北师大版高中英语语法总结(23500字)

来源:m.fanwen118.com时间:2021.7.9

北师大版高中英语语法总结(必修一 — 选修八)

必修一

一、present simple and present continuous 一般现在是和现在进行时

1,present simple: 反复进行的,经常性的动作(惯例习惯)

Eg, He watches soap operas.

及状态 I live in Budapest.

一般现在时常和下列时间状语连用:always, usually, from, time to time, twice a week, rarely, seldom, once a month, never.

2,现在进行时:说话时正在进行的动作(现在,此刻)

一定时间段内经常进行的动作

和现在进行时连用的时间状语有just, now, at the moment, at present.

二、future:arrangements and intentions 将来的安排和打算

1、be going to 表示打算要做的事情。

2、现在进行时表示已经确定或安排好事情。

Eg, I‘m getting married in June.

3、一般现在是表示不可改变的官方活动或时间表

The summer term begins on the 15th of February.

三、past simple and past continues

1,psat simple :一般过去时,表示过去完成的动作或过去的情境和习惯。

Eg: She climb the stairs and went to her room.

用一般过去时要在规则动词词尾加-ed,或用不规则动词的过去式,一般过去式的疑问句和否定句用did 和didn‘t 加动词原形。

2、past continuous过去进行时:过去某段时间正在进行的动作形成某些事件发生的情境动作。 Eg, It was raining during the whole match.

当过去进行时和一般过去时出现在同一个句子中时,过去进行时描述故事发生的背景,儿一般过去时则报道该事件。

Eg, We driving along a country lane when, suddenly a car drove past us.

Form: 过去进行时的结构是:主语+was /were +动词-ing形式。

Eg, The driver was sitting behind the wheel.

四、present perfect and past simple。现在完成时和一般过去式,现在完成时表示发生在过去的事情对现在依然有明显的影响

发生在过去的动作但是不知道动作发生的时间或对动作发生的确切时间不感兴趣。 现在完成时经常和下列时间状语连用:

Before, ever, never, already, and , yet. already 用于肯定句,yet 用于疑问句和否定句。 Venus and Serena have played each other before.(重要的事他们过去进行了比赛,但是何时比赛并不重要—现在完成时)

Venus and Serena have played each other in June 1999.( 我们知道此事发生的确切时间—一般过去时)

五、The passive 被动语态

在下列情况下使用被动语态:

1、不知道耶不需要知道谁做的这件事。

2、动作的执行者“显而易见”

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3、动作本身比动作执行者更重要或不想指出谁做的这件事。

4、在书面语特别是在科技报告、报刊文章中被动语态比主动语态更正式。

Form:

Tense时态 form 形式 +past

一般现在时 am/is/are +past participle 过去分词 现在进行时 am/is/are being +pp

现在完成时 have/has been +pp

一般过去时 was/were +pp

过去进行时 was/were being +pp

六、have to/not have to, can/can‘t, ought to/ought not to uses 用法:

have to 用来表示义务责任,You have to pass your test before you can drive.

Don‘t have to 表达不必:We don‘t have to wear uniforms at our school.

Can 用来表示允许或请求许可或者表示某事可能发生。

You can buy CDs at the market.

Can‘t 表示禁止或不可能:You can‘t go out tonight.

Ought to 表示应该做某事。You ought to visit your grandparents this weekend.

Ought not to 表示不应该做某事You ought not to walk alone at night.

Form 形式

can/can‘t, have to/not have to 及ought to/ought not to 后用动词原形。

现在完成时,一般现在时,一般过去时

很多语言都有现在完成时态,因此常将它和一般现在时混淆,在英语中,用现在完成时描述发生在过去但对现在又影响的事件。如果涉及到过去某时间,则要用一般过去时。 如果过去事件的确切时间或日期不重要,也可以用现在完成时。

必修二

一、will 和be going to 表示推测揣想

1、Will+动词原形表示依据直觉知识经验等做出的揣测。

二、first conditional 真实条件句

A表示依据其他将来事件将来有可能发生的事件。

If the rain stops, the match will begin.

