,美术设计式。

例1

Directions:You are preparing for a friendly Basketball Match.

Write a poster which asks for:

1) the right form of a standard poster

2) write the place and time clearly

You should write about 100 words.

POSTER

Friendly Basketball Game

There is going to be a friendly and wonderful basketball match between Beijing Forestry University Basketball Team and ours under the auspices of the Recreational and Physical Culture Department of the students’ union of the college. It has been decided that this

basketball match will be held at the students’ activity center which could contain at least 200 people on Saturday, Aug. 23rd, 2004, at 5:00 p. m. It is expected that the competition between the two teams will be keen and severe. All of you are cordially welcome to present the match.

The Recreational and Physical

Culture Department of the Students’

Union of the college.

Thursday. Aug. 21st . 2004

*. “由??举办”可以用词组“under the auspices of?”,另外,注意中英文通知中落款时间书写位置的差别,中文一般写在右下角,英文写在左下角。

例2

Directions:You are going to write an notice for an English-speaking contest.

1) the right form of a standard notice

2) tell the purpose and content of this contest clearly

You should write no less than 100 words

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English-Speaking Contest

In order to carry out some after-class oral English practice activities and improve the students’ ability of speaking English, the Students’ Union of the English department has decided to hold a departmentwide Englishspeaking contest at the students’ activity center on Saturday next week, i. e Aug. 23rd. 2004. Everyone who is willing to join in may tell your name and your topic of the speech to your monitor. We will invite five English teachers to work as judges. The first six winners will get the awards as an encouragement. Warmly wish everyone to attend and your presence will certainly encourage and cheer the contestants.

The Students’ Union of

English Department

*课外活动在英语里可表达为after-class activities. “in order to?”是表达“为了??”的一种常用句型。另外,书写通知的语言应注意做到言简意赅。

例3

Directions: You are preparing for a poster to introduce a great place of interest—Gold Coast of Australia. Please write it in about 100 words.

WELCOME to GOLD COAST of AUSTRALIA

The Gold Coast is the undisputed tourist capital of Australia. Each year about three million people visit the holiday city that rivals the most famous world resorts. And we can almost promise sunshine, three hundred sun drenched days a year. A yearly average of 25 degrees Velsius and a winter average of 21 degrees Celsius are nature’s guarantee for a fabulous holiday. There is nothing we cannot do on the Gold Coast. World class attractions include Sea World, Dream world, Wildlife Sanctuary, and the surfing beaches.

HOTLINE: (075) 921 655

MOBLIE: (018) 754211

FAX: (075) 921472

*这是一张澳大利亚“黄金海岸”张贴的公告,供大家参考使用。请着重注意一下有关联系方式的书写格式。

三、自我介绍

在社交场合以及日常生活中,自我介绍都是少不了的。例如:与生人相见,老师给新生上课前,领导到新单位就职等都需要作一番自我介绍,然而如何做好自我介绍却并非易事。

一般情况下,自我介绍的内容和形式应取决于所在场所的气氛和对象。自我介绍通常分为两类,即非正式场合自我介绍和正式场合自我介绍。当然,自我介绍大多指的是在非正式场合,因为正式场合会有人专门作介绍的。

自我介绍的语言要求诚恳、谦逊,切忌夸大其词、目中无人。其内容长短应适中,少则五六句多则一二十句即可。

四、启事

启事是一种公告性的应用文。机关、团体或个人若有事情要向群众公开说明,或者对群众有什么要求,都可以把要说的意思简要地写成启事,张贴于布告栏等公共场所。特别重要的或涉及面较广的,往往还要登报。

启事的种类繁多,日常生活中常用的有:遗失启事、招领启事、征稿启事等等。

例1

Directions: Suppose you carelessly lost a Longman Modern English Dictionary in the reading room. Please write a notice of about 100 words, titled Lost.

Lost

Aug. 18,2004

I was so careless that I lost a copy of “Longman Modern English Dictionary” when studying in the reading room around 3 o’clock pm. yesterday. You can find my name

“Euphemia” on the cover. The dictionary is a dear gift of my best friend who is working

overseas. If you are the kind finder, could you do me a favor to send it to the office of the Foreign Languages Department or ring me up to fetch it back. I’ll be very grateful for your kindness.

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Loser,

Euphemia

Address: Room 1010, 40#

Tel. No: 68602145

*寻物启事要包括对失物的具体描述,遗失地点,失主的联系方式,并要表示对归物者的感谢。 例2

Directions: Wong Yuksing is looking for his missing fatherinlaw. Please write a notice, with the following items included

1) the information of the missing man

2) the reason

3) the contact way

You should write no less than 100 words.

MISSING

My fatherinlaw, Mr Liu Guashing,born in Wuhan, Hubei Province and aged 46, has been missing for years. He is the fifth graduates of St. Johns University. 30 years ago he was living on 5/F, 3 Wuhan Street, Kowloon and working for St. Matthew’s Hospital as a dentist. But since then there has not been any information about his whereabouts. As my wife has been badly ill, I would appreciate any information on him from anyone reading this notice to meet her last wish in the world. Please contact the person below on 27176800.

I shall always remember with gratitude the help you would offer us.

Wong Yuksing

* 此为寻人启示,要写明所寻失踪者的信息,以及走失时间与原因,语言要求朴实、真诚,给读者以同情之感。

五、日记

日记是对每天所发生的和所做的事情的记录,有的日记则兼记对这些事情的感受。日记一般可分为两种类型,即伤痛 事型日记和抒情型日记。

My love is the human race—not, of course, the corrupt, servile, idle race that we too often meet. I love the great, fine possibilities, even in a corrupt people. I love the race of the centurise to come... We live in a time when everything is working toward amelioration. These seeds of enlightenment, these silent wishes and strivings toward the education of the race, ... will yield glorious fruit. This is the sacred goal of my wishes and my activity—to plant the seeds which will ripen in another generation.

六、课堂笔记

课堂笔记是面向学生而言的。事实上,没有人能做到过目不忘,入耳不丢。因此,学生在听课时做好听课笔记非常重要,它不仅是有助于复习迎考,更重要的是帮助学生巩固和真正掌握知识。当然,课堂笔记宜有重点记一些自己以为有必要记的东西。例如:

七、贺卡

在现代社会交际当中,贺卡扮演着越来越重要的角色。每当节日、生日、庆典等喜庆日子以及各种周年纪念日快来时,亲朋好友之间寄上一张精美的贺卡,致以良好的祝愿,以示庆贺。这样既有利于感情沟通,又能起到加深友谊的作用。贺卡可以购置,也可自己制作。贺卡的书写格式为:上端写上: To Mr. (Mrs., Professor, Miss, Director, Dean, President, etc.)××,其中的“To” 也可省去;下端写成:From ××,其中的“From” 同样的可以省略。正文写上: Wishing You A Happy New Year (A Merry Christmas, Happy Birthday, etc.),其中的“Wishing you”可以省略不写,也可代之以“With Best Wishes for”。

其中:“A Happy New Year”中的“A”也可省略。

例1:

To Mr. and Mrs. Brown

With Best Wishes

for

A Merry Christmas

From Ronald Frye

八、广告

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广告是人们日常生活中不可或缺的一部分,一则好的广告应该做到形式上新颖独特,以达到成上引起读者或听者注意的目的。

英语广告的结构(The Structure of English Advertising)

一则完善的书面广告应由以下五部分组成:

1)标题(headline),有的有副标题(subheadline);

2)正文(body text);

3)口号(slogan);

4)商标(trademark);

5)插图(illustration)。

以上五部分中,前三部分为语言文字(verbal)部分,是广告的主体部分;后两部分为非语言文字(nonverbal)部分,是广告的辅助性部分。

广告创意的基本原则(AIDMA Principle of Advertising)

一则好的英语广告,要求能够做到引起读者注意、 激起读者兴趣、唤起读者欲望、让读者过目不忘、使读者采取行动。

广告语言的特征(Features of Advertising Language)

一般说来,广告语言都比较简明、形象、生动而口语化。因为它不仅要充分地宣传、介绍该广告的内容,又要想方设法地节省篇幅和时间。总之,广告的目的在于宣传,广告制作人应在撰写广告时作认真选择,反复推敲。

九、食谱

食谱是指介绍菜肴的原料、制作及烹饪的工序与方法的小短文,一般在家庭中的应用比较广泛,食谱的内容一般包括菜肴名称、用料、烹饪工序以及食法等。食谱与菜谱(menu)不同,菜谱是指饭店、餐馆使用的印有菜名和菜价的目录单,供客人查询,而食谱主要是教会人们如何亲自动手制作出一道美味可口的菜,从而满足并丰富人们的生活。

十、天气预报

天气预报是日常生活中每天都会有的我们经常能够从电视、广播等媒介中了解到它的相关信息。天气预报的内容一般有两大主体,包括对近期的天气情况分析和主要城市的天气情况介绍及气温预报。 天气情况分析(Weather Analysis)

天气情况分析是指在预报某一地区的主要城市天气情况和气温报告前,对某一地区所作的总体天气情况分析,例如气压、气流、云团的变化等等。一般是一个大范围的预测,时间可以预计到两三天甚至一周之内。

主要城市天气预报(Weather Forecast for Major Cities)

城市天气预报是对某地区的主要城市所作的天气情况(如晴、阴、雨、雪、多云、风力、风向等)的预报和气温报告,如今在很多大城市的天气预报中,还加入了空气污染指数,人体舒适度指数,穿衣出行指数等相关信息,使天气预报更人性化。

十一、产品说明书

产品说明书,又称为“产品使用手册(Operating Manual)”,是生产厂商为销售及进一步宣传和说明其产品而附在产品包装内部或外部的一种宣传资料,主要用来说明产品的结构、功能、性状等各方面特征,并告诉客户如何正确使用所购物品,使顾客对产品有深一层的了解,以免因使用不当而造成不良后果,同时对今后产品的日常保养有一定的提示作用。产品说明书在英语中通常有三种不同的说法,即,Instruction, Direction, Description。

一份成功有效的说明书,不仅可以迅速激起人们的购买欲望,而且可以起到良好的宣传广告作用。 英语产品说明书一般由标题(包括副标题)和正文两大部分组成。有的说明书在最后还附注厂商的名称。

十二、合同与协议

合同或协议一般由三部分组成,即:标题、正文和署名。

标题(Title)

合同或协议的标题需要标明合同的性质,点明主旨,说明这是一个什么合同。在商务合同中,还宜在标题下面标明合同号码。

合同与协议正文(Body of the Text)

合同或协议的正文通常应包括开端、具体条款和结尾。

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合同或协议的开端首先要写明签订合同或协议的双方名称、地址,同时简要说明签订合同或协议的目的。通常为了便于合同或协议在文中的引用,在双方名称后分别注明“以下简称为或称为买(卖)方或甲(乙)方”英语中称为“hereinafter referred to as ...”或“hereinafter called ...”。 十三、证明

证明通常是由个人所在单位或学校出具的证明个人身份、学历、经历或者某些事实真相的一种文书,具有一定的法律效力。在日常生活中,因为工作或交往的需要,出具证明是常有的事情。与证明相比,证书则是由学校、团体或机关颁发的能够证明资格或权力等问题的文件,例如考试等级证书、获奖证书、荣誉证书等等。无论是出具证明还是颁发证书,都必须坚持实事求是的原则,切忌弄虚作假。

证明的基本格式(The Style of Certificates)

英文证明的书写格式比较简单。但语言要求简洁、严谨,格式要规范,并且反映事实情况。通常证明上无需收信人姓名、地址,也无需结束敬语。证明一般由标题、正文、署名3部分组成。

十四、证书

证书所采用的也是一种应用文体形式,一般内容不长,语言精炼,用词严谨、准确。

与证明不同的地方在于,有的证书没有标题,但必须注明证书的号码。

常用的证书有:毕业证书、学位证书、结婚证书、退休证书、职称证书等。

十五、演讲与致辞

一篇好的演讲稿,通常要有很精彩的演讲词,以及很好的文体特征和篇章结构,同时还得考虑所演讲的对象。

如何拟定演讲稿(How to Make a Speech Draft)

真正写好一篇演讲稿,拟稿人首先得了解演讲词的文体特征以及演讲词的篇章结构,此外,还得考虑所演讲的对象。这就是所谓“知己知彼,百战百胜”。

演讲词的文体特征(Stylistic Features of a Speech)

因此,在准备演讲稿时,应力求语言通俗易懂,诙谐幽默,生动形象,层次清晰,逻辑性强,句子精悍有力,文字朗朗上口,语言节奏感强。

1)放在前面多采用简单句。

2)语言多口语化。

3)多用排比句式。

4)重复修辞格多。

5)多采用祈使句。

6)多运用设问句。

在现代社会交际活动中,致辞的使用十分频繁。

一般地,根据场合不同,致辞大体可分为正式和非正式两种。正式场合致辞通常多用于官方性质的会议、仪式等场合,这类致辞要求结构严谨,语言规范。相反个人或民间举行的一些非正式的仪式,语言则可以随和、轻松一些。

致辞文体结构(Structure of a Speech)

一篇完整的致辞,一般由引言、正文和结论三大部分组成。

引言(Introduction)

在致辞引言中,演讲者应着重指明演讲主题的重要性以及重要意义以引起听众的注意及共鸣。 正文(Body)

正文部分是致辞的核心内容,因此应该突出主题,做到观点明确,层次清晰,以达到致辞的真正目的。

结论(Conclusion)

结论部分是对致辞的主体内容做出结论性的总结,并且应对相关问题提出希望。因此,写作时宜使用一些具有激励性、鼓舞性的语言。按照致辞的场合以及用途,常见的致辞种类可分为:欢迎词、答谢词、欢送词、告别词、开幕词、闭幕词、贺词、祝酒词、悼词等。

第二部分 阅读理解B型题

练习一

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Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

It seems to me there are two aspects to women. There is the demure and the dauntless. Men have loved to dwell, in fiction at least, on the demure maiden whose inevitable reply is: Oh, yes, if you please, kind sir! The demure maiden , the demure spounse, the demure mother—this is still the ideal. A few maidens, mistresses and mothers are demure. A few pretend to be. But the vast majority are not. And they don’t pretend to be. We don’t expect a girl

skilfully driving her car to be demure, we expect her to be dauntless. What good would demure and maidenly Members of Parliament be, inevitably responding: Oh, yes, if you please, kind sir! — Though of course there are masculine members of that kidney.—And a demure telephone girl? Or even a demure stenographer? Demureness, to be sure, is outwardly becoming, it is an outward mark of femininity, like bobbed hair. But it goes with inward dauntlessness. 1)

With the two kinds of femininity go two kinds of confidence: There are the women who are cocksure, and the women who are hensure. A really up-to-date woman is a cocksure woman. She doesn’t have a doubt nor a qualm. She is the modern type. Whereas the old-fashioned demure woman was sure as a hen is sure, that is, without knowing anything about it. She went quietly and busily cluciking around, laying the eggs and mothering the chickens in a kind of anxious dream that still was full of sureness. But not mental sureness. Her sureness was a physical condition, very soothing, but a condition out of which she could easily be startled or frightened.

It is quite amusing to see the two kinds of sureness in chickens. The cockerel is,

naturally, cocksure. He crows because he is certain it is day., Then the hen peeps out from under her wing. He marches to the door of the henhouse and pokes out his lead assertively: Ah ha! daylight, of course, just as I said! — and he majestically steps down the chicken ladder towards terra firma, knowing that the hens will step cautiously after him, drawn by his

confidence. So after him, cautiously, step the hens. He crows again: Ha-ha! here we are!— It is indisputable, and the hens accept it entirely. He marches towards the house. From the house a person ought to appear, scattering corn. Why does the person not appear? The cock will see to it. He is cocksure. He gives a loud crow in the doorway, and the person appears. The hens are suitably impressed but immediately devote all their henny consciousness to the scattered corn, pecking absorbedly, while the cock runs and fusses, cocksure that he is responsible for it all.

So the day goes on. The cock finds a tit-bit, and loudly calls the hens. They scuffle up in henny surety, and gobble the tit-bit. But when they find a juicy morsel for themselves, they devour it in silence, hensure. Unless, of course, there are little chicks, when they most anxiously call the brood. But in her own dim surety, the hen is really much surer than the cock, in a differenty way. She marches off to lay her egg, she secures obstinately the nest she wants, she lays her egg at last, then steps forth again with prancing confidence, and gives that most assured of all sounds, the hensure cackle of a bird who has laid her egg. The cock, who is never so sure about anything as the hen is about the egg she has laid,

immediately starts to cackle like the female of his species. He is pining to be hensure, for hensure is so much surer than cocksure. Nevertheless, cocksure is boss. When the chickenhawk appears in the sky, loud are the cockerel’s calls of alarm. Then the hens scuffle under the verandah, the cock ruffles his feathers on guard. The hens are numb with fear, they say: Alas, there is no health in us! How wonderful to be a cock so bold!—And they huddle, numbed. But their very numbness is hensurety.

Just as the cock can cackle, however, as if he had laid the egg, so can the hen bird crow. She can more or less assume his cocksurensess. 2)

It seems to me just the same in the vast human farmyard. Only nowadays all the cocks are cackling and pretending to lay eggs, and all the hens are crowing and pretending to call the sun out of bed. 3) So the women step forth with a good loud cock-a-doodle-do!

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The tragedy about cocksure women is that they are more cocky, in their assurance, than the cock himself. They never realize that when the cock gives his loud crow in he morning, he listens acutely afterwards, to hear if some other wretch of a cock dare crow defiance,

challenge. To the cock, there is always defiance, challenge, danger and death on the clear air; or the possibility thereof.