句型是:

if clause main clause

if +present simple will/won‘t +infinitive/without to 也可能用其他句型,特别是使用情态动词时:

If you have time, we can go for a walk this evening.

B建议或命令某人做某事,提出建议或请求:

If you feel sleepy, go to bed.

句型是

If clause main clause

If +present simple imperative(祈使句)

三.second conditional 虚拟条件句

2

A虚拟条件句(1)表示想象的将来不可能发生的事

If I become an MP, I‘d fight for animals rights.

2)现在不可能存在的状态

If I lived closer to school, I wouldn‘t have to get up so early.

句型是

If clause main clause

If +past simple would /could /might +infinitive/without to

四、sudden decision, time clause referring to the future adverbial clause. 突然决定,表示将来的时间状语;状语从句;让步状语从句。

说话瞬间突然做出决定,用will +动词原形表示。

表示将来的时间状语从句,在when, as soon as, after, before 引导的时间状语从句中用一般现在时表将来。

Adverbial clause of concession 让步状语从句

Although和though可以引导让步状语从句

Although she doesn‘t enjoy her job, she works hard..

五、Adverbial clause (2)cause, result and purpose

状语从句二原因、结果、目的状语从句

1. as, since, because 等连词可以引导原因状语从句

As I haven‘t studied, I won‘t pass this exam

2.so that 可以引导目的状语从句

He is studying hard so that he can become a doctor.

3.so …that 或such+(an) +名词+that 可引导结果状语从句。

It is so cold that the lake has frozen over.

4.在many, much, few, little 前用so 而不用such.

Famous film stars earn so much money nowadays that they can choose who to work for. 用so lovely a boy 可代替such a lovely boy.

六、prepositions of time, place and movement 表示时间,地点和动作的介词

Time :时间after lunch, at midnight, at night, at the movement, before Christmas, during the break in 1999, in April, in the morning, on Sunday, on 1st April.

Place 地点at home /the bank /the seaside /above the lake/ below the clouds, behind the tree, between the bank and the park., in Bake street, in the box, in the picture, on the table/bus/first floor, under the bridge, over the table.

Movement 动作: across the park\, along the river, in to the building, to/from Warsaw

七、Relative Clause 定语从句1

定语从句可用来修饰,限定正在谈论的人或物

Students who go to this school

没有定语从句就不知道所谈的和人或何物。

在定语从句中门要用下列关系代词:

Who (有时用that )用来指人,that用来指代动物。

Which (that)用来指代物地点等

The park that is in the center of the town has beautiful big trees.

Where 用来指代位置和地点,whose用来表示所属关系。

若关系代词which,that或who在定语从句中作宾语,而不做主语时, 可以省略。 3

The girl (who) you meet is Peter‘s sister.

八、language problem-solving ,a, an ,the

在下列情况下用a/an

1, 所谈论的事那个人或物并不重要时

2),所谈论的是一类人或物时,3,第一次谈论某人或物时,

2,单词首字母为辅音前用a ,而首字母为元音或以元音发音的名词前用an

3, 在下列情况下用the

1)所谈论的人或物是读者或听者已知晓的且易于辨认的。

2)当所谈论的人或物时世界上独一无二的

用或不用冠词的短语

英语有许多短语中冠词的使用很难解释清楚,所以需要牢记

No article:零冠词at home, at school, go to work, go to bed, have breakfast /lunch, in hospital, 和the 连用的短语:at the station, to the cinema, play the piano, in the morning/ evening . 和a 连用的短语:have a bath /shower, have a rest, have a cake, have a drink.

在国家和城镇名称前不用the 但在河流,海洋和山脉名称前要用the。

必修三

一、Relative Clause with where, when and why, where, when, why 引导的定语从句

关系副词where, when 引导的定语从句可提供时间和地点的信息,在reason后可用why 引导的定语从句。

介词+ which /whom 引导的定语从句

关系代词可做介词的宾语,通常在which和whom前加介词即介词+which/whom 结构 This is the book for which he is looking.