But alas, when the hen crows, she listens for no defiance or challenge. When she says

cock-a-doodle-do! then it is unanswerable. The cock listens for an answer, alert. But the hen knows she is unanswerable. Cock-a-dooodle-do! and there it is, take it or leave it!4)

It is the tragedy of the modern woman. She becomes cocksurem, she puts all her passion and energy and years of her life into some effort or assertion, without ever listening for

the denial which she ought to take into count. She is cocksure, but she is a new all the time. Frightened of her own henny self, she rushes to mad lengths about votes, or welfare, or sports, or business: she is marvellous, out-manning the man. But alas, it is all

fundamentally disconnected. It is all an attitude, and one day the attitude will become a weird cramp, a pain, and then it will collapse. And when it has collapsed, and she looks at the eggs she has laid, votes, or miles of typewriting, years of business efficiency—suddenly, because she is a hen and not a cock, all she has done will turn into pure nothingness to her. 5)

[A]If women today are cocksure, men are hensure. Men are timid, tremulous, rather soft and submissive, easy in their very henlike tremulousness. They only want to be spoken to gently.

[B]The girl who has got to make her way in life has got to be dauntless, and if she has a pretty, demure manner with it ,then luck girl. she kills two birds with two stones.

[C]conventional ideas about women seems pretty much cut and dried in the modern society. [D]And yet she is never so easy, cocksure, as she used to be when she was hensure. Cocksure, she is cocksure , but uneasy. Hensure, she trembles, but is easy.

[E]And it is this that makes the cocksureness of women so dangerous, so devastating. It is really out of scheme, it is not in relation to the rest of things. So we have the tragedy of cocksure women. They find, so often, that instead of having laid an egg, they have laid a vote, or an emply ink-bootle, or some other absolutely unhatchable object, means nothing to them.

[F]But the women pointed out the men had not produced anything, and the human race was pretty much starving.

[G]Suddenly it all falls out of relation to her basic henny self, and she realizes she has lost her life. The lovely henny surety, the hensureness which is the real bliss of every female, has been denied her: she had never had it. Having lived her life with such utmost strenuousness and cocksureness, she has missed her life altogether. Nothingness!

答案及解析

1) B。“为生计所打拼的女孩子不得不勇敢无畏,如果她举止又温驯娴淑,那么她就是个幸运的女孩子。她两方面都很成功。”此处,作者隐藏了自己的观点,提出大多数人接受的观点,在现代社会中,女性要勇敢无畏。

2) D。 从上一句“assume his cocksureness”(装出公鸡般自信)可知,母鸡此时虽然自信,却不自在(uneasy),且从上一段最后一句“And they huddle, numbed. But their very numbness is hensurety(本性)”看出它们温驯谦卑时,却感觉舒服。

3) A。 此处指出在人类社会中,却与鸡的世界相反,公鸡假装下蛋,母鸡假装叫太阳起床,因此女人是自信外露,男人是温柔顺从的,故选择A。

4) E。 作者文笔一转,指出女人的自信危险甚至具有毁灭性的原因,从上一段“It is the tragedy of the modern woman”看,作者旨在表明她们产下的不是蛋而是选举权,空墨水瓶或其他完全不出东西的玩意儿,所有这些对她们都毫无价值。

5) G。 全文总结。作者观点明了,现代社会女人感受不到幸福,因为她们逆自然规律而行事,“it falls out of relation to her basic henny self”她的业绩与母鸡一样的本性毫无关系,所以

nothingness(一切毫无价值)

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中心思想

作者阐述了这样的观点:现代女性并不幸福,因为她们一般要在社会中扮演和男人一样的角色。但作者并不是直接表达自己的观点,相反,他先把自己的观点隐藏起来,开篇区分两类女性:矜持端庄型的(demure)和勇敢无畏型的(dauntless),进而指出现代女性多属后者,这是为缓和读者开始的对抗情绪,接下来的几段中作者把人类生活与鸡的生活类比。最后,作者笔锋一转,从农家鸡院转到广阔的人类舞台。女人与生俱来温驯谦卑,受人保护,但现代社会却迫使她们必须和男人一样勇敢无畏,为此她们必须拼命努力,到头来却感觉不到真正的幸福,因为她们逆自然规律而行事。

练习二

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

One morning, a few years ago, Harvard President Neil Rudenstine overslept. 1)Only after a three-month sabbatical — during which he read essayist Lewis Thomas, listened to Ravel and walked with his wife on a Caribbean beach— was he able to return to his post. That week, his picture was on the cover of Newsweek magazine beside the banner headline “Exhausted!” In the relentless busyness of modern life, we have lost the rhythm between action and rest. I speak with people in business and education, doctors and day-care workers,

shopkeepers and soial workers, parents and teachers, nurses and lawyers, students and

therapists, community activist and cooks. Remarkably, there is a universal refrain:“ I am so busy”. The more our life speeds up, the more we feel weary, overwhelmed and lost.

2) Instead,the whole experience of being alive begins to melt into one enormous

obligation. It becomes the standard greeting everywhere:"I am so busy."

We say this to one another with no small degree of pride. The busier we are, the more important we seem to ourselves and, we imagine, to others. To be unavailable to our friends and family, to be unable to find time for the sunset (or even to know that the sun has set at all), to whiz through our obligations without time for a single mindful breath — this has become the model of a successful life.

Because we do not rest, we lose our way. We lose the nourishment that gives us succor. We miss the quiet that gives us wisdom. Poisoned by the hypnotic belief that good things come only through tireless effort, we never truly rest.

This is not the world we dreamed of when we were young. How did we get so terribly rushed in a world saturated with work and responsibility, yet somehow bereft of joy and delight? We have forgotten the Sabbath.

3)It is time to be nourished and refreshed as we let our work, our chores and our

important projects lie fallow, trusting that there are larger forces at work taking care of the world when we are at rest.

If certain plant species do not lie dormant during winter, the plant begins to die off. 4)

So "Remember the Sabbath" is more than simply a lifestyle suggestion. It is a commandment, an ethical precept as serious as prohibitions against killing, stealing and lying.

Sabbath is more than the absence of work. Many of us, in our desperate drive to be

successful and care for our many responsibilities, feel terrible guilt when we take time to rest. But the Sabbath has proven its wisdom over the ages. Many of us still recall when not long ago, shops and offices where closed on Sundays. Those quiet Sunday afternoons are embedded in our cultural memory.

Much of modern life is specifically designed to seduce our attention away from rest. When we are in the world with our eyes wide open, the seductions are insatiable.5)For those of us with children, there are endless soccer practices, baseball games, homework, laundry,

housecleaning, errands. Every responsibility, every stimulus competes for our attention: Buy me .Do me. Watch me. Try me. Drink me. It is as if we have inadvertently stumbled into some horrific wonderland.

[A]Rest is not just a psychological convenience; it is a biological necessity.

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[B]After years of non-stop toil in an atmosphere that rewarded frantic overwork, Rudenstine collapsed.

[C]Hundreds of channels of cable and satellite television; phones with multiple lines and call-waiting. begging us to talk to more than one person at a time; mail, e-mail and overnight mail, fax machines; billboards; magazines; newspapers; radio.

[D]Sometimes you can have a rest on Sundays. But your heart and soul is no longer quiet. [E]Sabbath is the time that consecrated to enjoy and celebrate what is beautiful and good — time to light candles, sing songs, worship, tell stories, bless our children and loved ones, give thanks, share meals, nap, walk and even make love.

[F]Once upon a time. Sabbath is our heaven. We often walk in the green parks with friends or have a picnic lunch with the family. Listening to the birds on the tree makes me feel peaceful. But whatever happened to sunday now?

[G]Today our life and work rarely feel light, pleasant or healing.

答案及详解

1.B。 通读全文,不难掌握大意,作者试图回答一个人人都困惑的问题“我们的休息日,我们舒适的,轻松的生活哪里去了”。本文用哈佛大学校长的例子作引,空白处下首的句子意为“在三个月休假后,他才能重新工作”说明空白处的句子依然谈论的是校长当时疲惫的状况,因此选项B符合要求。

2.G。第三段段首空出,而下句用一个Instead连接说明上下文是转折关系,而同时我们结合第二段来分析,第二段主要说明现在的人,不管职业、年龄、身份,都整日处于奔波劳碌中,所以起到承上启下作用的选项G是最佳选择。

3.E。 上文是单句段“我们已经将礼拜日尘封脑后了”,而下文则提出“家务事和重要规划暂且搁在一边,让我们好好享受”承接前文,后面顺理成章的回忆了礼拜日快乐的时光,最后振臂高呼“让我们好好享受吧”可见,空白处是关于对以往快乐礼拜日的重现,所以,运用了一系列排比句子的选项E很贴切,有极强的感染力。

4.A。 此处答案较为简单,从上下文看都有很明显的暗示,而选项A“休息不仅是心理上的舒适也是生理上的必需”,不但能够前后呼应,而且浑然一体,逻辑十分严密。

5.C。 从上文“我们的欲望是无穷无尽的”下面列举了一系列的娱乐方式,如电视、电话、邮件、传真等等,意在渲染强烈的感情色彩,以证明“无穷无尽”的论点,所以选项C为正确答案。

中心思想

本文引用哈佛大学的校长的例子展开全文,指出现在人们的生活越来越乏味,工作越来越忙,时间越来越不够用,总是处于疲于奔命的状态,原本轻松,愉快的休息日早已销声匿迹了,面对越来越快的生活节奏,越来越多的娱乐活动,我们反而再也找不到往昔的欢乐,逐渐地在物欲横流的叫嚣声中迷失了自我。

练习三

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

These are things to watch out for when starting to invest.

Calculate your worth: Make a note of all your assests, no matter how insignificant they seem. 1).

Know your risk levels: 2). Consider the objective behind your decision to invest: are you aiming to retire in a decade, or are you saving for a deposit on a house? Your age and

circumstances, as well as economic conditions, will determine the right investment for you. Have a nest egg: Keep at least three months’ wages available in cash before considering any other investment. That way, you will not lose out by having to liquidate a poorly-performing asset at an unfavourable time.

Learn the basics: 3)The market for property may appear favourable for first-time

homebuyers, but a house is an illiquid investment. Equities are relatively volatile, but can be liquidated quickly.

Take advice: 4) News takes a long time to filter down to the guy in the street and chances are that any hot tip is past its sell-by date. Spend some time with a financial adviser, read the papers or books on investing. That way, you can make educated decisions. 43

Diversify: Once you have a core position, look around for satellite investments that may spice up your portfolio. Do not only buy equities, consider bonds, property or collectibles to protect yourself against poor performance in one asset class.

Hang in there: Stick to your plan, even if your investment seems to be floundering. New investors are often driven by emotion and react at the wrong times. 5).

[A] Create a core investment portfolio in something solid such as blue—chip stocks that will bring in steady gains over the years.

[B]That way, you can work out what sort of investment suits you and over what time frame.

[C] Find out about various asset classes and their characteristics.

[D] By this way, you avoid having to decide when the time is right to buy — a skill even most mature investors fail to get right.

[E]Financial experts will tell you that timing the market is almost impossible, but time in the market will eventually pay off.

[F]Think carefully about your future plans and where you would like to be in a few years’ time.

[G]Avoid following the herd and buying into the latest fashionable initial public offering .

答案及详解

1.B。估算财产,以及Make a note(做记录)的目的,显然是为了搞清楚投资类型,所以选B。

2.F。从下文,考虑一下决定投资的目的:你10年内打算退休呢还是为了买房而存款,显然是在思考未来的计划以及生活环境,所以选F。

3.C。从后文对房地产市场以及股票的特点分析看,此处作者对basics(常识)的概括是指,搞清有关的各种不同资产类别及其特点。

4.G。文中提到对普通人来讲,信息需要很长时间方能传到他们的耳中,因此“any hot tip is past its sell- by date”。得知的热门消息往往是过时的。所以我们知道作者此句旨在强调不要随波逐流去买进一些时髦证券。

5.E。前文说到投资新手常常感情冲动,在错误的时间里做出反应,且此段标题为hang in there(坚持不懈)。显然,我们知道此句应为E中前面一个timing the market指掌握市场(买卖时机)后一个time in manket 指在市场上坚持下去。

中心思想

本文论述投资必须谨记的几件事情,估算财产以搞清投资类型,了解投资风险和基本常识,咨询理财顾问,阅读相关书稿。投资方式多样化以及坚持执行计划。

练习四

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

Here I want to try to give you an answer to the question: What personal qualities are desirable in a teacher? Probably no two people would draw up exactly the same lists. But I think the following would be generally accepted.

First, 1)But it does rule out such types as the overexcitable, melancholy, frigid, sarcastic, cynical, frustrated, and overbearing: I would say too, that it excludes all of dull or purely negative personality.

Secondly, 2)Closely related with this is the capacity to be tolerant- not, indeed, of what is wrong, but of the frailty and immaturity of human nature which induce people, and again especially children, to make mistakes.

Thirdly, 3)This does not mean being a saint. It means that he will be aware of his intellectual strengths, and limitations, and will have thought about and decided upon the moral principles by which his life shall be guided. There is no contradiction in my going on to say that a teacher should be a bit of an actor. That is part of the technique of teaching, which demands that every now and then a teacher should be able to put on an act- to enliven a 44

lesson, correct a fault, or award praise. Children, especially young children, live in a world that is rather larger than life.

On the other hand, 4)He must be pretty resilient, teaching makes great demands on

nervous energy. And he should be able to take in his stride the innumerable petty irritations any adult dealing with children has to endure.

Finally, 5) There are three principle objects of study: the subject, or subjects, which the teacher is teaching; the methods by which they can best be taught to the particular pupils in the classes he is teaching; and - by far the most important- the children, young people, or adults to whom they are to be taught. The cardinal principle of British education is education of the whole person, and that it is best acquired through full and active cooperation between two persons, the teacher and the learner.

[A]it is not merely desirable but essential for a teacher to have a genuine capacity for sympathy - in the literal meaning of that word; a capacity to tune in to the minds and feelings of other people.

[B]a teacher must be capable of infinite patronee. This, I may say, is largely a matter of selfdiscipline and selftraining, because none of us were born like that.

[C]the teacher’s personality should be pleasantly live and attractive. This does not rule out people who are physically plain, or even ugly, because many such have great personal charm.

[D]A teacher must remain mentally alert, He must be quick to adapt himself to any

situation, however improbable (they happen!) and able to improvise, if necessary at less than a moment’s notice

[E]A teacher should be humorous sometimes like a best friend sitting down across from you in your living room having a chat about what’s going on in your life.

[F]I think a teacher should have the kind of mind, which always wants to go on learning. Teaching is a job at which one will never be perfect; there is always something more to learn about it.

[G]I hold it essential for a teacher to be both intellectually and morally honest. 答案及解析

1)C。这是要你判断教师首先必须具备的个人品质。从后文中应排除忧郁、冷漠、生性呆板等性格特征看,与之对应的应是“pleasantly live” attractive. 从“does rule out” 我们应发现与之对应的“does not rule out”:所以C最符合原文

2)A。与“tolerant”联系紧密的是什么。只有深刻的从内心理解对方,才能做到“tolerant of the frailty and immaturity of human nature”。显然A项与此联系最紧密

3)G。表明诚实的含义,不是对做圣人,而是一种对一生准则的选择。

4)B。从后文“innumerable peoty irritation”看,处理那些数不清的,琐碎的令人恼火的事情 infinite patience 当然是必须的,我们选B。

5)F。从 There are three principle objects of study 这段是要突出永远学习的必要性。而不是D中所单指的 “intelligence”

中心思想

本文论述了教师理想的个人品质。

他应该是精力充沛,令人愉快的,他要有真诚的必不可少的同情心,在知识、道德上诚实,具有无限耐心,最后,他还要有一颗永远渴望学习的心。

练习五

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

Americans wear black for mourning. Chinese wear white. Westerners think of dragons as monsters. Chinese honor them as symbols of God. Chinese civilization has often shown such polarities with the West, as though each stands at extreme ends of a global string. 1) His findings go far toward explaining why American cultures seem so contentious and Chinese cultures so passive, when compared to each other. More importantly, the research

45

opens the way for the peoples of the East and the West to learn from each other in

fundamental ways. 2) said kaiping Peng, a former Beijing scholar, who is now a UC Borkeley assinstant professor of psychology.

“Americans have a terrible need to find out who is right in an argument,” said Peng. “The problem is that at the interpersonal level, you really don’t need to find the truth, or may be there isn’t any.” Chinese people, said Peng, are far more content to think that both sides have flaws and virtues, because they have a holistic awareness that life is full of contradictions. They do far less blaming of the individual than do Americans, he added. In studies of interpersonal argument, for example, when subjects were asked to deal with contradictory information stemming from conflict between a mother and a daughter or a student and a school, Peng found that Americans were “noncompromising, blaming one side- usually the mother -- for the causes of the problems, demanding changes from one side to attain a solution and offering no compromise” in dealing with the conflict.

3)

In tests of scientific thinking, however, the Chinese came up short. Asked to determine which statement was true-- whether, for instance, smoking makes people gain or lose weight-- Chinese respondents took the middle road, even when they believed one statement to be less true than another.

4)

He believes that this tendency to find the middle way has hampered Chinese efforts to seek out scientific truth through aggressive argumentation, the classic Western method for forging a linear path through contradictory information, which results in identifying right and wrong answers.