可以根据定语从句所修饰的名词或代词来选介词,也可以依据从句的相关动词来选用。但在日常英语中,通常是吧介词放在从句句末,省略关系代词which 和whom

The train(which /that) I‘m travelling on is for Shanghai.

二、形容词和副词的比较

More and more 越来越…

Less /the least 不如/最不…

The …the …越…就越… The less I worried, the better I worked.

三、修饰形容词比较级

Much, a lot, slightly, a little, almost, a bit, far, even, still, twice/ three times …more than/twice as much/many as/twice the +n +of …比…多/是… 的两倍/三倍。

四、状态或动作动词

英语中动词分为两类:动作动词和状态动词。动作动词描述动作,可用于一般时态和进行时态;状态动词描述状态,一般不用于进行时态。

状态动词

表达思维活动的动词:admit, believe, know, mean, prefer, realize, remember, think, understand, want,

表达情感的动词:adore,care, like, dislike, love, hate, hope

表达拥有和存在的动词:appear, be, belong, contain, have, include, need, seem, possess, own. 感官动词feel, hear, look, see, smell, sound, taste,有些状态动词也可以表示动作,在此意义上,这些动词可用于现在时。 How are you feeling?

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感官动词后用形容词修饰二不用副词。

The roses look and smell beautiful.

四、定语从句:defining and non-defining 限制性和非限制性定语从句

限制性定语从句修饰限定名词和代词,清楚表明所修饰的人或物,

The girl who is playing tennis is my friend.

非限制性定语从句提供句子意义以外的额外信息要用逗号隔开

My friend, who is playing tennis, comes from Italy.

非限制性定语从句中的关系代词which 可指整个句子:

It‘s very difficult to give up smoking, which is why my father failed several times.

五、现在完成进行时present perfect continuous

用法:1.过去开始的反复或正在进行的尚未完成的动作

I‘ve been going everywhere by bike for the last two months.

2. 最近的过去开始的对现在又影响的动作。

He ?s been doing his science project all night.(that‘s why he‘s so sleepy, now.)

Form:形式

Subject + have /has +been + -ing

You‘ve been studying very hard.

六、Present perfect and present perfect continuous

1.我们用现在完成时谈论一个完成的动作,用现在完成进行时谈论未完成的动作。

2.现在完成时关注动作结果,尤其谈到数字或数量时,现在完成进行时关注动作本身,特别是解释动作可见的结果时。

He has run three times

He has been running for an hour.

七、现在完成时和时间状语

现在完成时使用下列时间状语:.

1.before,ever, never, seldom, sometimes often, usually, just, 这些副词一般放在has /have 之后,有时放在句末。

2. already 用在陈述句中(一般在have 之后)yet 用在疑问句和否定句中(常放在句末)

3.for, since, all my life

For 说明动作的时间长度,since说明动作的起点。

八、too 加形容词,not + 形容词 + enough

Too + 形容词表示某物超过我们所需。标识语too + 形容词相反的意思用not + 形容词 + enough结构。

九、形容词的顺序

Quality –size/age/shape-color-origin-made of-type/usage-noun

Beautiful long brown hair

Metal half-moon glasses

Old French car

10、Articles 冠词 a/an

1,冠词a/an用在单数可数名词前,泛指某人某事,并把该人该事作为一群/一种的例子时。 2, 第一次谈论某事时用冠词a/an。

The,定冠词

1,当别人知道我们谈论的那个人那件事,并能容易地判定该人,该事时,

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The car is dirty.

2,谈论世上独一无二的事物。

3,河流,海洋,山脉和群岛名称前,the Nile.

4,单数名词表达整个种类时,The whale is the biggest mammal.

5,形容词谈论享有同一特征的群体时,

No article

1,在表示泛指的复数名词和不可数名词前

2,在洲,城镇, 湖泊,单座山脉,单个岛屿和国家名称前,,

3,机场,车站,街道的名称前

4,在复数形式的国名和国名中含有一个普通名词的国家名称前要加the.