Dialectical thinking also has a Western version, which Americans often consider the highest, most sophisticated form of reasoning, said Peng. This type of reasoning allows people to proceed from thesis to antithesis, to synthesis.

5)

[A]In Chinese folk wisdom, by comparison, people do not attempt to work through the contradictions, following a cultural tradition which holds that reality is “multilayered, unpredictable and contradictory,” and is in a constant state of change, Peng said.

[B]“It can hardly be right to move to the middle when you have just read evidence for a less plausible view. Yet that is what the Chinese subjects did,”said Peng.

[C]The Chinese could learn much from Western methods for determining scientific truth,and Americans could profit enormously from the Chinese tolerance for accepting contradictions in social and personal life.

[D]Compared to this angry, blaming merican stance, the Chinese were paragons of

compromise, finding fault on both sides and looking for solutions that moved both sides to the middle.

[E]The best way is to use bothone style for science and another for relationships. Maybe that will be the real benefit of multicultralism.

[F]“They should stop blaming each other, poor people and immigrants, and talk about what we can do as a society to become more tolerant,” said Peng.

[G] Now a University of California, Berkeley, Psychologist has discovered deeper

polatities between Chinese and American cultures-- polarities that go to the heart of how we reason and discover truth.

答案及详解

1.G。文章开头即指明中、西文化宛如地球的两个端点,从第二段第二句以及第六段的“In tests of scientific ? short”看,此处作者想更进一步表明中、西在“reason and discover truth”上的差异。

2.C。前文是两者的不同,这里指出应互相学习。

干扰项为E,但我们注意到,E过于笼统,而C句中的“scientific truth”与“social and personal life”与下面展开的段落直接相关,所以选C。

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3.D。上一段举例表明美国人在人际关系中,互相指责,此段作为对比,显示了中国人的中庸之道,这一段是围绕第三段中“They do far less blaming of the individual than do Americans.”展开的。

4.B。在肯定中国人在处理人际关系中的优势后,作者随即指出其在 scientific thinking 上折中主义的劣势,从下文的“hamper”可以看出,作者对在科学问题上也采用折中主义这种方法是不赞成的,因此我们选B。

5.A。对比中西方辨证思维模式的不同。从上文中的西方的推理是由正题推出反题,进而推出合理看,此处应为论述中国人认为现实是“multilayered, contradictions”的思维方式。

中心思想

本文论述了中美文明在社会关系和科学问题上的差异,美国人在人际关系中比较好斗,而中国人倾向寻求折中的解决方案,在科学问题中,中国人也经常采用中间路线,美国人的直线前进的方法,往往可以辨明正确和错误的答案,作者主张生活中采用中国方式,科学上采用美国方式。

练习六

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

Seventyfive years ago all British women were finally given what all British men had

been granted 10 years earlier — the right to vote. First off the blocks to mark the occasion has been,oddly, the Sun (that same organ, ironically, mostly‘celebrates’women’s

emancipation with a naked interest in their bulging breasts and shapely bums).

That no one else has yet seemed to notice reflects the fact that the winning side in the equality war doesn’t want to waste precious time crowing. 1)

Like the military. A report last week slammed the Army for sexism, complaining that women are called‘girls’ —quite different, the authors said, from referring to the troops as‘our boys’. 2)‘Girls’, by contrast, is derogatory and demeaning. This was only to be expected, the authors pointed out, from an institution that enjoys ‘partial’exemption from equal opportunities legislation—and thus can exclude its ‘girls’ from some direct combat positions. How chauvinist can you get?

But hold on: do women really want to turn Dad’s Army into Mum’s Army, a posse of latterday Amazons braving the front line, cheek by jowl with their male counterparts? We don’t want to stand beside the boys and fire rifles into the whites of Iraqi eyes. Nor are we gasping for a chance to be blasted to smithereens by a cluster bomb. I may not be crazy about being called ‘girl’ 3)

Yet this kind of jobequalising —if Jack can do it, Jill sure as hell can do it

better—has long been cherished by social planners, feminist or not. For decades, menonly enclaves gave women their battle cry: let me in there! The exclusion zone in those days ranged from smart clubs, manual work, the Church of England and the armed forces.

Now it has shrunk to a few motheaten armchairs in clubland; the golfers’ paradise — the Royal and Ancient Club of St Andrews; the Roman Catholic priesthood; and frontline combat. The head of the Stock Exchange is a woman, female plumbers are growing in numbers

(including that Oxford graduate, Nicola Gillison, who made headlines recently because she ditched her consultancy job for a mole wrench), and one in 12 of the Army is female. As for women lorry drivers, that should be no surprise. Women drivers have such a sterling record that insurance companies now offer cheaper premiums in return for the promise that no man will come anywhere near the four wheels of their car.

4) As the foreigner chewed his dumplings at some dire Intourist restaurant in the Soviet Union, his (or her) surprised gaze might alight upon the workers outside in their drab

overalls. Who were those stocky muscular figures clambering up the scaffolding with buckets of primrose yellow paint to freshen up the crumbling facades of the surrounding buildings? Women. Who was heaving the garbage containers into the dilapidated rubbish truck? Women. Who was shovelling up the piles of dirt and grit left in the melted snow by the side of the road? Women.

47

And what of the Israeli army, which believes women sabras as well as men should face enemy fire? That idea has proved a disaster — with men behaving suicidally to protect the women, casualties mounting, and the government now considering legislation to keep women away from the front. It’s been a dire tale in the American military too, with physical strength tests rigged to accommodate women soldiers who with the best will in the world cannot throw a hand grenade to a safe distance.

There’s nothing wrong with a handful of supertough modernday GI Janes being hooked on Jane’s Guide to Extra Lethal Infantry Weapons, or wasting their weekends playing wasr games; the modern military needs women to boost its flagging recruits, and if supply now matches demands, I am sure we can all rest more easily in the shadow of the Axis of Evil. 5)

[A]Social engineering that fixes men and women in the same post, at all costs, makes no sense.

[B]Given such progress, only rabid equalisens would argue that they cannot rest until women have the right to be windbagged by some old geezer reading Horse and Hound by the fire; or risk death or a war wound through their rightful place on the front line.

[C]but that doesn’t mean I want to be mowed down with the ‘boys’ in the killing fields.

[D]They want to get on with dealing the most humiliating defeat upon the remaining

enemy: foes such as those employers who pay women less than comparable men; the corporations with an allmale hierarchy at the top; and of course the men who tiresomely persist in sexist words or behaviour.

[E]‘Boys’, it seems, is a good, encouraging, matey kind of word.

[F]But a woman does not need to be in the firing line to feel as good as a man. That is an equality too far.

[G]The army is slammed for sexism, but do we want a ‘Mum’s Army?

答案及详解

1.D。从文章开头,我们可以看到本文主要讨论了现代男女性别歧视问题,空白处前一句话表明,这场平等之战的赢家并不想浪费宝贵的时间去欢呼。这就暗示了这场战争还未完结,顺着这个逻辑思路,不难看到选项D是符合上下文的。

2.E。从下文“Girls, by contrast, is derogatory and demeaning.” 得知上文是与这句“by contrast” 的。所以对应来说大致的意思就应该为“既然‘姑娘们’。这个称呼是贬义的,有辱人格的,那么‘小伙子们’就是鼓舞人心的,表示友好的称呼”,所以应选E。

3.C。本段开首用一个否定表示作者并不认为所谓的平等就是与那些“小伙子们”并肩战斗,浴血战场。而且在字里行间也一直贯穿着这个意思,所以最后一句也不会偏离这个语境,选项C用在这里衔接很自然。

4.A。此处空白是段首句,而上一段作者列举了种种女性勇往直前的工作领域,其后又用讽刺的笔调描画了苏联所谓男女平等的社会工作的滑稽可笑的情境,由此而见,作者并不赞成女性盲目地追求形式上的平等。而选项A意为“千方百计让男女干同样工作的社会工程毫无意义”,即起到了承前的作用、又开启了下文。

5.F。此处为本文结束语,前一段作者认为女性作为兵源的补充,既是合情的,也是合理的。最后一段作为全篇总结,既要与上一段呼应又要回扣题目“我不会为平等而送死。”抓住。“战争”、“平等”两个关键词,我们不难锁定选项F为正确答案。

中心思想

本文作者以轻松诙谐的笔调探讨了什么是男女间真正的平等。作者抓住军队这个大环境,用一系列的假设和举例阐述了自己的观点,即女性应该去追求两性平等,但没有必要处处要求平等,更没有必要单纯为了平等而平等。只有合情合理的平等才能造就合谐的社会和心灵。

练习七

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

48

1) Many of the options have already been rehearsed in the press: excluding some

treatments from the NHS, charging for certain drugs and services, and developing voluntary or compulsory health insurance schemes.

2) we spend about 7 per cent of GDP on health, compared with 9 per cent in the

Netherlands and 10 per cent in France and Germany. In terms of health outcomes versus spend, we compare pretty favourably.

I don’t see private health care providing much of the solution to current problems. 3) Neither is close to being implemented, but the future could see a deliberate shift of attention to voluntary health insurance and an emphasis on social insurance.

4) Even so, higher taxes will plainly be needed to fund health care. I think we’ll eventually see larger NHS charges, more rationing of medical services and restrictions on certain procedures without proven outcomes. Stricter eligibility criteria for certain treatments are another possibility.

5) None of them is going to win votes for the political party desperate enough to

introduce them— but then nobody is going to vote for illhealth or an early death either. [A]English National Health Service is a universal healthkeeping system. But Now, the shortage of money becomes a serious problem.

[B]All such options would mean a sharp break with tradition and political fallout that could be extremely damaging.

[C]The options provides solution to the shortage of money problem.

[D] I expect individuals to take greater responsibility for their personal health using technology that allows selfdiagnosis followed by selftreatment or home care

[E] Looking at how far we’ll be able to fund the Health Service in the 2lst century raises any number of thorny issues.

[F]More likely is a shift from universal health coverage to topup schemes which give people basic health entitlements but require them to finance other treatment through private financing, or optout schemes which use tax relief to encourage individuals to make private provision.

[G] Compared to its European Union counterparts Britain operates a lowcost health system

答案及详解

1.E。第一段可译为“看一看21世纪我们能为国民保健服务提供多少资金,会发现一大堆棘手问题。许多解决办法已经在报纸上讨论过多次,例如把一些治疗项目从国民保健服务中剔除出去,对某些药物和服务实行收费,建立自愿或强制性医疗保险制度等等。”选项A是干扰事项。选项A是最根本上的问题。

2.G。“与欧盟其他国家相比,英国实行的是一套低成本医疗保健体系:我们花在医疗保健方面的钱占国内生产总值的百分之七,与荷兰、法国、德国相比,我们的表现还是不错的。”因为后面列举了本国以及其他国家医疗保健占国内生产点值的百分比,可以看出英国实行低成本医疗保健体系。

3.F。“更可行的办法是由全民医疗保健制转向补差付费制,后一制度让人们享有基本的医疗保健权,但要求个人自筹资金支付超出基本医疗保健的费用;另一个办法是实行退出制,即利用减税鼓励个人解决自己的医疗保险问题。”作者认为私费医疗保健对于解决目前问题起不了多大作用,接着提出相比之下更多可行的办法。

4.D。“我预计,利用使个人能够自诊,然后自疗的技术或通过家居护理,人们将对自身健康负起更大责任。”下文:即使如此,显然仍要增税为医疗保健提供资金。我们最终会看到国民保健服务收费会更高,更多的医疗服务实行定量配给,对未证明以有效果的某些疗法会加以更多的限制??。选项关键词语:Even so。

5.B。“所有这些解决办法都意味着与传统一刀两断,而且可能会产生极具破坏性的政治影响。没有哪种办法会给万不得已采取这一办法的政党赢得选票——但是也没人会投票赞成身体多病或过早死亡。”选项C为干扰项。

中心思想

英国的国民保健服务是一种全民医疗保健体系,儿童、孕妇及低收入的人看病不要钱,其他人看病只交挂号费性质的处方费。不过处方费年年涨,如今已到6.2磅,可是资金短缺仍是一个大问题。 练习八

49

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

From the seventeenthcentury empire of Sweden, the story of a galleon that sank at the start of her maiden voyage in 1628 must be one of the strangest tales of the sea. For nearly three and a half centuries she lay at the bottom of Stockholm harbour until her discovery in 1956. 1)

2) Triple gundecks mounted sixtyfour bronze cannon. She was intended to play a leading role in the growing might of Sweden.

As she was prepared for her maiden voyage on August 10,1628, Stockholm was in a ferment. From the Skeppsbron and surrounding islands the people watched this thing of beauty begin to spread her sails and catch the wind. They had laboured for three years to produce this

floating work of art; she was more richly carved and ornamented than any previous ship. The high stern castle was a riot of carved gods, demons, knights, kings, warriors, mermaids, cherubs; and zoomorphic animal shapes ablaze with red and gold and blue, symbols of courage, power, and cruelty, were portrayed to stir the imaginations of the superstitious sailors of the day.

3)4)

As the wind freshened there came a sudden squall and the ship made a strange movement, listing to port. The Ordnance Officer ordered all the port cannon to be heaved to starboard to counteract the list, but the steepening angle of the decks increased. Then the sound of rumbling thunder reached the watchers on the shore, as cargo,ballast, ammunition and 400

people went sliding and crashing down to the port side of the steeply listing ship. 5)In that first glorious hour, the mighty Vasa, which was intended to rule the Baltic, sank with all flags flying - in the harbour of her birth.

[A]All gunports were open and the muzzles peeped wickedly from them.

[B] Vasa sailed majesticly out of the bay.

[C]This was the Vasa, royal flagship of the great imperial fleet.

[D]King Gustavus Adolphus, ‘The Northern Hurricane’, then at the height of his military success in the Thirty Years’ War, had dictated her measurements and armament. [E]The lower gunports were now below water and the inrush sealed the ship’s fate. [F] As soon as her discovery, the world became shocken.

[G]Then the cannons of the anchored warships thundered a salute to which the Vasa fired in reply. As she emerged from her drifting cloud of gun smoke with the water churned to foam beneath her bow, her flags flying, pennants waving, sails filling in the breeze, and the red and gold of her superstructure ablaze with colour, she presented a more majestic spectacle than Stockholmers had ever seen before.

答案及详解

1.C。文章开篇介绍一艘瑞典皇家大船1628年在处女航中沉船,直到19xx年才被人们发现。选C整个

第一段才把事件交待清楚。干扰项是F因为下段也没有再提船的名字,所以第一段要交待出主要“人物”。

2.D。第二段交待事情的缘由,1498~1632年之间,瑞典新教势力与波兰天主都势力之间的战争及王室之间联姻带来的积怨使战争时断时续。古斯塔夫斯(Gustavus) 二世接替王位后(1594~1632),瑞典雄踞上风,准备再一次出海远征,Vasa (瓦萨)战舰就是为出征建造的。

3.G。前两段介绍背景,第三段后由背景转入1628年8月10日战船启航前的雄姿。第四、五两段很紧凑地叙述了启航那一刻的热闹场面及它突然倾叙下沉的悲剧。

4.A。muzzles peeped wickedly 中,用 wickedly 这个词预示着这次航行的厄运。与上一句中 in a majestic spectacle 及 the red and gold of her superstructure 形成一种强烈的反差,干扰项为选项B。

5.E。最后一段写了沉船时的情形,描写船身向左倾斜,无论用什么方法也没有人能止住这种倾斜,船最终下沉没顶,从此躺在波罗的海海底300余年之久。

中心思想

50

本文描写了“瓦萨”号出航前的雄风英姿及刹那间船体倾斜,货物、装备及船上400人顷刻葬身海底的海难悲剧。Vasa (瓦萨)是瑞典17世纪,更确切地说,是1628年一艘皇家大帆船的名字。这艘耗时三年建成的帆船工艺精细、装饰雄伟华丽,是一艘规模空前的战舰,它象征着17世纪上半叶以瑞典为代表的北欧新教势力与中欧波兰天主教势力之间的多年战乱结束时,瑞典的军事力量已达到鼎盛时期。

练习九

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

The Revolutionary War, which began officially on April 19, 1775, dragged on for more than six bitter years. It was a conflict fought by the colonials for the righteous cause of securing freedom from intolerable British intervention in American affairs.

1) When legal restrictions were implemented by both the British and the colonists in 1775, nearly all American overseas commerce abruptly ceased. By mid1775, the colonies faced acute shortages in such military essentials as powder, flints, muskets, and knives. Even salt, shoes, woolens, and linens were in short supply. Late in 1775, Congress authorized limited trade with the West Indies, mainly to procure arms and ammunitions, and trade with other nonBritish areas was on an unrestricted basis by the spring of 1776.

2) Yet the colonies engaged in international trade despite the blockade. Formal treaties of commerce with France in 1778 and with Holland and Spain shortly thereafter stimulated the flows of overseas trade. Between 1778 and early 1782, American wartime commerce was at its zenith. During those years, France, Holland, Spain, and their possessions all actively traded with the colonies. Even so, the flow of goods in and out of the colonies remained well below prewar levels. Smuggling, privateering, and legal trade with overseas partners only partially offset the drastic trade reductions with Britain. Even the coastal trades were curtailed by a lack of vessels, by blockades, and by wartime freight rates. Britishoccupied ports, such as New York, generated some import activity but little or nothing in the way of exports.

3)In Philadelphia, for instance, nearly 4,000 women were employed to spin materials in their homes for the newly established textile plants. A sharp increase also occurred in the number of artisan workshops with a similar stimulus in the production of beer, whiskey, and other domestic alcoholic beverages. 4)Only the leastcommercialized rural areas remained little affected by the serpentine path of war and the sporadic flows of wartime commerce. Overall, the war imposed a distinct economic hardship on the new nation. Most goods rose in cost and were more difficult to obtain. High prices and severe commercial difficulties encouraged some nvestors to turn from commerce to manufacturing. Then, once the trade lanes reopened with the coming of peace, even those who profited from the war were stung by the tide of imports that swept it to American ports and sharply lowered prices. 5)

[A]The rechanneling of American resources into importcompeting industries was especially strong along the coast and in the major port cities.

[B]As exports and imports fell, import substitution abounded, and the colonial economy became considerably more selfsufficient.

[C] Although many Americans escaped the direct ordeals of war, few Americans were untouched by it — at least indirectly.

[D] Nevertheless, the British maintained a fairly effective naval blockade of American ports, especially during the first two years of the war.

[E] Internally, the most pressing problems were financial.

[F]More important was the fact that Congress had no independent income and had to rely for funds on catchascatchcan contributions from the states, made roughly in proportion to their individual populations.

[G]Maritime commerce was always an important factor in the war effort, and trade linkages were vital to the supply of arms and ammunitions.

答案及详解

51

1.G。海上商业活动历来是战事中的重要环节,而保持贸易联系对于武器弹药的供应至关重要。第一段介绍了美国独立战争及意义。第二段说明独立战争的深刻根源。后面提到海外贸易的中止;火药、手雷、枪支及刀具比基本军需品的严重短缺。可知第一句应是对这两项的总体概述。所以应选G。

2.D。然而,英国对美国港口实施了相当有效的海上封锁,尤其在独立战争的最初两年,由下文:尽管封锁严密,各殖民地仍然开展着对外贸易,可知选D。

3.B。由于贸易活动的减少,进口替代品的生产兴旺起来,殖民地的经济因而更加自给自足。下文:例如在费城,新建的纺织厂雇用了近4000名妇女在家里纺织布料。工匠作坊也大量涌现,刺激了啤酒、威士忌及其它国产酒类的酿造。此段所举的例子都是为说明殖民地的经济因而更加自给自足。

4.A。美国的生产资源流动与进口货对抗的行业,这一趋势在沿海地区及港口大城市尤为强劲,免受战争炮火硝烟与战时贸易封锁影响的只有那些远离商业活动的乡村地区。前面的“沿海地区及港口大城市”与后文“乡村地区”形成对比。

5.C。虽然许多美国人逃脱了战争的直接厄运,但没有谁躲过战争的间接冲击。前文讲“总的来说,战争带给这个新兴的国家的是显而易见的经济困苦。大多数商品价格上涨,且供应紧张。昂贵的价格与贸易的极度艰难促使一些投资者从商业转向制造业。之后,随着战争的结束,贸易通道重新开放,即使那些在战争中赚了一笔的人都为潮水般地涌入美国港口并引起行情骤降的进口商品而痛心疾首。”选项E为干扰项。

中心思想

英国独立战争对于北美殖民地反对英国暴政、追求独立自主的正义事业意义深远。但是,如同其他战争一样,所付出的代价是沉重的。除了人员伤亡造成的巨大损失,军需供应扰乱了殖民地的经济秩序。此外,英国的贸易封锁造成物资匮乏,国内财政赤字引发恶性通货膨胀。尽管生活困窘,殖民地人群情激昂,又战斗又生产,带动了美国制造业的兴旺。

练习十

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

On the ground floor of a fivestory building in Rome, Italy, a leadaproned man carefully places a 400yearold painting on a table. Then he steps back and flips the switch of a 50,000volt X-ray machine. Nearby, another painting is being wheeled into a special oven. Elsewhere the buzz of a power saw is heard from behind a closed door. Two workers are cutting the back off a 500yearold wood panel painting.

Such things happen every day at Rome’s Institute of Restoration. 1)

In terms of art treasures, Italy is one of the richest countries in the world. Yet until 1939, when Italy’s government founded the Institute, the country’s museums had to hire private restorers for cleaning and repair jobs. Says Doctor Urbani, “Most of the restorers did not have proper training. They often did more harm than good.”

No wonder they did harm. 2)

3)Sometimes they even changed the picture.

Any number of things can damage a work of art. Smog eats away at stone and metal. Insects chew wood. Moisture causes wood and canvas to swell, shrink and finally rot. For one art show, a painting was flown from England to Rome. During the flight, the canvas shrank so much that the paint lost its grip and began peeling. When the box was opened in Rome, there was a halfbare painting——and a pile of tiny colored flakes.

Doctor Urbani remembers,“The painting was rushed to us. It looked hopeless. But we never give up on a case.” After months of slow, careful work, every piece of paint had been puzzled back together and glued on a new canvas. The job was so well done that no damage could be seen.

When a painting arrives at the art hospital, it goes to the laboratory, where scientific work is done. Infrared and ultraviolet photographs are taken. 4) Newer coats of paint stand out as dark spots against older coats of paint. If there seems to be a different picture beneath the one showing on the surface, the painting is finally Xrayed.

Paintings on wood are then carried into a boxcarsized room. 5) For 24 hours, a deadly gas seeps into all the cracks in the wood to kill hidden bugs and their eggs. Paintings on 52

torn canvas go to a room where new cloth backings are glued and ironed on. Finally the paintings are ready to be given new life by one of the restorers.

[A]Instead of just touching up damaged spots, most early restorers painted over them with a heavy hand.

[B]Using these photographs and an analysis of the paint, it began removing dirt and old, yellowed varnish with cotton dipped in a special liquid.

[C]Headed by Doctor Giovanui Urbani, the men and women here work at keeping works of art in good health.

[D]These photographs make it possible to see through the thin top coats of paint to find out if the painting has been touched up or painted over in the past.

[E]They often cleaned paintings with strong black soap, or scrubbed them with raw onions and green apples.

[F]The door is sealed shut.

[G]After cleaning, they began the job of filling in the spots where paint was missing. 答案及详解

1.C。开篇第一段,向人们展示了两幅场景,那究竟是要做什么呢?其实从后面的文章不难理解,这说的是一家“艺术品医院”,所以填入此处的句子应点明这个主题。

2.E。文章第四段第一句说,难怪乎他们只会损坏文物,接下来的描述就证明了这一点,即用“肥皂、生洋葱、青苹果去擦拭作品”。

3.A。文章第五段最后一句说“有时他们甚至改变了整幅作品”,可见破坏的更为严重,这已不仅仅是“对损坏的地方修正改正,而是干脆大笔一挥,在上面重画一气”。

这里要注意选项E与选项A比较容易位置混淆,但是只要分清它们各自表述的程度的轻重,也就可以把握了。

4.D。这句话的意思是“这些红外线和紫外线照片可以使人们透过上面薄薄一层油彩看到下面是否以前修补过或重新绘过”可见这是一种处理修复受损艺术品的方法,而全文第八段说的都是这个。

5.F。“屋门关得严严实实”咋一看,这句话似乎没什么用,可是,从下一句我们看到“a deadly gas”(一种致命的气体),可见这句话也是必不可少了。

B。这句话虽然也提到照片,但主要就是用来起迷惑作用的,因为它的意思与全文都不相符。

G。这句话里也提到处理(clean)一些艺术品上的 spot, 但显然这只是一个迷惑选项,与全文的内容不能融合、呼应,故不选填。

中心思想

本文向大家介绍了一家特殊的医院——艺术品医院,描述了如何对一些受损艺术品进行处理修复的方法和过程,也让人们了解了它存在的价值与重要性。

练习十一

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

A new volcano was being born.

The volcano in the cornfield grew until it was bigger than the cornfield! 1) People

called the volcano the Little Monster because it grew so fast. Scientists came from all over the world to study it and watch it grow. It is not often that people get a chance to watch a volcano from the very beginning.

Most of the volcanoes have been here for a very long time. Some have been here so long that now they are cold. They are called dead volcanoes. They have stopped throwing out fire and melted rock and smoke. It is safe to walk on them. Farms are plowed on the quiet slopes, and people have built houses there.

Some volcanoes have stopped throwing out hot rock, but they still smoke a little now and then. They are “sleeping”volcanoes. Sometime they may “wake up”.

2)

Today volcanoes are not so dangerous for people as they were a long time ago. Now we know more about why volcanoes do what they do, and we can usually tell when they are going to do it . 3)

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People used to think dragons under the earth caused volcanoes. They said the smoke that puffed above the ground was the dragon’s breath. They said the earthquakes were caused by the dragon’s moving around down in the earth. Now we know that this is not true.

Another thing we know about volcanoes is that they don’t happen just anywhere. 4) Scientists know where these places are, and maps have been made to let everybody know.

There are different kinds of volcanoes. Some explode so violently that the rock goes high into the air and falls miles away. A volcano may shoot out ashes so high that they float all the way around the world. They have made the sunsets green and the snow purple.

5)

One very tall volcano stays fiery red at the top all the time. It is lucky that the volcano is near the ocean. Sailors can use it for a lighthouse.

[A]Other volcanoes are more gentle. The hot lava rises in their cones and overflows, rolling slowly down the mountainside, where it becomes cool and hard.

[B] Black smoke puffed out. Hot ashes fell like black snowflakes. Hot rock and fire and lava shot out.

[C]Smoke puffed up, and rock started popping up out of a crack that opened in the ground.

[D]A volcano named Vesuvius slept for a thousand years. But it woke up and threw out so much hot melted rock that it buried the buildings of two cities.

[E]Before a sleeping volcano wakes up, it usually makes a noise like faraway thunder, and the ground shakes in small earthquakes. People are warned and have time to get away safely.

[F]A volcano starts from a hole in the ground from which hot rock and smoke and steam come out. Far, far under the ground it is so hot that rock melts. This hot melted rock, or lava, is sometimes pushed out of the earth through a hole or a crack in the ground. The steam inside the earth pushes the rock out.

[G]There are certain places under the earth where the rock is broken in a way that lets the steam and hot rock escape to the outside more easily.

答案及详解

1.B。填写这几句话时,应该从上下文的语境和语意中来理解,前一句说火山开始萌发了。后一句说人们把火山称为小恶魔因为是它萌发的十分迅速,可见中间的三句话应该描述的是火山萌发的过程,而需要填写的这三句话,简明、扼要、显得很有力量,同时也很形象地说明了问题。

2.D。填写这段话时,应结合前文来看。文章的第四段说明了有一种火山的类型,就是“休眠火山”,那么下一段,理所当然可以举个例子来说明。

3.E。填写这几句话时,也应该结合上文来理解。在本段的前几句提到,现在的火山已不再让人类感到那么恐惧,因为人类已经可以预知它的发生了。紧接下来,就从声音、地面晃动等情况描述了火山苏醒时的情景注意本句话比较容易和选项D填写的位置弄混淆。

4.G。填写这句话时可以看到,前一句说的是我们已经知道火山不会在所有的地方爆发,那究竟哪些地方不会发生火山呢,这句话就作出了描述,讲明了原因。

5.A。填写这段话时,应结合上文,前一段就说明了有很多种类型的火山,并列举了一种爆发时很猛烈的火山,那么与之对应,也就有爆发时相对温柔的火山。

F。这段话也是描述了火山萌发过程,很容易将它填在①处,但它不合适的原因是,过于冗长,不适合当时的语言环境,不能很好的表达出人们要将火山称之为小恶魔时的恐惧的心情。

C。这句话描述的是烟喷出,岩石迸出,火山即将爆发时的场景,显然没有其它合适的地方填这句话,另外,可能有人会将它与选项G混淆,应注意区分两者的意思。

中心思想

本文从火山喷发的过程。火山的种类、以及目前人类对火山的了解等诸多方面,较为详尽地向我们展示了火山这一奇妙的自然景观。

练习十二

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

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If you flew in an airplane over the continent of Antarctica, you would look down on a

great sheet of snow and ice. The snow and ice slopes gently from a central plateau around the South Pole toward the sea. Along the coasts of Antarctica, sharp mountains rise up from the snow. Huge masses of ice called glaciers slide between the mountain ridges toward the sea. At the sea’s edge, tremendous icebergs break off the glacier and float away. They are often enormous in size.

1) Most of the land beneath the snow is a great land mass. A chain of smaller islands is nearby. The islands and the land mass are joined into one continent by a thick blanket of ice. Antarctica has ninetenths of all the world’s ice. If all this ice melted, the level of the world’s oceans would rise 250 feet. Most cities along the coast would be drowned. In New York Harbor, water would almost cover the Statue of Liberty’s head. But the ice in

Antarctica does not melt. The temperature stays well below freezing the year round in most places. Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth. 2)

Antarctica does not have much plant life. Only a few simple plants, such as mosses,

lichens, and algae, can grow there. 3) But along the coasts of the continent there are many birds, fish, and animals.

Thousands of whales and millions of seals swim in Antarctic seas. Six kinds of seals are found. The fur seal, the smallest, has long been hunted for its silky fur. The toughskinned elephant seal is the largest. It can weigh as much as four tons.

4)

A number of birds live in Antarctica, and fly over the water and ice. 5) Each year it migrates between the northernmost islands of the Arctic (the region around the North Pole) and the shores of Antarctica —— a distance of about 11,000 miles.

[A]The temperature stays well below freezing the year round in most places. Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth. The temperature there has been known to drop to more than 100 degrees below zero.

[B]The Arctic tern has been called the longdistance champion of the world.

[C]Most of the world’s whaling takes place in Antarctic waters. The blue whale is the largest animal that has ever lived. It may weigh as much as 150 tons and be 95 feet long. Smaller whales include the bottlenose, the humpback, the sperm, and the finback.

[D]They cannot fly, but they have flipperlike wings, which make them strong swimmers. [E]Beneath the snow and ice of Antarctica lies land. Snow piles deeper and deeper on top of the land and hardens into ice. In some places, it is three miles deep.

[F]The climate is so harsh, and food so scarce, that people cannot settle in Antarctica. [G]When the ice sheets pushed down from the north reaching as far south as the river, it does not encounter any mountains and hard rocks.

答案及详解

1.E。填写这段话时,应同时根据上下文来理解,在文章第一段当时曾经出现过“the snow and ice”这个词,当然这就应该是一个很好的启发。第一段中说的是这些雪和冰从南极点向海里运动的过程,那么进入第二段时,我们很自然就会想,当这些雪和冰移到海里之后,他们下面又是什么,第二段的空白接下去的句子就提到了这些(beneath the snow ...),而这与所要填写的选项正是相呼应的。

2.A。填写这几句话时,主要应该从语意和语境上来理解。文章第三段的前部分,描述了南极洲存在着大量的冰,并且那些冰终年不化,于是我们就能自然而然的想到,那儿的温度也是非常之低的了。

3.F。填写这句话时,也应同时结合上下文来看。前一句说到,南极洲仅有少数的植物生命存在,后一句说的是,在大洲的海岸沿线却存在许多鸟、鱼和动物。这里要引起注意的就是那个转折词“But ...”,说明前一句就应该是说有些动物类生命是不适合在那里生存的,即人。

4.C。填写这段话时,应该看到它的前一段,即本文的第五段,说有成千上万的鲸以及几百万之多的海豹在南极游嬉。而接下来的文字,却仅仅只是描述了海豹的种类及特征,那么很明显,剩下的文字,就应该比较具体的来描述鲸了。

5.B。理解这句话并不难,主要在其中的一个单词“Arctic tern”,这是“北极燕鸥”,了解了它的意思,这句话也就看懂了。北极燕鸥在世界上被称为长距离飞行的冠军。

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D。这句话的意思是他们不能飞。但是有鳍状的翅膀,使他们更善于游泳,这显然是南极洲另外一种动物——企鹅的特征,故不能选,并且它与燕鸥飞行11,000 英里之间迁徙的后文相矛盾。

G。这句话说的是那些冰块从北向南移动,不再会遇到山脉和岩石,这显然已经超出了文章的范围,因为这样的碎冰几乎已经走出了南极洲,成为人类可利用之水。并且它与在整个文章内容上不能衔接,故不能填。

中心思想

本文主要介绍了南极洲的自然风光,通过描述巨大的冰川、寒冷的天气,以及稀有的动植物,向我们较为全面地展示了南极洲的与众不同。

练习十三

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

The attitude that intolerance is an evil is especially strong in Britain, where tolerance has been elevated into the Great National Virtue. 1) Listen to any public debate or radio phonein about immigration and you will hear people reiterating this view. Only the British, they say, would have allowed so many black and brown people into their country, would have treated them so well, given them jobs, put them on the National Health Service, and so on. 2) Their conclusion, of course, gives the game away, for the tolerance they are talking about does not in fact exist but is invented as a justification for present intolerance. 3) Tolerance, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is “the disposition to be patient with or indulgent to the opinions and practices of others” and “freedom from bigotry or undue severity in judging the conduct of others”. Can we honestly claim to be more lavishly bestowed with these attributes than people of other nations? I do not think so.

4) But this does not mean they are particularly indulgent to other people’s behaviour. Do anything out of the ordinary — give a party, for example — and your neighbours will soon begin to bare their teeth. Try starting a business or opening a restaurant in a predominantly residential area, and all hell breaks loose.

The British tend to be very critical of continental drivers, whom they accuse of

uncontrolled aggressiveness. But while British drivers may be rather more reliable about sticking to the rules of the road, they are dangerously intolerant of other drivers who, in their view, are doing things they shouldn’t be doing. 5) In fact, I am much more frightened of British drivers than I am of French or Italian ones, for you can at least be reasonably confident with the latter that, unlike the British, they are not prepared to die — and take you with them — in order to prove a point.