必修四

一、some /any /no; a lot of /many /much; there is /are英语名词分为可数名词和不可数名词,可数名词有单,复数形式,而不可数名词只有单数形式。

Some, any, no, a lot of 是数量词,用在可数或不可数名词前。通常some用于肯定句,any用于否定句。

Much和a little 用于不可数名词前

I need some new shoes. I don‘t have any money.

We haven‘t bought much sugar. There is a little milk left.

Many 和a few 用于可数复数名词前

There aren‘t many quiet place nowadays.

I invited a few friends to my birthday party.

A lot of 用于可数复数名词和不可数名词前。Much和many主要用于否定句。

Not many people come to her party.

He haven‘t got much homework tonight.

表示某处有某物时常用there is /are 结构。

二、all none, both neither, 是限定词,all用于复数名词或不可数名词前表示人或物种的每一个或全部整体。

All (of) the players are fit. She ate all (of) her rice.

Noun of 用于复数名词或the +集合名词前,和noun 连用得动词可以使单数或复数,但总是肯定形式。表达两人或两物时,用both of和neither of。

三、another,other, the other, the second.

Another, other, the other , second 是限定词,another用于单数可数名词前表示“又一个”或另外一个,其他一种。

Other ,用于复数名词前,表示另外的,更多的。

There are other routes to school but this is the nicest one.

四、Infinitives 不定式

不定式to do在句中可做主与,表语,宾语,宾语补足语,定语和状语。

It is useful to know how to drive.(宾补)

The best way to learn a foreign language is to make friends with a foreigner.(定语,表语) I need to attend the meeting.(宾语)

在特定动词后,不定式可以和疑问词连用。

Verb+ who /which /how / when …+ to do

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不定式的否定式是not to do.

五、 The passive 被动语态。

1,可用于不知道或不需要强调动作执行者时,

The press conference will be held in the hotel lobby.

2, 动作的执行者很明确时。

3,要强调动作本身二不是强调谁做的这件事时。

4,有时,要强调的动作执行者时(人或物)通常在句末用by + 名词表示。

Form:

一般现在时:is/are +过去分词 一般过去时 was /were + 过去分词

现在进行时:is/are being + 过去分词

过去进行时:was /were being + 过去分词

现在完成时:have /has been +过去分词

过去完成时:had been +过去分词

Will : will be +过去分词

Can : can be + 过去分词

Be going to : is going to be +过去分词

六、gerund 动名词

动名词(ing形式)在句中起名词的作用,可用作主语,表语,定语和宾语(用在动词或介词后)

Smoking is a terrible habit.(主语)

The advertising of products and services is big business.(主语)

His hobby is colleting stamps.(表语)

He doesn‘t like my singing.(宾语)

We are tired from working all day. (宾语)

Where is the publishing house?(定语)

注意:不要混淆介词to 和不定式符号to (do) 动名词用于介词后。

I‘m looking forward to getting you early.

七、verbs followed by –ing from or infinitive.跟动名词或不定式。

跟不定式作宾语的动词有: decide, refuse, learn, ask, tell, fail, choose, promise, expect, wish, intend, manage, pretend, agree, help, arrange, afford, plan, would, like/ love/prefer, persuade, seem, appear, offer, attempt.

跟动名词作宾语的动词有:can‘t help, dislike, avoid, consider, finish, suggest, deny, give up, imagine, put off, risk, mind, keep, miss, enjoy, can‘t stand, fancy, admit, delay .

即可跟不定式,也可跟动名词做宾语的有:1)begin, start, continue, intend 这些动词后可跟不定式或动名词意义上区别不大, 可通用。

2)hate, like, love, prefer, 大部分表示喜欢或不喜欢,的动词常可跟动名词做宾语,也可跟不定式做宾语,但有时在含以上略有区别。

3)remember, forget, regret, mean, try, stop, need/want, 这些动词后用不定时还是动名词做宾语,含义不同。

Remember to do 记得将要做, remember doing 记得曾做过,

Regret to do 做事前,感觉遗憾,惋惜。 Regret doing 做此时后,感到懊悔。 Stop to do sth 停下正在做的事,开始另一件事。 Stop doing sth 停止正在做的事

Try to do sth, 努力尽力做某事。 Try doing sth, 试着做某事,看是否达到预期效果。

八、Present Participles,现在分词,即动词-ing形式,在句中起形容词作用或副词作用,可用 7

作定语,状语,表语和宾语补足语。

The crying child had a cut on his knee.

有时,现在分词短语可以替代定语或状语从句,现在分词短语还可以替代and 或but 连接两个并列句。

现在分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语也必须是句子的主语。

必修五

一、Past participles. 过去分词。过去分词在句中可做形容词或副词,修饰名词,在句中作定语,宾语补足语或表语。在英语书面语中,过去分词短语常用来连接句子的两个部分。这些过去分词短语可以用来在句子中代替reason clause 原因状语从句,time clause, 时间状语从句,conditional clause 条件状语从句。

二、Modals verbs: must, may, may not, might, can‘t, could,

Modals for guessing,表示推测的情态动词。

Must 肯定一定, may /might /could 可能,也许

May not, might nit :可能不

Can‘t 不可能

Modal + infinitive without to 情态动词 +不带to 动词不定式,表示对现在情况的推测。 Modal + be +-ing 情态动词 +be +动词ing

Modal + have + past participles 情态动词+have+ 过去分词表示对过去情况的推测。

三、Reported speech 间接引语(1)

Ask/ tell/order 某人+不定式报道请求或命令。若请求或命令式否定的,则用ask/tell /order 某人+not+不定式来表示。

Eg,The teacher asked the students to close their books.

The doctor told them not to worry.

四、Reported speech间接引语(2)

用法,报道某人所说的话时,间接引语中的时态要改变。

如下表:

直接引语 间接引语

Present simple 一般现在时 past simple 一般过去时 Present continuous 现在进行时 past continuous 过去进行时 Present perfect 现在完成时 past perfect 过去完成时

Present perfect continuous 现在完成进行时 past perfect continuous 过去完成进行时 Past simple 过去时 past perfect 过去完成时

Past continuous 过去进行时 past perfect continuous过去完成进行时 Will would

Be going to was/were going to

First conditional second conditional

Eg: We will go there if you want us to. (first conditional)

They said they would go there if he wanted them to.(second conditional)

五、Third conditional 虚拟语气和过去事实相反的假设。

构成:If +过去完成时would/could/might +不定式完成式。

Third conditional 可以表示过去非真实的场景,和对过去并未发生的事情提出假设。 六、1.wish +过去是太表示对现在情况感到懊悔遗憾。

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I wish I had more free time.

2.Wish + 过去完成时表示对过去发生的情况感到懊悔。

I wish we had gone rock climbing last weekend.

3. should

Should shouldn‘t + 不定式完成时表达对过去事情的懊悔(本不该)

I shouldn‘t have gone to that school.

选修六

一、Past perfect过去完成时

应用:1.过去完成时表示过去的事件之前发生的事件或存在的状态。

2.过去完成时和一般过去时用于同一个句子中表示过去的事情发生的顺序。

The police arrested the man who had broken into a jewelers.

When I arrived, she left.

When I arrived she had left.

Form:过去完成时的构成是:主语+had+动词过去分词。

I had met him before.

By + 过去时间点----过去完成时。

Before/after/until/when/引导时间状语。

Language awareness

二、to have /get something done

要别人为自己做某事:have/get something done 结构。

Form:形式

Tense have /get something done Present simple I have get my hair cut. Past simple I had get my hair cut.

Present continuous I‘m having /getting my hair cut. Past continuous I was having/getting my hair cut. Present perfect I‘ve had my hair cut.

Past perfect I had had/got my hair cut. Will I will have /get my hair cut. Must I must have /get my hair cut. Be going to I‘m going to have/get my hair cut.

三、Past perfect continuous 过去进行时

强调某个过去时间之前发生较长时间段内进行的动作。

She was rescued by a man who had been working in a nearby garage.