[A]I myself may sometimes be incompetent or a bit too pushy as a driver but I have

often been a victim of verbal abuse and terrifying revenge manoeurres quite out of proportion to any offence that I may have committed.

[B]We believe ourselves to be unique among nations in our generosity of spirit and our readiness to put up with all kinds of people.

[C]What is called tolerance may often be just unassertiveness or timidity, for it is true that most English people do not relish public rows or confrontations and will go to some lengths to avoid them.

[D]I will exclude from my reproof the animal sentimentalists and those who consistently reject cruelty in any form.

[E]It is a thoroughly hypocritical posture which makes one wonder whether British claims to being especially tolerant have any validity at all.

[F]British attitudes to bad habits like smoking and drinking also tend to be intolerant and are getting more so.

[G]And this, they conclude, is why no more of them should be allowed in.

答案及详解

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1.B。这句话的意思是说“我们认为我们宽宏大量的态度和愿意容忍各种人的行为的想法在各国之中是独一无二的”,可见,这句话是用来承接第一句的,进一步说明宽容已上升为英国的一种伟大的国家美德。

2.G。文章的第二段开头就指出,那个结论,使英国人的宽容之说露出了马脚(give the game away),那么当然在那之前,应该说明他们的结论到底是什么。

3.E。这句话的意思是“这是一种彻头彻尾的虚伪姿态,这种姿态使人们怀疑,英国人所声称的特别能容忍的说法是否能站得住”这也是用来承接前一句的,因为前面已经说明“他们所说的宽容并不是实际存在,而是编造出来为观念的偏狭辩护的”。

4.C。这句话的意思是“究竟什么是宽容有时也是不确定的,因为事实上大部分英国人并不愿意在公众中争吵和对抗,并且会尽量避免它们”。这里应注意下一句中的转折词“But ...”,可见,它是将这句话进行了否定,并例举了几个例子。“这并不意味着他们能够容忍人们的行为”这样就正好呼应上了。

5.A。这句话的意思是“(作为一个司机),有时我自己可能不太够格或者有点莽撞,但我经常遭到辱骂和可怕的报复,这对我可能犯过的过失而言,未免太过分了”,从文章的最后一段我们看出,全段都在讲述英国人对司机的严厉与偏狭,而这里插入这样一个例子,正好说明了问题。

F。这句话是说英国人对那些嗜烟酗酒的人的态度将更不能容忍,这句话是对的,可是在全文中没有涉及,故不能选填。

D。这句话的意思是“我不谴责那些同情动物者和那些一直反对任何形式的对动物的残酷行为的人”,这也从一个侧面反映了英国人对动物的冷淡,但同样没有在全文中提及,故不能选填。

中心思想

本文论的是英国人的“宽容”,可是它从多个角度,多个方面,论证了英国人宽容的虚伪性,揭露了他们宽容的本质。

练习十四

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

We are seeing a series of paradoxes at the turn of the millennium. On the one hand,

globalisation means that national frontiers are becoming increasingly meaningless, but on the other, we are being swept by a wave of parochialism, with countries clinging to the notion of sovereignty.1)But there are so many factors in the world that make this position

increasingly meaningless.Governments no longer have complete control over their economic and monetary policies, and many multinationals now have greater profits than individual

countriesGDP.

The end of the cold war has brought its own dangers and we need to find a new balance of power in the world.It has also spawned many conflicts. Governments must be prepared to

surrender some authority to global and regional institutions or we risk world disorder. It is tragic that, just when we need a strong international organisation, the United Nations is starved of funds and often sidelined by its own member states. What happened in East Timor was unforgivable because it was foreseeable. Angola has been another sad instance of

international vacillation. 2)

I do think world war is less likely for the present, although I worry about the

proliferation of nuclear weapons at one end and lethal small arms at the other. 3)

Another worry stems from the huge economic imbalances in a world where the richest 20 per cent have 86 per cent of global GDP, and the 20 poorest countries only one per cent.

Humanitarian aid is no more than a palliative. 4)The international implications of, for example, the collapse of Africa are unthinkable. There must be a new concept of security based not just on military and defence matters but on economic and social concerns too. 5) The global pendulum has swung too far towards a total dependence on market forces, but

finding some point of balance in the middle is extremely difficult. I am by nature optimistic, but in my gloomier moments I sometimes think the only solution will be an invasion from outer space—then at last everyone would unite! .

[A]As long as more than a million people continue to live in direst poverty we can never hope to achieve national or international stability.

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[B]We need an international body with teeth—morally and in action. Perhaps the UN should be given its own force.

[C] Many members of the UN have only become nation states in the last few decades, so I can understand why they are so keen to hang on to their independence.

[D]It is terrifying the way that power is increasingly disseminated to small,

completely ruthless groups like terrorists, drug traffickers and local warlords. The great imponderable is that some nut could create a nuclear explosion. Or that some essentially

local conflict could escalate out of control. You cannot isolate instability:it gets exported. [E]The mainly purpose of founding the United Nations is preventing aggressions and wars. It is hard to attribute the success to the United Nations although no new world war broke out since its establishment. The United Nations is always helpless of preventing the regional wars

[F]The notion of sovereignty is more and more strong while the influence of the United Nations is weaker and weaker.

[G]Western countries must increase their development aid programmes, not out of charity but for reasons of self-interest.

答案及详解

1.C。此空白处前面阐述了全球化和地方主义的冲击的矛盾,而后面紧跟着说各国政府无力完全控制其经济政策,这就表明,作者是反对地方保护主义的。但是后面句首用了“but”作转折词,可见,作者并没有旗帜鲜明的提出反对意见,所以用一个较为缓和的句式会比较适合。因此选C。

2.B。第二段,承接上文,指出在冷战结束的情况下,联合国等国际组织应该发挥更大的作用,但是下文话锋一转,用东帝汉和安哥拉两个例子来表现联合国在国际行动中的软弱无力,再结合上面所提到的“我们需要一个强大的国际组织”,顺其自然的就得出了“希望联合国强劲有力”的结论,选项B正好符合了这一意境。

3.D。作者在这一段的前半部分极力渲染了武器扩散的恐怖情形,而从下一段的字里行间我们可以了解到,作者想表达的意思其实就是:诸如战争、毒品、贫穷等不稳定的因素是会扩散和蔓延的,并不是与世隔绝的在全球化的浪潮下,谁也无法“独善其身”。选项项D在上下文衔接上很自然贴切,是正确选项。

4.G。此处空白是段落中的句子,从上句可知,本段主要讨论在世界经济财富占有悬殊的背景下,人道主义援助的目的和作用,而下句的例子则说明“非洲一旦崩溃,对国际社会的影响之大是无法想象的”。从这些我们可以推断出,西方国家所谓的“援助”,并非出于“人道”的崇高目的,而是为了维护自己的财富和利益,弄清上下文的逻辑推理关系,就很容易选出正确选项G了。

5.A。三、四、五段在逻辑上是前后呼应的,作者采用“花开两朵、各表一支”的写作手法,一方面指出武器,毒品是无法隔绝的,另一方面呼吁贫穷也是会蔓延的。战争和贫困就好比罪恶的双生子,不离不弃、如影随行,相应的,第五段和第三段的结尾也应该相互呼应,因此选A是正确的。

中心思想

本文通过阐述近年来联合国在国际事务中差强人意的表现,指出现今世界不安定的因素,即是武器以及贫穷的扩散,而要从根本上解决世界上形色色的问题,一个强有力的国际组织是必要的,如果仅仅依靠市场的力量或单个政府的地方保护主义甚至是人道主义的援助是远远不够的。世界性的问题需要站在世界的角度来解决。

练习十五

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

During the early stages of the Industrial Revolution,1)But when factory production got into full swing and new products,e.g.processed foods,came onto the market,national advertising campaigns and brand naming of products became necessary.Before large-scale factory production,the typical manufacturing unit had been small and adaptable and the task of distributing and selling goods had largely been undertaken by wholesalers.The small nonspecialised factory which did not rely on massive investment in machinery had been flexible enough to adapt its production according to changes in public demands.

2)From the beginning of the nineteenth century until the 1870s,production had steadily expanded and there had been a corresponding growth in retail outlets.But the depression

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brought on a crisis of overproduction and underconsumption—manufactured goods piled up unsold and prices and profits fell.Towards the end of the century many of the small industrial firms realized that they would be in a better position to weather economic

depressions and slumps if they combined with other small businesses and widened the range of goods they produced so that all their eggs were not in one basket.They also realised that they would have to take steps to ensure that once their goods had been produced there was a market for them.This period ushered in the first phase of what economists now call

‘monopoly capitalism’,which,roughly speaking,refers to the control of the market by a small number of giant,conglomerate enterprises.Whereas previously competitive trading had been conducted by small rival firms,after the depression the larger manufacturing units and combines relied more and more on mass advertising to promote their new range of products.

A good example of the changes that occurred in manufacture and distribution at the turn of the century can be found in the soap trade.From about the 1850s the market had been flooded with anonymous bars of soap,produced by hundreds of small manufacturers and distributed by wholesalers and doortodoor sellers.3)For instance, the future Lard Leverhulme decided to brand his soap by selling it in distinctive packages in order to facilitate recognition and encourage customer loyalty.

Lard Leverhulme was one of the first industrialism to realise that advertisements should contain logical and considered arguments as well as eyecatching and witty slogans.4)For example,one contemporary Pears soap ad went into great detail about how the product could enhance marital bliss by cutting down the time the wife had to spend with her arms in a bowl of frothy suds.And an ad for Cadbury’s cocoa not only proclaimed its purity but also

detailed other benefits:‘for the infant it is a delight and a support;for the young girl, a source of healthy vigour;for the young miss in her teens a valuable aid to

development?’and so on.As the writer E.S.Turner rightly points out,the advertising of this period had reached the‘stage of persuasion as distinct from proclamation or

iteration’.5)

[A]The leading companies develop more aggressive selling methods such as keeping contact with their customers.

[B]Indeed advertise or bust seemed to be the rule of the day as bigger and more

expensive campaigns were mounted and smaller firms who did not, or could not, advertise, were squeezed or bought out by the larger companies.

[C] But the economic depression which lasted from 1873 to 1894 marked a turning point between the old method of industrial organization and distribution and the new.

[D]advertising was a relatively straightforward means of announcement and communication and was used mainly to promote novelties and fringe products.

[E]Competition grew steadily throughout the latter half of the century and eventually the leading companies embarked on more aggressive selling methods in order to take customers away from their rivals.

[F]Contemporary products also display details of the main ingredients.

[G]Many advertisers followed his lead and started to include ‘reasonwhy’copy in their ads.

答案及详解

1.D。“工业革命初期的广告主要用于新奇和装饰性的产品”与后句中的national compaigns and brand-naming of products became necessary对照,我们可知此时的广告应用还不是很普及,所以选D。

2.C。承上启下句,广告开始发出重要演变(“a turning point”。)

3.E。从后面一家公司通过采取独特的包装方法销售肥皂,而顾客在选择时能轻易辨别出来的实例中可知大公司开始了更强有力的推销手段,所以选E

4.G。第四段论述了大公司如何通过广告以及广告方式提高竞争力,上一句指出Lard leverhulme意识到广告标语“吸引眼球”与富有情趣的重要性。下一句通过肥皂和可乐的广告词,表明现代的广告越来越重视对产品作用的描述。

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5.B。总结全文,做广告已成为现代商业社会的法则,许多负担不起大规模或昂贵广告的公司只有被并购或者逐渐萎缩。

中心思想

本文论述了广告的演变历史,工业革命初期,广告主要用于新奇或装饰性产品,接着大公司开始采取越来越强有力的推销手段。现代社会,广告更是成功决定商家命运的重要竞争力之一。

练习十六

Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 1-5, choose the most suitable one from the list A—G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps.

If the 20th century has been the American century, then there are plenty of people saying watch this space: the twenty-first century will be different. The distinguishing

characteristic of the post-cold-war world is that there is only one superpower. 1)

The military muscle-flexing we have seen from China over the last few years could be an indication of how things are likely to go, although it has to be said that to many people’s surprise the Chinese have been quite constructive over East Timor. But I think we must assume that the main struggle in the 21st century will be with China, already the world’s largest nation. Happily, the Chinese seem to have no global pretensions One can’t see them

interfering in some far-distant conflict, and in both military and economic terms they are still light years behind America.

2)

Europe is already the largest trading block in the world, 3) It’s worth remembering that while Europe spends 60 per cent of what the USA does in defence, it has only 10 per cent of the Americans’ firepower.

In the Middle East, in a relatively short space of time, bubbling conflicts have moved closer to resolution. The Arab-Israeli dispute has been reduced to its core essentials, while agreement between Syria and Israel remains the strategic prize for peace. Iran is undergoing a slow transformation but the outstanding political issue here is Iraq and Saddam Hussein’s extraordinary survival. The international community remains bitterly divided about what to do. Africa, I fear, is going to remain a disaster area ,simply because it does not figure on people’s mental maps. Currently there is war raging in six countries around the Congo , yet there’s very little sense the international community will do anything about it. There is, though, some good news. If you look back a year ago to Algeria, it was drowning in its own blood. Now it seems to be back on the right track.

4) For many years the non-proliferation regime actually worked surprisingly well, but India and Pakistan going nuclear has been a great blow to the status quo. And now there are new biological and chemical weapons—undreamed-of horrors—not to mention the whole legacy of the cold war which hasn’t been cleaned up, such as Russian nuclear waste in the Arctic. The fundamental problem is that there are countries that are simply being left behind by the onward march of globalisation. Global issues such as the environment and drugs—and perhaps even human rights — are going to come much more to the fore. 5)

[A]It is called to be an economic giant, especially when the euro has been issued. [B]but while the euro could help it become an economic giant, and even challenge the dollar, it looks likely to remain a political and military pygmy.

[C]And there’s only one candidate on the horizon to challenge the US — China. [D]As the world shrinks, so we shall have an increasing sense of the need for an international humanitarian order. Globalisation may be a good thing, but it has a dark underbelly.

[E]Russia is a powerful country which owns military superiority

[F]We must also assume the continued decline of Russia. It shows how far things have gone (and how quickly) when what was once the second most powerful country in the world is being battered by Islamic rebels from the Caucasus. Now we have a Russian state which simply cannot cope.

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[G]I do think arms control will be a big item on the agenda in future.

答案及详解

1. C。文章开头就提出“20世纪是美国的世纪,冷战后只有一个超级大国”,而从下文第二段的开始我们可以看到,作者对中国在军事外交等方面显示出的力量表示赞扬,由此可以推断出,此处需要一个由“美国的世纪”平滑过渡到对中国的实力的重视上去,所以选项C“而且只有一个国家有可能会挑战美国,那就是中国”。正好满足了这个过渡条件。

2. F。 空处根据下文衔接可以推断出是在评价世界其他各国的经济军事实力,而第四段主要讨论了欧盟的,军事方面的弱势,所以此处适宜,举一个军事实力强大而经济发展不尽如人意的国家,选项F对俄罗斯的概括分析正好符合上下文的要求为正确答案。

3. B。 空处,从上下文推断是关于欧洲的经济的评价,这一段最后一句的“only”表明作者并不看好欧洲的经济发展,从选项中可以看到有两项是关于欧洲经济的一个认为。自从欧元发行后,欧洲经济巨人的地位进一步巩固了而另一个则用“but”一转,指出、虽然欧元有可能使之成为经济巨人,但是仍然是政治和军事的侏儒。与下文欧美防工开支的对比,丝丝入扣,合情合理。

4. G。 在讨论了中东和非洲的战患后,作者很自然转入了军备问题,提出核武器,生化武器,以及冷战遗留问题等等,此处空白需要一个提纲挈领的句子,而选项G正符合了这一要求。

5. D。 作者在最后总结全文,提出根本问题是全球化过快引致的,选项D中正好也提到了全球化,再进一步分析上下文的褒贬口气,不难确定这个就是符合要求的正确选项。

中心思想

本文主要讨论了在二十一世纪,什么才是影响人类社会发展的主要因素,在分别否定了美国一擎撑天,中国不愿称霸,俄罗斯与欧洲发展不平衡以及中东非洲的战祸连连后,作者总结认为,在大力控制军备问题的同时,一定要着重关注全球化的进程问题,全球化是一把悬在人类头上的达摩克利斯之剑。

第三部分 20xx年英语考试大纲词汇新增部分

A abdomen n. 腹, 腹部 abound vi. 多, 大量存在, 富于, 充满 acclaim n. 喝彩, 欢呼 v. 欢呼, 称赞 accord n. 一致, 符合, 调和, 协定 vt. 一致, 给与 vi. 符合 accountant n. 会计(员), 会计师 addict vt. 使沉溺, 使上瘾 n. 入迷的人, 有瘾的人 adore v. 崇拜, 爱慕, (口语)喜爱 advent n. (尤指不寻常的人或事)出现, 到来 adverse adj. 不利的, 敌对的, 相反的 affluent adj. 丰富的, 富裕的 air-conditioning n. 空调,空调系统空调机 airport n. <主美>小型民用机场, 私人飞机降落场 aisle n. 走廊, 过道 album n. 集邮本, 照相簿, 签名纪念册 amiable adj. 亲切的, 和蔼可亲的 amid prep.在...中 anecdote n. 轶事, 奇闻 anguish n. 痛苦, 苦恼 vt. 使极苦闷, 使极痛苦 vi. 感到痛苦 antique n. 古物, 古董 adj. 古时的, 过时的 appal v. 惊骇 approximate adj. 近似的, 大约的 v. 近似, 接近, 接近, 约计 arrogant adj. 傲慢的, 自大的 artery n. 动脉, 要道 aspire vi. 热望, 立志 assassinate vt. 暗杀, 行刺