过去某个确定时间点内反复进行的动作。

We had only been driving for about fifteen minutes when Jill asked me to stop the car. 过去某个时间点还在进行的动作。

I‘d been waiting for the train for over an hour when they announced that it had been cancelled.

四、进行时态和非进行时态

在下列情况下使用进行时态。

1)动作还没有完成:The doctor was writing a note.

2)活动是暂时的而不是永久的。You‘re breathing quite heavily.

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3)较长时间内的反复进行的二不是一次发生的动作。

The man was looking at his watch.

下列动词不能用于进行时:know,like, understand, belong, resemble, realize.

五、Used to and would.

用would 和use to 表示过去经常进行二现在不再进行的动作。

She used to have more friends than anyone else I‘ve known.

Would 描述动作,used to 描述动作和状态。

We would /used to go mushroom-picking in autumn.

My little sister used to be very shy.

六、Determiners 限定词

1)在下列词前用限定词。

单个可数名词前:a/an, the, another, the other.

不可数名词前:the , some, no, a lot of, much, all (of the)

复数可数名词前:the, some, any, no, many, several, a lot of, all (of the), (the) other.

2)a/an 用于下列情况:

A第一次提到某事物,B,提到某个特定的人或无关紧要,如将该人或该物作为群体或类别的例子。C,当对方确切地知道并能够比较容易地辨认所提到的人或物时用the.

选修七

一、Noun clause 名词从句

名词从句是一组词,他在句中起名词作用,每个名词从句至少要有一个主语和谓语,名词从句是从属句子,在句中可以作主语,宾语,表语或同位语。

引导名词从句的引导词是:a: that, b: weather, if ,c: what, who, which, where, when, why, how long /much/ many …etc.

名词从句作主语:

It‘It‘It‘*it 形式主语,真正主语是名词从句。没有it 句子语法也正确,不过这种结构形式笔记哦啊正式,在口语中不常见。

名词从句作宾语:

I wonder whether I should accept the offer or not.

名词性从句作表语:

That‘s what we should do.

That is why he was late for school.

名词性从句作同位语:同位语常常跟在一个名词之后,解释名词内容,一下名词常常作同位语:news, fact, knowledge, thought, idea, belief, suggestion, feeling, word, etc.

I had no idea when the train crash happened.

Word came that our duties would be changed.

二、Impersonal report structures.非人称转述结构。

转述人们的一般认识或说的话时,我们可以用it+ 动词 (如say,know, believe, claim, suppose, think, fear, predict)被动式结构。

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It is said that dolphins are very friendly animals.

It was feared that the plane would crash in to skyscraper.

也可以把有关的人和事放在句首使用这种结构。

Subject+ the passive +infinitive

It was said that the minister had been involved in organized crime.

The minister was said that to have been involved in organized crime.

如果转述的动作发生在转述前用完成不定式。

如果转述的动作发生于转述的同一时间,可以用一般的动词不定式。

It is claimed that police officers accept bribes. Police officers are claimed to accept bribes. Get ahead 取得成功,取得进步。

in the absence of 缺乏,不存在。

Take the form /take a form of 以…的形式出现,存在。

Stay dedicated 保持,维持。Stay 是系动词和形容词连用。

stay seated 坐着别动

hold the key to …的关键, be associated with 联系

三、The future 将来时

除了,will/may/might +不带to 的不定式,现在进行时,be going to 结构和一般现在时之外,可以用下列时态和动词将来:

1.Future perfect将来完成时:

用将来完成时谈论在将来某个特定的时间之前完成的活动。

He will have written two books by next summer.

2.Future continuous: 将来进行时

用将来进行时谈论在将来某个特定的时间进行的活动。

I‘ll be working all evening so I won‘t be able to see you.

3.Time clause:时间状语从句

在when, as soon as, until, before, 和after 引导时间状语从句中,表示将来的时间时,不用will 用一般现在时。

When you got home, you will receive good news.

四、Pronouns 代词

代词是句子中代替名词的词。这样反复地过于频繁地使用名词。英语中有下列代词: 人称代词:主格代词:I, you, he, she, it, we, they,

宾格代词:me, you, him, her, it, us, them.

不定代词:someone, something, anything, nobody, nothing, etc.

所有格代词:mine, yours, his, her, their, ours

反身代词:myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves. 关系代词:who, which, that, whose, whom.

One VS you

泛泛谈论人物时,用one 和you 其意思是任何人,one 用在正式的语言中,而you 用在非正式语言中。

One has got (or you have got) more chance of finding an interesting job abroad nowadays.

五、Conditionals and mixed conditionals 条件句和混合条件句。条件句有四种:即:零条件句。第一条件句,第二条件句和第三条件句。

*按习惯分为两种,真实条件句和非真实条件句。这里的前两种属于真实条件句,后两种属于非真实条件句。

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所谓混合条件句是指混合的条件句中含有不同的条件结构。用混合条件句谈论:想象的过去事件可能对现在的影响。

If he had broken the record, he would be famous now.

Form: If + past perfect, would + infinitive ,without to

(as in 3rd conditional) (as in 2nd conditional)

非真实条件句常常是想象中的现在状态,可能对过去有影响。

If she didn‘t speak a few languages, she wouldn‘t have got that job.

Form: If +past simple, would +perfect infinitive

(as in 2nd conditional) (as in 3rd conditional) May/might/could/will/have to/ must/ can /need.

六、Modal verbs and Expressions 情态动词表达法。

1.情态动词用来谈论义务和需要:

I had to walk ten mils to get home.

2.谈论允许和禁止:

We mustn‘t disturb them.

3.谈论无必要:

We didn‘t have to pay for the beer, it was free.

You needn‘t worry, everything will be all right.

4.谈论能力:

My little daughter can sing and dance.

I could talk when I was two.

5.谈论可能性:

I can‘t go through to them, the live is busy.

John couldn‘t see us in the crowd.

6.猜想和猜测:

He will be cooking lunch now.

They must have found out about the article.

He might be Russian. He could be at the library.

7.预测:

He will be late, as usual.

They might win, if they try hard.

8.做决定:

I will talk to Jim about it.

I won‘t go there.

Didn‘t need VS needn‘t

Didn‘t +(不带to 的)不定式结构表示某人不用做某事,因为没有必要。

He was so rich he didn‘t need to worry about money.

Needn‘t +完成式的不定式结构表示某人做了某事尽管是不必做的。

We needn‘t have bought any food to the party –there was plenty already.

七、Verb patterns: ―ing‖ form. And infinitive D动词ing 和不定式used to, be used to and get used to .

1. 我们用used to +不带to 的不定式谈论过去的状态或经常进行的活动,这种状态和活动现在已终止。

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We used to go camping a lot.

2.be used to +动词 ing 形式或名词表示我们队某事很熟悉。

We‘re used to getting up early.

3.get used to + -ing form 形式或名词描述熟悉某事的过程。

We got used to eating rice when we lived in Asia.

选修八

一、Reporting 转述结构

下列词(依据所给结构)可用于报道某人所说的话。

1.Verb + that :动词+that 即:that 引导的宾语从句。

下列动词可用于此结构:

Add, admit, agree, announce, believe, boast, claim, complain, deny, declare, explain, insist, remind, suggest, warn, etc.

2.verb+somebody +that: 动词+某人+that (宾语从句)

They warned us that we might be stopped at the gate.

下列动词可用于此结构。warn, remind, etc.

3,verb +somebody to do something 动词+某人+不定式短语。

We advised him to change his bank.

下列动词可用于此结构:advise, beg, order, promise, etc.

4, verb +to do something :动词+不定式短语。

He threatened to take legal action.

下列动词可用于此结构:agree, offer, refuse, threaten, etc.

5.verb +-ing form 动词 +动词ing形式。

I suggested going to the presentation.

6.verb +if/whether :动词+动词ing形式。

She asked if it was possible to see the patient.

下列动词可用于此结构:inquire, ask, etc.

7.verb +preposition +ing form 动词+介词+动词ing形式。

下列动词可用于此结构:accuse of , succeed in, etc.