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asset n. 资产, 有用的东西

auction n. 拍卖 vt. 拍卖

audio adj. 音频的, 声频的, 声音的

audit n. 审计, 稽核, 查帐 vt. 稽核, 旁听 vi. 查账

auditorium n. 听众席, 观众席, <美>会堂, 礼堂

authentic adj. 可信的

autonomy n. 自治

awe n. 敬畏 vt. 敬畏

B

bait n. 饵, 诱惑物 vt. 以饵引诱(动物), 把饵装上, 欺负, 折磨 vi. 中途休息

balcony n. 阳台, 包厢, (戏院)楼厅

barren adj. 不生育的, 不孕的, 贫瘠的, 没有结果的, 无益的, 单调的, 无聊的, 空洞的 n. 荒地 beginning n. 开始

belly n. 腹部, 胃 vi. 涨满

benign adj. (病)良性的, (气候)良好的, 仁慈的, 和蔼的

benign adj. (病)良性的, (气候)良好的, 仁慈的, 和蔼的

bibliography n. (有关一个题目或一个人的)书目, 参考书目

bin n. 箱柜 二进制文件的扩展名

bizarre adj. 奇异的(指态度,容貌,款式等)

blackmail n. 勒索, 勒索所得之款 vt. 勒索

blouse n. 宽松的上衣, 似衬衫的上衣

blueprint n. 蓝图, 设计图, 计划 vt. 制成蓝图, 计划

blur v. 涂污, 污损(名誉等), 把(界线,视线等)弄得模糊不清, 弄污 n. 污点

boost v. 推进

bowel n. 肠 adj. 内部, 同情心

breach n. 违背, 破坏, 破裂, 裂口 vt. 打破, 突破

briefcase n. (扁平的, 柔韧的, 装文件, 书报的)公文包

browse v. n. 浏览, 吃草, 放牧

bruise n. 瘀伤, 擦伤 v. 打伤, 撞伤

bully n. 欺凌弱小者 vt. 威吓, 威逼

bureaucracy n. 官僚, 官僚作风, 官僚机构

burglar n. 夜贼

C

cab一种压缩文件格式 n. 出租马车, 出租汽车, 计程车, (机车, 卡车, 起重机的)司机室, 驾驶室 vi. 乘出租马车

calcium n. 钙(元素符号Ca)

calorie n. 卡路里

cape n. 海角, 岬

carbohydrate n. 碳水化合物, 醣类

cardinal n. 枢机主教, 红衣主教 adj. 主要的, 最重要的

caress n. 爱抚, 接吻 vt. 抚爱

catastrophe n. 大灾难, 大祸

cater vi. 备办食物, 满足(需要), 投合

celebrity n. 名声, 名人

cemetery n. 墓地, 公墓

champagne n. 香槟酒, 香槟色

chancellor n. 长官, 大臣

chap n. <俗>伙伴, 家伙, 小伙子, 颚, 颊 v. (使)皲裂

Christ n. 救世主(特指耶稣基督)

clergy n. (集合称)圣职者, 牧师, 僧侣, 神职人员

click v. 发出滴答声 n. 滴答声

closet n. 壁橱, 储藏室, 厕所 adj. 关起门来的 vt. 关入私室密谈

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coalition n. 合并, 接合, 联合

cocaine n. 古柯碱,可卡因

cohesive adj. 粘着的

composure n. 镇静, 沉着

concede vt. 勉强, 承认, 退让 vi. 让步

consecutive adj. 连续的, 联贯的

console vt. 安慰, 藉慰 n. 控制台

conspiracy n. 共谋, 阴谋

constrain vt. 强迫, 抑制, 拘束

construction n. 建筑, 建筑物, 解释, 造句

contaminate v. 污染

contemplate v. 凝视, 沉思, 预期, 企图

contradiction n. 反驳, 矛盾

controversy n. 论争, 辩论, 论战

cop n. 警官, 巡警, 管纱 vt. 抓住

copyright n. 版权, 著作权

correlate vt. 使相互关联 vi. 和...相关

costume n. 装束, 服装

cosy adj. 舒适的, 安逸的

coupon n. 息票, 商家的优待券

courtyard n. 庭院, 院子

credential n. 外交使节所递的国书, 信任壮

curb n. 路边

cyberspace n. 电脑空间

D

damn v. database n. 数据库, 资料库

daytime n. 白天, 日间

dean n. (大学)院长, 主持牧师, (基督教)教长

deduct vt. 扣除, 演绎

delegate n. 代表 vt. 委派...为代表

delete vt. 删除

denounce vt. 公开指责, 公然抨击, 谴责

dental adj. 牙齿的

dentist n. 牙科医生

dilute v. 冲淡, 变淡, 变弱, 稀释 adj. 淡的, 弱的, 稀释的

discourse n. 演讲, 论述, 论文, 讲道, 谈话, 谈论 vi. 谈论, 演说 discreet adj. 小心的, 慎重的, 有思虑的, 贤明的

discrepancy n. 相差, 差异, 矛盾

disposition n. 部署

disrupt v. 使中断, 使分裂, 使瓦解, 使陷于混乱, 破坏

dissipate v. 驱散, (使)(云、雾、疑虑等)消散, 浪费(金钱或时间) distill vt. 蒸馏, 提取 vi. 滴下

divert v. 转移, 转向, 使高兴

dividend n. 被除数, 股息, 红利, 额外津贴, 奖金, 年息

divine adj. 神的, 神圣的, 非凡的, 超人的, 非常可爱的 n. 牧师 dwarf n. 矮子, 侏儒 v. (使)变矮小

E

ebb n. 退, 弱, 退潮, 衰落 vi. 潮退, 衰退

eccentric adj. 古怪 n. 行为古怪的人

edible adj. 可食用的

ego n. 自我, 利已主义, 自负

elapse vi. (时间)过去, 消逝 v. 流逝

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elderly adj. 过了中年的, 稍老的

eligible adj. 符合条件的, 合格的

eminent adj. 显赫的, 杰出的, 有名的, 优良的

endow v. 捐赠, 赋予

entail vt. 使必需, 使蒙受, 使承担, 遗传给 n. 限定继承权

entity n. 实体

envisage v. 正视

escalate vi. 逐步升高, 逐步增强 vt. 使逐步上升

escort n. 护卫(队), 护送, 陪同(人员), 护卫队 v. 护卫, 护送, 陪同

esteem vt. 把...看作, 尊敬, 尊重, 认为 n. 尊敬, 尊重

ethnic adj. 人种的, 种族的, 异教徒的

evade v. 规避, 逃避, 躲避

excel v. 优秀, 胜过他人

excerpt n. vt. 摘录, 引用

exile n. 放逐, 充军, 流放, 流犯, 被放逐者 vt. 放逐, 流放, 使背井离乡

exotic adj. 异国情调的, 外来的, 奇异的

exquisite adj. 优美的, 高雅的, 精致的, 剧烈的, 异常的, 细腻的, 敏锐的

F

fabulous adj. 寓言中的, 寓言般的, 神话般的, 传统上的, 惊人的, 难以置信的

fairy n. 仙女, 精灵, <美俚>漂亮姑娘 adj. 仙女的

fake n. 假货, 欺骗 adj. 假的 vt. 伪造, 赝造, 捏造, 假造, 仿造 vi. 伪装

fantasy n. 幻想, 白日梦

feat n. 技艺, 功绩, 武艺, 壮举, 技艺表演 adj. 漂亮的, 合适的

federation n. 同盟, 联邦, 联合, 联盟

fisherman n. 渔民, 渔夫

fore adj. 在前部的, 以前的ad v. 在前面, 在船头 n. 前部, 船头prep.在前

format n. 开本, 版式, 形式, 格式 vt. 安排...的格局(或规格), 格式化(磁盘)

foul adj. 污秽的, 邪恶的, 肮脏的, 淤塞的, 恶劣的 vt. 弄脏, 妨害, 污蔑, 犯规, 淤塞 vi. 腐烂, 犯规, 缠结 n. 犯规, 缠绕ad v. 违反规则地, 不正当地

fraud n. 欺骗, 欺诈行为, 诡计, 骗子, 假货

fridge n. 电冰箱

fume n. (浓烈或难闻的)烟, 气体, 一阵愤怒(或不安) v. 用烟熏, 冒烟, 发怒

futile adj. 琐细的, 无用的, 无效果的, (人)没有出息的

G

garlic n. 大蒜, (Akkuyn sadtium), 蒜头

gender n. 性, <口>性别, 性, 性交

genetic adj. 遗传的, 起源的

giggle v. 哈哈地笑 n. 傻笑

goods n. 货物, <美俚>工具

gorgeous adj. 华丽的, 灿烂的

gown n. 长袍, 法衣, 礼服, 睡袍

graphic adj. 绘画似的, 图解的

grope v. n. 摸索

guideline n. 方针

guitar n. 吉他, 六弦琴 vi. 弹吉他

gut n. 内脏, (幽门到直肠间的)肠子, 勇气, 剧情, 内容, 肚子, 内脏, 海峡 vt. 取出内脏, 摧毁(房屋等的)内部装置

guy n. 家伙, 人

H

habitat n. (动植物的)生活环境, 产地、栖息地, 居留地, 自生地, 聚集处

harassment n. 折磨

harsh adj. 粗糙的, 荒芜的, 苛刻的, 刺耳的, 刺目的

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heave v. 举起 n. 举起

herb n. 药草, 香草

hierarchy n. 层次层级

hike v. 远足, 飞起, 步行 n. 远足, 增加

hip n. 臀, 蔷薇果, 忧郁 adj. 熟悉内情的 vt. 使忧郁, 给(屋顶)造屋脊int.喝彩声 hop v. 单脚跳, (鸟, 蛙等)跳跃 n. 蛇麻草

hound n. 猎犬 vt. 带猎犬狩猎, 卑鄙的人, 追捕, 激励, 使追逐

housing n. 供给住宅, 住宅群, 机架, 住房供给

howl v. 嚎叫, 怒吼, 嚎啕大哭, 喝住, 号叫 n. 嚎叫, 怒号, 嚎哭

hum v. 嗡嗡叫, 哼 n. 嗡嗡声, 吵杂声

humiliate v. 羞辱, 使丢脸, 耻辱

hurl n. <俚>用力或猛烈的投掷 vt. 用力投掷, 愤慨地说出, 丢下, 推翻 vi. 猛投, 猛掷 hurricane n. 飓风, 狂风

I

idiot n. 白痴, 愚人, 傻瓜

ignorance n. 无知, 不知

illusion n. 幻想

impart vt. 给予(尤指抽象事物), 传授, 告知, 透露

incentive n. 动机 adj. 激励的

indulge v. 纵容

inference n. 推论

infrastructure n. 下部构造, 基础下部组织

inhale vt. 吸入 vi. 吸气

inhibit抑制, 约束, 抑制

installment n. 部分

instrumental adj. 仪器的, 器械的, 乐器的

intelligible adj. 可理解的

interface n. 分界面, 接触面, 界面

INTERNET=Interactive Network Analysis 交互式网络分析

intimidate v. 胁迫

intrigue n. 阴谋, 诡计 vi. 密谋, 私通 vt. 激起...的兴趣, 用诡计取得

intrinsic adj. (指价值、性质)固有的, 内在的, 本质的

intrude vi. 闯入, 侵入 vt. 强挤入, 把(自己的思想)强加于人

invariable n. 不变的, 永恒的 adj. 不变的, 不变量

inventory n. 详细目录, 存货, 财产清册, 总量

inverse adj. 倒转的, 反转的 n. 反面 v. 倒转

irony n. 反话, 讽刺, 讽刺之事

irrigate vt. 灌溉, 修水利, 冲洗伤口, 使潮湿 vi. 进行灌溉

isle n. 小岛, 岛 vt. 使成为岛屿 vi. 住在岛屿上

J

judicial adj. 司法的, 法院的, 公正的, 明断的

junk n. 垃圾, 舢板

K

kin n. 家属(集合称), 亲戚, 同族, 血缘关系, 家族 adj. 有亲属关系的, 性质类似的, 同类的 kit n. 成套工具, 用具包, 工具箱, 成套用具

L

lapse n. 失误, 下降, 流逝, 丧失, 过失 v. 失检, 背离, 堕入, 流逝, 失效, 下降 laptop膝上型电脑

layoff n. 临时解雇, 操作停止, 活动停止期间, 失业期

lease n. 租借, 租约, 租赁物, 租期, 延续的一段时间 vt. 出租, 租出, 租得

legacy n. 遗赠(物), 遗产(祖先传下来)

legislation n. 立法, 法律的制定(或通过)

65

legitimate adj. 合法的, 合理的, 正统的 v. 合法

levy n. 征收, 征税, 征兵 v. 征收, 征集, 征用

linear adj. 线的, 直线的, 线性的

linguistic adj. 语言上的, 语言学上的

literacy n. 有文化,有教养,有读写能力

lofty adj. 高高的, 崇高的, 高傲的, 高级的

loom n. 织布机, 织机 v. 隐现, 迫近

lottery n. 抽彩给奖法

lure v. 引诱

M

magistrate n. 文职官员, 地方官员

maiden n. 少女, 处女 adj. 未婚的, 纯洁的, 处女的, 无经验的

majesty n. 最高权威, 王权, 雄伟

malignant adj. 恶性的

mammal n. 哺乳动物

manoeuvre n. 策略, 调动 v. 用策略, 调动, 演习, (敏捷地)操纵

marital adj. 婚姻的

masculine adj. 男性的, 男子气概的, 阳性的 n. 男子, 男孩

massacre n. 残杀, 大屠杀 v. 残杀, 集体屠杀

medieval adj. 中世纪的, 仿中世纪的, 老式的, <贬>原始的

meditate v. 想, 考虑, (尤指宗教上的)沉思, 冥想

meditation n. 沉思, 冥想

melody n. 悦耳的音调

memo n. 备忘录

menace n. 威胁, 危险物 v. 恐吓, 危及, 威胁

merely adv. 仅仅, 只, 不过

merge v. 合并, 并入, 结合, 吞没, 融合

metaphor n. 隐喻, 暗喻, 比喻说话

metropolitan adj. 首都的, 主要都市的, n. 大城市人

militant adj. 好战的, 积极从事或支持使用武力的

millionaire n. 百万富翁, 大富豪

missionary adj. 传教的, 传教士的 n. 传教士

mob n. (集合词)暴徒, 乌合之众, (盗贼等的)一群 v. 成群暴动, 聚众滋扰

module n. 模数, 模块, 登月舱, 指令舱

momentum n. 动力, 要素

monarch n. 君主

motivate v. 激发

mould n. 肥土, 壤土, 霉, 模具 v. 用土覆盖, 发霉, 铸造

mug n. 杯子

mute n. 哑巴, 哑音字母, 拒不答辩的被告, 弱音器 adj. 哑的, 无声的, 沉默的 vt. 减弱...的声音 vi. 排泄

N

napkin n. 餐巾, 餐巾纸, <英>尿布, <美>月经带

narrative adj. 叙述性的 n. 叙述

necklace n. 项链

nightmare n. 梦魇, 恶梦, 可怕的事物

nineteen num.十九

norm n. 标准, 规范

numerical adj. 数字的, 用数表示的

nurture n. 养育, 教育, 教养, 营养品 vt. 养育, 给与营养物, 教养

O

obsession n. 迷住, 困扰

66

obstruct v. 阻隔, 阻塞, 遮断(道路、通道等) n. 阻碍物, 障碍物

opt vi. 选择

optimum n. 最适宜 adj. 最适宜的

option n. 选项, 选择权, 买卖的特权

orientation n. 方向, 方位, 定位, 倾向性, 向东方

outing n. 外出, 旅行, 散步

outrage n. 暴行, 侮辱, 愤怒 vt. 凌辱, 引起...义愤, 强奸

oval adj. 卵形的, 椭圆的 n. 卵形, 椭圆形

overturn n. 倾覆, 破灭, 革命 vt. 推翻, 颠倒 vi. 翻倒 n. 翻转, 毁灭

oxide n. 氧化物

ozone n. 新鲜的空气, 臭氧

P

pact n. 合同, 公约, 协定

panorama n. 全景全景画,全景摄影

pants n. 裤子, 短裤

paperback n. 平装本, 纸面本

passerby n. 过路人, 行人

pathetic adj. 可怜的, 悲惨的

patrol v. 出巡, 巡逻 n. 巡逻

patron n. (对某人, 某种目标, 艺术等)赞助人, 资助人

peer n. 同等的人, 贵族 vi. 凝视, 窥视 vt. 与...同等, 封为贵族

permeate vt. 弥漫, 渗透, 透过, 充满 vi. 透入

persevere v. 坚持

pharmacy n. 药房, 药剂学, 配药业, 制药业, 一批备用药品

physiology n. 生理学

pilgrim n. 圣地朝拜者, 朝圣

plea n. 恳求, 请求, 辩解, 藉口

plight n. 情况, 状态, 困境, 盟誓(婚姻) vt. 保证, 约定

plumber n. 水管工人

poke n. 刺, 戳, 懒汉, 袋子 vt. 戳, 捅, 拨开, 刺 vi. 戳, 刺, 捅, 伸出, 刺探, 闲荡

polar adj. 两极的, 极地的, 南辕北辙的, 南极的, (北极星似的)指引的, 极性的, 北极的 n. 极线, 极面

ponder v. 沉思, 考虑

portray v. 描绘

poster n. 海报, 招贴, (布告, 标语, 海报等的)张贴者

posture n. (身体的)姿势, 体态, 状态, 情况, 心境, 态度 v. 令取某种姿势, 摆姿势, 作出姿态 practitioner n. 从业者, 开业者

precedent n. 先例

preclude n. 排除

predecessor n. 前辈, 前任, (被取代的)原有事物

pregnant adj. 怀孕的, 重要的, 富有意义的, 孕育的

premise n. 前提, (企业, 机构等使用的)房屋连地基 vt. 提论, 预述, 假定 vi. 作出前提 premium n. 额外费用, 奖金, 奖赏, 保险费, (货币兑现的)贴水

prestige n. 声望, 威望, 威信

prone adj. 倾向于

propaganda n. 宣传, 传道总会

propel vt. 推进, 驱使

prophet n. 先知, 预言者, 提倡者

prose n. 散文

prosecute vt. 实行, 从事, 告发, 起诉 vi. 告发, 起诉, 作检察官

prosper v. 成功, 兴隆, 昌盛, (指上帝)使成功, 使昌隆, 繁荣

prosperity n. 繁荣

67

prototype n. 原型

prudent adj. 谨慎的

Q

quest n. 寻求

questionnaire n. 调查表, 问卷

quota n. 配额, 限额

R

radiant adj. 发光的, 辐射的, 容光焕发的

rap n. 叩击, 轻拍, 轻敲, 斥责 vt. 敲, 拍, 打, 厉声说出, 斥责, 使着迷 vi. 敲击, 交谈abbr. Rocket Assisted Projectile, 火箭助推炮弹

rape n. 掠夺, 强奸, 葡萄渣, 油菜 vt. 掠夺, 强奸

rash adj. 轻率的, 匆忙的, 卤莽的 n. 皮疹

reassure vt. 使...安心, 再保证, 使...恢复信心, 打消...的疑虑

recede v. 后退

recipient adj. 容易接受的, 感受性强的 n. 容纳者, 容器

reckless adj. 不计后果的

rectangle n. 长方形, 矩形

recur vi. 复发, 重现, 再来

recycle v. 使再循环, 反复应用 n. 再循环, 再生, 重复利用

redundant adj. 多余的

refrain n. 重复, 叠句, 副歌 vi. 节制, 避免, 制止

refugee n. 难民, 流亡者

refund v. 退还, 偿还 n. 归还, 偿还额, 退款

relish n. 意味

remnant n. 残余, 剩余, 零料, 残迹 adj. 剩余的, 残留的

renaissance n. 复兴, 复活, 新生, 文艺复兴, 文艺复兴时期

repertoire n. (准备好演出的)节目, 保留剧目, (计算机的)指令表, 指令系统, <美>(某个人的)全部技能

repression n. 镇压, 抑制, 抑压

restore vt. 恢复, 使回复, 归还, 交还, 修复, 重建

retention保持力

retort v. 反驳, 反击, 回报 n. 曲颈甑, 曲颈瓶, 蒸器

retrieve v. 重新得到 n. 找回

retrospect n. 回顾

revelation n. 显示, 揭露, 被揭露的事, 新发现, 启示, 揭示

rigorous adj. 严格的, 严厉的, 严酷的, 严峻的

riot n. 暴乱, 骚动, (植物, 疾病等)蔓延, 放荡, 暴动 v. 骚乱, 放纵, 挥霍, 参加骚动 rip v. 撕, 剥, 劈, 锯, 裂开, 撕裂 n. 裂口, 裂缝

ritual n. 典礼, (宗教)仪式, 礼节 adj. 典礼的, (宗教)仪式的

robust adj. 精力充沛的

S

salvation n. 拯救, 救助

sanction n. 批准, 同意, 支持, 制裁, 认可 v. 批准, 同意, 支持, 鼓励, 认可

sane adj. 健全的

sarcastic adj. 讽刺的

saturate v. 使饱和, 浸透, 使充满

scandal n. 丑行,丑闻,诽谤,耻辱,流言蜚语

scramble n. 爬行, 攀缘, 抢夺, 混乱 vi. 攀缘, 杂乱蔓延, 争夺, 拼凑, 匆忙 vt. 攀登, 搅乱, 使混杂

script n. 手稿, 手迹, 剧本, 考生的笔试卷, 原本

scrutiny n. 详细审查

sculpture n. 雕刻, 雕刻品, 雕塑, 雕塑品, 刻蚀 v. 雕刻, 雕塑, 刻蚀

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sector n. 部分, 部门, 扇区, 地区, 象限, 扇形 v. 使分成部分, 把...分成扇形

seemingly adv. 表面上地

segregate v. 隔离

selfish adj. 自私的

serial adj. 连续的

setback n. 顿挫, 挫折, 退步, 逆流, (疾病的)复发

shabby adj. 破旧的, 褴褛的, 低劣的, 卑鄙的, 不公平的

sham v. 佯装 n. 伪品 adj. 虚假的

shatter n. 粉碎, 碎片, 落花(叶,粒等) vt. 打碎, 使散开, 粉碎, 破坏 vi. 粉碎, 损坏, 落叶 shorthand n. 速记

shove n. <口>推, 挤 vt. <口>推挤, 猛推, 强使 vi. 推

shrug n. 耸肩 v. 耸肩

shuttle n. 往返汽车(列车、飞机), 航天飞机, 梭子, 穿梭 v. 穿梭往返

siege n. 包围, 围城, 长期努力, 不断袭击, 围攻 v. 包围, 围攻

sip v. 吸吮

skeptical adj. 怀疑性的,好怀疑的,<口>无神论的

skim v. 撇去

skull n. 头脑, 头骨

slam v. 砰地关上, 砰地放下, 猛力抨击, 冲击 n. 砰, 猛击, 撞击, 冲击

slaughter n. 屠宰, 残杀, 屠杀 v. 屠宰, 残杀, 屠杀

slogan n. 口号, 标语Lslot n. 缝, 狭槽, 位置, 水沟, 细长的孔, 硬币投币口, 狭通道, 足迹 vt. 开槽于, 跟踪

slot n. 缝, 狭槽, 位置, 水沟, 细长的孔, 硬币投币口, 狭通道, 足迹 vt. 开槽于, 跟踪 sneeze n. 喷嚏 vi. 打喷嚏

sniff v. 用力吸, 嗅, 闻到, 发觉, 轻视, 用力吸气 n. 吸, 闻, 吸气声, 嗤之以鼻

soar v. 高飞, 高丛, 滑翔, 剧增, 昂扬 n. 高飞范围, 高涨程度

sociable adj. 好交际的, 友善的, 增进友谊的, 喜欢群居的

sofa n. 沙发

solidarity n. 团结

solitary adj. 孤独的

solo n. 独奏曲 adj. 单独的

sovereign n. 君主, 统治 adj. 至高无上的, 君主的, 独立自主的, 完全的

spacious adj. 广大的, 大规模的

specialist n. 专门医师, 专家

spectrum n. 光, 光谱, 型谱频谱

spicy adj. 加香料的, 出产香料的, 辛辣的, 有风味的

spine n. 脊骨, 书脊, 地面隆起地带, 中心, 剌

spiral adj. 螺旋形的 n. 螺旋 v. 盘旋

sponsor n. 发起人, 主办者, 保证人, 主办人 vt. 发起, 主办 v. 赞助

spouse n. 配偶(指夫或妻)

sprout v. 萌芽 n. 苗芽

stagger v. 摇晃, 蹒跚, 交错, 摇摇摆摆 adj. 交错的

stalk n. 茎, 柄, 梗, 秆

staple n. 钉书钉, 钉, 主要产品(或商品), 原材料, 主要成分, 来源 adj. 主要的, 常用的, 大宗生产的 v. 把...分类, 把...分级

statute n. 法令, 条例

steak n. (供煎, 烤等的)肉, 鱼, 肉片, 鱼片, 肉排, 牛排

stereotype n. 铅版, 陈腔滥调, 老套 vt. 使用铅版, 套用老套, 使一成不变

stiff adj. 硬的, 僵直的, 拘谨的, 呆板的, 艰难的, 费劲的, 僵硬的

strenuous adj. 奋发的, 使劲的, 紧张的, 热烈的, 艰辛发奋的

strife n. 斗争, 冲突, 竞争

stroll n. 漫步, 闲逛, 四处流浪 v. 闲逛, 漫步, 跋涉于

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stun vt. 使晕倒, 使惊吓, 打晕 n. 晕眩, 打昏, 惊倒

subsidy n. 补助金, 津贴

suffice vi. 足够, 有能力 vt. 使满足

suite n. (一批)随员, (一套)家具, 套房, 套, 组, 组曲

summit n. 顶点, 最高阶层 adj. 政府首脑的 vi. 参加最高级会议的

superstition n. 迷信

surge n. 巨涌, 汹涌, 澎湃 vi. 汹涌, 澎湃, 振荡, 滑脱, 放松 vt. 使汹涌奔腾, 急放

susceptible adj. 易受影响的, 易感动的, 容许...的 n. (因缺乏免疫力而)易得病的人

T

tangle n. 混乱状态 v. 处于混乱状态

temperament n. 气质, 性情, 易激动, 急躁

texture n. (织品的)质地, (木材, 岩石等的)纹理, (皮肤)肌理, (文艺作品)结构

thigh n. 大腿, 股

thrift n. 节俭, 节约, 海石竹

toll n. 通行税(费), 费, 代价, 钟声 vt. 征收, 敲钟, 鸣(钟)(特指宣布死亡), 勾引, 引诱 vi. 征税, 鸣钟

torment n. 痛苦 v. 折磨

torture n. 折磨, 痛苦, 拷问, 拷打 vt. 拷问, 曲解, 折磨, 使弯曲

toxic adj. 有毒的, 中毒的

transcend vt. 超越, 胜过

trash n. 无价值之物, 无聊的作品, 垃圾, 废物

tribe n. 部落, 部族

trigger vt. 引发, 引起, 触发 n. 板机

tropic n. (天球的)回归线, 热带 adj. 热带的

tumour n. 瘤, 肿瘤, 肿块

U

underlie vt. 位于...之下, 成为...的基础

V

vein n. 血管, 静脉, 叶脉, 翅脉, 矿脉, 纹理, 性情, 心绪 vt. 使成脉络, 象脉络般分布于 visa n. 签证 vt. 签准维萨信用卡

vocal adj. 发嗓音的, 声音的, 有声的, 歌唱的 n. 元音, 声乐作品

vulgar adj. 粗俗的, 庸俗的, 普通的, 通俗的, 本土的 n. <古>平民, 百姓

vulnerable adj. 易受攻击的, 易受...的攻击

W

wardrobe n. 衣柜, 衣厨, 衣室, 衣服, 行头, 剧装

weld vt. 焊接 n. 焊接, 焊缝

whale n. 鲸 v. 捕鲸

whatsoever pron. 无论什么

wink n. 眨眼, 使眼色, 瞬间, (星光等的)闪烁 vi. 眨眼, 使眼色, 闪烁, 打信号, 假装不见, 终止, 熄灭 vt. 眨(眼)

witch n. 巫婆, 女巫, 迷人的女子 vt. 施巫术, 迷惑

Y

youngster n. 年青人, 少年

Z

zip一种程序压缩的档案文件格式 n. 拉链 v. 拉开或拉上

zoom n. 急速上升, 陡直上升, 图象电子放大, 缩放, 嗡嗡声 vi. 突然扩大, 急速上升, 摄象机移动 vt. 使摄象机移动

第四部分 常用的前、后缀等

70

一、常用的前缀和后缀

1.常用前缀

aero:concerning the air or aircraft

plane( 飞机)—aeroplane(飞机)

space(空间, 间隔)—aerospace(航空宇宙)

anti: against;opposite of

nuclear([核]核子的)—antinuclear(反对使用核武器的)

matter( 物质)—antimatter(反物质)

war(战争、作战、 打仗)—antiwar(反战的, 反对战争的)

auto: of or by oneself

biography(传记)—autobiography(自传)

criticism(批评, 批判)—autocriticism(自我反省, 自我检讨)

be:to treat as the stated thing

friend(朋友, 助手)—befriend(待人如友, 帮助)

little(很少的, 矮小的,很少)—belittle(轻视, 使渺小, 使...显得渺小)

bi: two;twice;double

lingual(语言的)—bilingual(能说两种语言的)

cycle( 自行车)—bicycle(脚踏车, 自行车)

bio:concerning living things

chemistry(化学)—biochemistry(生物化学)

sphere(圈子)—biosphere(生物圈)

by—:less important

product(产品, 产物,)—by-product(副产品, 附加产物)

way(路,道路)—byway(小道)

centi: hundredth part

grade(等级)—centigrade(分为百度的, 百分度的, 摄氏温度的)

meter(米)—centimeter(厘米)

co: together, with

author(作家, 创造者)—coauthor(合著者, 共同执笔者,合著)

exist(存在, 生存)—coexist(共存)

col:(used before l) together, with

location(位置, 场所)—collocation(排列, 配置)

com:(used before b, m, p)together, with

passion(激情, 热情)—compassion(同情,怜悯)

con:together, with

centric(中心的, 中央的)—concentric(同中心的)

federation(同盟, 联邦, 联合, 联盟)—confederation(联邦)

contra:opposite

diction(措辞, 用语, 言语)—contradiction(反驳, 矛盾)

natural(自然的, 自然界的)—contranatural(违背自然的)

cor:(used before r) together, with

relate(叙述, 讲, 使联系, 发生关系)—correlate(使相互关联,和...相关)

respond(回答, 响应, 作出反应,有反应)—correspond(符合, 协调, 通信, 相当, 相应) counter:opposite

act(担当,表现, 见效)—counteract(抵消, 中和, 阻碍)

attack(攻击)—counterattck(反引力)

cross:across;going between the stated things and joining them

country(乡下的, 乡村的, [方]祖国的, 故乡的)—crosscountry(越野的, 横过田野的) breed((使)繁殖, 教养, 抚养,品种, 种类)—crossbreed([生物]杂种,异种交配, 培育杂种, (使)杂交)

de:showing an opposite; to remove; to reduce

code(代码, 密码)—decode(解码, 译解)

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value(评价, 重视)—devalue((=devaluate)减值, 贬值)

dis:not; the opposite of

advantage(优势, 有利条件)—disadvantage(不利, 不利条件, 缺点, 劣势) agree(同意) —disagree(不一致, 不适宜)

honest(诚实的, 正直的)—dishonest(不诚实的)

em:(used before b,m, p) to cause to become

body(赋以形体)—embody(具体表达, 使具体化)

power(权力,激励)—empower(授权与, 使能够)

en:to cause to become; to make

danger( 威胁)—endanger(危及)

large(大的, 巨大的)—enlarge(扩大, 放大)

ex:former(and still living)

minister(部长, 大臣)—exminister (前部长)

wife(妻子)—exwife(前妻)

extra:outside;beyond

curricular(课程的)—extracurricular(课外的, 业余的)

ordinary(平常的, 普通的, 平凡的)—extraordinary(非常的, 特别的, 非凡的) fore:in advance, before; in or at the front

arm(臂,武器, 装备)—forearm(前臂,准备战斗, 预先武装, 准备)

warn(警告)—forewarn(预先警告)

il:(used before l) not

legal(法律的, 合法)—illegal(违法的, 不合规定的)

literate(学者,有文化的,有阅读和写作能力的)—illiterate(违法的, 不合规定的) im:(used before b,m,p)not

moral(道德(上)的, 精神的,道德)—immoral(不道德的, 邪恶的, 放荡的, 淫荡的) possible(可能的)—impossible(不可能的)

in:not

direct(径直的, 直接的)—indirect(间接的, 迂回的)

sensitive(敏感的, 灵敏的)—insensitive(对...没有感觉的, 感觉迟钝的) infra:below in a range; beyond

red(红(色)的)—infrared(红外线的,红外线)

structure(结构,构造)—infrastructure(下部构造, 基础下部组织)

inter:between;among

change(改变, 变化)—interchange((指两人等)交换,相互交换)

national(国家的, 民族的)—international(国际的, 世界的,国际性组织, 国际比赛) intra:inside, within;into

city(城市, 都市)—intracity(市内的)

department(部, 局, 处, 科, 部门, 系, 学部)—intradepartment(内部) ir:(used before r)not

regular(规则的, 有秩序的)—irregular(不规则的, 无规律的)

responsible(有责任的, 可靠的)—irresponsible(不负责任的, 不可靠的)

kilo:thousand

gram(克,)—kilogram([物]千克, 公斤)

meter(米)—kilometer(公里)

macro:large, esp.concerning a whole system rather than particular parts of particular parts of

economics(经济学)—macroeconomics(宏观经济学)

structure(宏观结构)—macrostructure(宏观结构)

mal:bad or badly

function(官能, 功能, 作用)—malfunction(故障)

treat(宴请, 款待)—maltreat(虐待, 滥用)

micro:extremely small

72

computer(计算机, 电脑)—microcomputer(微进化)

electronics(电子学)—microelectronics([电子]微电子学)

mid:middle

day(天, 白天)—midday(正午)

night(夜, 夜晚)—midnight(午夜)

mini:small;short

bus(公共汽车)—minibus( 小型公共汽车)

skirt(裙子)—miniskirt

(迷你短裙, 超短裙)

mis:bad or badly;wrong or wrongly

fortune( 运气, 好运)—misfortune(不幸, 灾祸)

understand(懂, 了解)—misunderstand(误解, 误会)

mono:one;single

plane( 飞机)—monoplane(单翼机)

tone(音调, 语调)—monotone(单调的,单调)

multi:more than one;many

purpose(目的, 意图)—multipurpose(多种用途的, 多目标的)

national(国家的, 国立[有]的, 民族的)—multinational( 多民族的,)

non:not

resident—non()resident

sense 理性, 认识—nonsense(胡说, 废话)

out:outside;eyond

live(活的, 生动的)—outlive(比...长命, 比...耐久)

door(门, 通道, 家, 户)—outdoor(室外的, 户外的, 野外的)

over:too much;above; additional

head(头,头的, 主要的)—overhead(在头上的,在头顶上, 在空中, 在高处)

time(时间, 时侯, 时机, )—overtime(超时, 加班, 延长时间,超时的, 加班的,加班地,使超时)

poly:many

centric(中心的, 中央的)—polycentric(多中心的)

syllabic([语] 音节主音,音节的)—polysyllabic(多音节的)

post:later than;after

graduate((大学)毕业生, 研究生,(使)(大学)毕业)—postgraduate(研究所学生, 研究生,毕业后的)

war(战争,作战, 打仗)—postwar(战后的)

pre:before;in advance

pay(薪水, 工资,支付)—prepay(预付)

war(战争,作战, 打仗)—prewar(战前的,在战前)

pro:in favor of, supporting

America(<美>美国, 美洲(包括北美和南美洲))—proAmerica

abortion—proabortion(流产, 堕胎, 失败, 夭折, 中止, 早产)

pseudo:not real;false

name( 姓名)—pseudonym(假名, 笔名)

science(科学, 自然科学)—pseudoscience(假科学, 伪科学)

re:again;back to the former state

unite(联合, 团结)—reunite((使)再结合)

use(使用)—reuse(再使用,重新使用)

self:by means of oneself or itself;of, to, with, for, or in oneself or itself employed(雇用, 用, 使用)—selfemployed

taught(teach的过去式和过去分词)—selftaught

semi:half;partly

circle(圆周, 圆形物)—semicircle(半圆形)