在下列情况下,在间接引语中不用改变原动词的时态。

主句动词时一般现在时时:I feel feverish – She says she feels feverish.

所报道的仍是真理时,如:一般事实。

Kangaroos live in Australia. ---- The teacher said that kangaroos live in Australia.

对进行报道那一刻而言,所报道的内容仍属于将要发生的事情时。

二、The Passive被动语态

下列情况下使用被动语态:

不知道动作的执行者时。

要关注的事动作的本身而不是动作执行者时。

要特别关注动作执行这时,

要避免句子主语太长时。

被动语态主要用于正式的表达和书面语中,是非常典型的报刊和报道用语,除了动词时态的被动形式外,还有其他被动形式:

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不定式的被动语态: It‘s nice to be taken seriously.

动名词的被动形式:We all enjoyed being praised by the teacher.

不定式的被动完成形式:The train may have been delayed by the storm.

三、Emphatic structures: inversion and ―it‖ cleft sentences.

强调结构,倒装句和分裂句“it”

把否定词(如seldom)置于句首形式倒装表示强调,即用疑问句的语序。这样的强调句通常用于正式的书面语中。

He was never known anything like it. Never has he known anything like it.

倒装形式的强调也可以用于对过去事实进行假设的条件中。

注意形成倒装时,要将if去掉。这样的倒装句常见于正式和非正式的表达中。

If I had known they were in town, I would have phoned them.

= Had I known they were in town, I would have phoned them.

在正式和非正式的表达中,可以用下列结构对某些词语进行强调。

It‘s money that he‘s interested.

四、表达完成的动词形式

表达完成的动词形式可以用来表达某特定时间前发生的动作。

I‘ve been staying with my family on the coast.

在下列情况下用表达完成的动词形式:

现在完成时

现在完成进行时

过去完成时

过去完成进行时

将来完成时:We will have moved out by the end of next year.

不定式完成式:They may have lost their way.

动词ing形式的完成式: I remembered having met the man long time ago.

五、Persuasion说服

在正式的英语书面语及非正式的英语口语中,常用不同方式来告知人们,我们认为他们该做什么。

英语书面语

在进行正式书面表达时,下列表达方式可以强化“建议”

Should +不带to 的不定式

Ought to +不带to 的不定式

Demand/insist/suggest + (that) +subject +should do something

(that) +subject +present tense

(主+现在时态) +(that)+subject + subjunctive

(主语+虚拟语气) (same form as infinitive)

英语口语

跟熟人交谈时,用下列表达方式可以使“建议”听上去不那么强硬,具有试探性

If I were you , I‘d + infinitive without ―to‖ 不带to 的不定式,是建议听上去语气略强时,用些列结构:

I think you should +不带to 的不定式

I think you ought to +不带to 的不定式

用下列表达方式可以强硬地对某人批评,责怪或提出建议。使用这样的表达方式的人常常具有权威性,如教师对学生,家长对孩子。

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It‘s about time +主语+一般过去时

I‘d (I would ) rather +主语+一般过去时

You‘d better (had better) + 不带to 的不定式

You‘d better 也可以用在和朋友交谈时,表示鼓励或说服。

I‘d sooner you +一般过去时,这种表达方式现在已不多用。而改用“I‘d rather ” 这两种结构后面通常用动词的否定形式。

六、Persuasion

在正式的和非正式的语言表达中,常用不同的方式来告知人们他们该做什么。

1,在正式用语中,用下列结构:ought to +不定式

Demand /insist /suggest that +主语+should /do something 一般现在时、虚拟语气(同不定式形式)

It‘s high time +主语+一般过去时(正式用法通常为权威人士使用)

2,在非正式用语中,用if I were you, I‘d +不定式。

I‘d (would)rather +主语+一般过去时

You‘d better /had better +不带to 的不定式

It‘s about time +主语+一般过去时

(除非用于密友或家长谈话,否则这种表达方式显得生硬粗鲁)

I‘d sooner+ 主语+一般过去时(这种表达方式相当正式,说话人带有明显的偏爱) 3,在进行正式的和非正式语言表达时,用should +不定式

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