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final( 决赛)—semifinal(半决赛)

step:not by birth but through a parent who has remarried

mother(母亲, 妈妈)—stepmother(继母)

children(孩子, 孩子们)—stepchildren(继子,继女)

sub:under,below;less imortant;part of the stated bigger whole

divide(分, 划分, 分开, 隔开)—subdivide(再分, 细分)

section(部分)—subsection(分部, 分段)

super:more, larger, greater than usual

market(市场)—supermarket(超级市场)

natural(自然的, 自然界的, 普通的, 正常的)—supernatural(超自然的, 神奇的,超自然物, 不可思议的事)

tele:at or over a long distance;by or for television communication—telecommunication screen(屏, 银幕)—telescreen(电视屏幕,荧光屏)

therm(o):concerning heat

chemistry(化学)—thermochemistry(热化学)

meter( 计, 表)—thermometer(温度计, 体温计)

trans:across, on or to the other side of; between

Atlantic(大西洋)—transatlantic(大西洋彼岸的)

plant(种植, 栽培, 培养)—transplant(移植, 移种)

tri:three;three times

angular(有角的)—triangular(三角形的)

cycle( 自行车)—tricycle(三轮车, 机器三轮车)

ultra:beyond;very, extremely

modern(近代的, 现代的)—ultramodern(超现代化的)

sound(声音, 语音)—ultrasound(超频率音响)

un:not

certain(确定的, 必然的, 可靠的)—uncertain(无常的, 不确定的, 不可预测的, 靠不住的) fortunate(幸运的, 幸福的)—unfortunate(不幸的, 使人遗憾的)

under:too little;below

develop(发展,显影)—underdevelop((使)发展不完全, (使)显影不足)

sea(海洋, 大浪)—undersea(海面下的)

uni:one;single

form( 形态, 构成)—uniform(统一的, 相同的)

directional(方向的)—unidirectional(单向的, 单向性的)

vice:next in the rank;below

chairman(主席, 会长)—vicechairman(副主席, 副议长)

president(总统, 会长, 行长)—vicepresident(副总督, 副省长)

2.常用后缀

(1)名词后缀

ability(能力, 才干),ibility

able(能...的, 有才能的, 能干的, 能够的)—ability(能力, 才干)

flexible(有弹性的,柔韧的)—flexibility(弹性, 适应性, 机动性, 挠性)

arrive(到达, 抵达)—arrival(到来, 到达, 到达者)

refuse(拒绝, 谢绝)—refusal(拒绝, 推却)

an, ian, arian

library(图书馆, 藏书室)—librarian(图书馆员, 图书管理员)

music(音乐, 乐曲)—musician(音乐家)

ance,ence

appear(出现, 公开露面)—appearance(出现, 露面, 外貌, 外观)

refer(提交, 谈及,提到, 涉及, 查阅, 咨询)—reference(提及, 涉及, 参考, 参考书目, 证明书(人), 介绍信(人))

ancy,ency

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emerge(显现, 浮现, (事实)显现出来)—emergency(紧急情况, 突然事件, 非常时刻, 紧急事件) expect(期待, 预期)—expectancy(期待, 期望)

ant,ent

apply(申请)—applicant(申请者, 请求者)

correspond( 通信)—correspondent(通讯记者, 通信者)

cy

accurate(正确的, 精确的)—accuracy(精确性, 正确度)

private(私人的, 私有的, 私营的, 秘密的)—privacy(独处而不受干扰, 秘密)

dom

king(国王, 君主, (部落的)首领, 纸牌中的K,立...为王,做国王, 统治)—kingdom(王国, [宗]天国, 上帝的统治, 领域)

free(自由的, 免费的, 免税的, 免费)—freedom(自由, 自主, 直率, 特权)

ee

employ(雇用, 用)—employee(职工, 雇员, 店员)

interview(接见, 会见)—interviewee(被接见者, 被访问者)

er,or,ar

paint(油漆, 颜料)—painter(画家, 油漆匠)

beg(请求, 乞求)—beggar(乞丐)

ery

brave(勇敢的)—bravery(勇敢)

slave(奴隶)—slavery(奴隶身分, 奴隶制度)

ery

ese:

China(中国)—Chinese(中国的,)

Japan(日本)—Japanese(日本的)

ess

actor(男演员)—actress(女演员)

waiter(侍者, 服务员)—waitress(女服务生)

hand(手)—handful(一把, 少数)

hood

child(孩子, 儿女)—childhood(孩童时期)

man(男人)—manbood(成年男子)

ics

electron(电子)—electronics(电子器件)

linguist(语言学家)—linguistics(语言学)

ism

Marx(马克思)—Marxism(马克思主义)

socialist(社会主义者)—socialism(社会主义)

ist

psychiatry(精神病学)—psychiatrist(精神病医师)

violin(小提琴)—violinist(小提琴演奏者)

ity,ty

cruel(残酷的, 悲惨的)—cruelty(残忍, 残酷)

pure(纯的, 纯粹的)—purity(纯净, 纯洁, 纯度)

ment

move(移动, 迁居)—movement(运动, 动作)

retire(退休, 引退, 退却)—retirement(退休, 引退)

ness

dark(黑暗, 夜)—darkness(黑暗, 漆黑)

happy(快乐的, 幸福的)—happiness(幸福, 快乐)

ology

climate(气候, 风土)—climatology(气候学, 风土学)

75

future(未来, 将来)—futurology(未来学)

ship

friend(朋友, 助手)—friendship(友谊, 友好)

scholar(学者)—scholarship(奖学金, 学问, 学识)

sion,ssion

decide(决定, 判决)—decision(决定, 决心)

expand(使膨胀, 扩张)—expansion(扩充, 开展)

th

grow(生长, 成长)—growth(生长, 种植)

wide(宽的, 广阔的)—width(宽度)

ure

close(关, 关闭)—closure(关闭,使终止)

expose(使暴露, 受到, 使曝光,揭露)—exposure(暴露, 揭露, 暴光, 揭发)

(2)动词后缀

en

deep(深的, 纵深的)—deepen(加深, 深化)

fast(紧的, 牢的)—fasten(扎牢, 扣住)

ify

class(班级, 阶级)—classify(分类, 分等)

simple(简单的, 简易的)—simplify(单一化, 简单化)

ize,ise

modern(现代人)—modernise/modernize(<主英>=modernize)

popular(通俗的, 流行的, 受欢迎的)—popularise/popularize(<主英> =popularize)

(3)形容词后缀

able, ible

question( 疑问)—questionable(可疑的)

al

nature(自然)—natural(自然的)

structure(结构, 构造)—structural(结构的, 建筑的)

an,arian,ian

suburb(市郊, 郊区)—suburban(郊外的, 偏远的)

Canada(加拿大)—Canadian(加拿大的,加拿大人)

ant,ent

differ(不一致, 不同)—different(不同的)

please(满足的, 使满足)—pleasant(令人愉快的, 舒适的)

ary,ory

advise(劝告, 忠告, 警告)—advisory(顾问的, 咨询的, 劝告的)

custom(习惯, 风俗)—customary(习惯的, 惯例的)

ate

consider(考虑, 照顾)—considerate(考虑周到的)

fortune(运气, 好运)—fortunate(幸运的, 幸福的)

en

gold(黄金, 金币)—golden(金色的, 金黄色的)

wood( 木材)—wooden(木制的)

ese

China(中国)—Chinese(中国的, 中国人的)

Japan(日本)—Japanese(日本的, 日本人的)

free

care( 烦恼, 忧虑)—carefree(无忧无虑的, 轻松愉快的)

duty(义务, 责任, 职责, 职务, 税)—duty—free(自由的, 大方的, 免费的, 免税的, ful

care(注意, 照料)—careful(小心的, 仔细的) 免费)

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pain(痛苦, 疼)—painful(疼痛的, 使痛苦的)

ic,ical

atom(原子)—atomic(原子的, 原子能的)

psychology(心理学, 心理状态)—psychological(心理(上)的)

ish

girl(女孩, 少女)—girlish(少女的, 少女似的(男孩))

child(孩子)—childish(孩子气的, 幼稚的)

ive

create(创造)—creative(创造性的)

support(支援,支柱)—supportive(支持的,支援的)

less

hope(希望, 信心)—hopeless(没有希望的, 绝望的)

pain(痛苦, 疼, 痛, 劳苦, 努力,使痛苦)—painless(无痛的, 不痛的)

like

child(孩子)—childlike(孩子似的, 天真烂漫的)

lady(女士, 夫人, 小姐)—ladylike(风度雍容如贵妇的, 温雅的)

ly

man(男人)—manly(男子气概的)

month(月)—monthly(每月的,每月一次,月刊)

ous,ious

danger(危险)—dangerous(危险的)

poison(毒药, 败坏道德之事, 毒害,毒害, 败坏, 使中毒,放毒, 下毒)—poisonous(有毒的) some

tire( 劳累, 厌倦)—tiresome(无聊的, 烦人的)

trouble(烦恼, 麻烦)—troublesome(麻烦的, 讨厌的)

ward

down(向下的)—downward(向下的)

up(向上)—upward(向上的)

y

guilt(罪行, 内疚)—guilty(犯罪的, 有罪的)

noise(喧闹声, 噪声)—noisy(吵杂的, 聒噪的)

(4)副词后缀

ly

easy(容易的)—easily(容易地, 不费力地)

heavy(重的, 繁重的)—heavily(很重地, 沉重地)

ward,wards

east(东方, 东)—eastward(s)(向东,向东的, 朝东的)

north(北, 北方)—northward(s)(向北,向北的)

wise

clock(时钟)—clockwise(顺时针方向的,顺时针方向地)

other(其他的, 另外的)—otherwise(另外, 不同地)

二、部分国家(地区)相关词汇表

国家(或地区) 语言 国民 国籍

America(美国)American(美国人) American(美国)

Australia(澳大利亚)Australian(澳大利亚人) Australian(澳大利亚)

Brazil(巴西)Brazilian(巴西人) Brazilian(巴西)

Britiain(英国) English(英语) Briton(英国人) British(英国)

Canada(加拿大)Canadian (加拿大人) Canadian (加拿大)

China(中国)Chinese(汉语) Chinese(中国人) Chinese(中国)

Egypt(埃及)Egyptian(埃及人) Egyptian(埃及)

England(英国) English(英语) Englishman(英国人) English(英国)

77

France(法国) French(法语) Frenchman(法国人) French(法国)

Germany(德国) German(德语) German(德国人) German(德国)

Greece(希腊) Greek(希腊语) Greek(希腊人) Greek(希腊)

India(印度)Indian(印度人) Indian(印度)

Ireland(爱尔兰) Irish(爱尔兰语) Irishman(爱尔兰人) Irish(爱尔兰)

Israel(以色列)Israeli(以色列人) Israeli(以色列)

Italy(意大利) Italian (意大利语) Italian (意大利人) Italian(意大利)

Japan(日本) Japanese(日语) Japanese(日本人) Japanese(日本)

The Netherlands(荷兰) Dutch(荷兰语) Dutchman(荷兰人) Dutch(荷兰)

New Zealand(新西兰)New Zealander(新西兰)

Portugal(葡萄牙) Portuguese(葡萄牙语) Portuguese(葡萄牙人) Portuguese(葡萄牙) Russia(俄国) Russian(俄语) Russian(俄国人) Russian(俄国)

Scotland(苏格兰) Scots,Scottish(苏格兰语) Scotsman (苏格兰人) Scots,Scottish(苏格兰)

Spain(西班牙) Spanish(西班牙语) Spaniard(西班牙人) Spanish(西班牙)

Sweden(瑞典) Swedish(瑞典语) Swedish(瑞典人) Swedish(瑞典)

Switzerland(瑞士) Swiss(瑞士人) Swiss(瑞士)

Wales(威尔士) Welsh(威尔士语) Welshman(威尔士人) Welsh(威尔士)

三、常见英语洲名

名词

Africa(非洲)

America(美国、美洲)

Antarctica(南极洲)

Asia(亚洲)

Australia(澳大利业,澳洲)

Europe(欧洲)

North America(北美洲)

Oceania(南美洲)

South America(大洋洲)

形容词

African(非洲人,非洲的)

American(美国人, 美洲人,美国的, 美洲的)

Antarctic(南极的, 南极地带的)

Asian(亚洲的, 亚洲人的,亚洲人)

Australian(澳洲的, 澳大利亚的, 澳大利亚人的)

European(欧洲的, 欧洲人的,欧洲人)

North American(北美洲的)

Oceanic(海洋的, 海洋产出的, 生活于海洋的)

South American(南美洲的)

四、常见缩写词

AD,A.DAnno Domini(=in the year of the)

Lord;since Christ wasborn 公元

A.M.,a.m.ante meridiem(before noon)上午,午前

Apr. April 四月

Aug.August八月

Ave.avenue林荫道,大街

BABachelor of Arts文科学士

BC,B.C.before Christ公元前

BS,BScBachelor of Science理科学士

C°,Centigrade摄氏度

78

cccubic centimeter立方厘米 CDcompact disk光盘,激光唱片 cf.confer(=compare)试比较;参看 cmcentimeter厘米

Co.company公司

c/ocare of由?转交

cp.compare比较

Dec.December十二月

dept.,Dept.department部,司,局,系 Dr.doctor博士;医生

e.g.exempli gratia(=for example)例如 esp.especially尤其是

et al.et alia(=and others)其他的 etc.et cetera(=and the rest)等等 FFahrenheit华氏的

Feb.February二月

ftfoot,feet英尺

g,gm.gram克

GMTGreenwich Mean Time格林威治时间 hr.hour小时

IDidentification card身份证 i.e.id est(=that is)那就是,即 in.inch英寸

Inc.incorporated股份有限的 Jan.January一月

Jr.junior小(用于姓名后)

Jul.July七月

Jun.June六月

kg.kilogram千克,公斤

km.kilometer千米,公里

l. liter升

lb.libra(=pound)磅

Ltd.limited有限的,股份有限 m.meter米

MAMaster of Arts文科硕士

Mar.March三月

min.minute分钟

ml.millimeter毫升

Mon.Monday星期一

Mr.Mister?先生

MrsMistress?夫人,?太太

Ms.Mrs or Miss?女士

MS,MScMaster of Science理科硕士 Mtmount,mountain峰,山

No.number号码

Nov.November十一月

Oct.October十月

Ppage;parking页,停车处

par,paraparagraph(文章的)段 Ph.D,PhDphilosophiae Doctor博士 pl.plural复数

PM,P.M.post meridiem(=afternoon)下午

79

PRCPeople’s Republic of China中华人民共和国 Prof.professor教授

PSpostscript附言

Rd.,rdroad路

Sat.Saturday星期六

sec.second秒

Sep., Sept.September九月

sing.singular单数

sqaquare平方;广场

st.street街道

sthsomething某物,某事

Sun.Sunday星期日

t.ton吨

tel.telephone电话

ThursThursday星期四

TuesTuesday星期二

UKUnited Kingdom(大不列颠及北爱尔兰)联合王国,英国 UNUnited Nations联合国

US,U.S.United States(= America)美利坚合众国,美国 usu.usually通常

v,vsversus?对?

VIPvery important person重要人物,大人物

vol.Volume卷,册

W,wwatt瓦特

WCwater closet厕所

Wed,WedsWednesday星期三

mjm

80

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