高中英语语法知识点总结(76900字)

来源:m.fanwen118.com时间:2021.7.8

高中英语知识点扫描大全 涛哥

一、定语从句与强调句陷阱题详解

1. The factory was built in a secret place, around _________ high mountains.

A. which was B. it was C. which were D. them were

【陷阱】容易误选A或B,将A、B中的 which 和 it 误认为是其后句子的主语。

【分析】最佳答案是C,around which were high mountains 是一个由―介词+which‖引出的非限制性定语从句,而在该从句中,主语是 high mountains,around which 是表语,所以句子谓语应用复数were,而不是用单数 was。请做以下类例题目(答案均为C):

(1) Yesterday we visited a modern hospital, around _________ some fruit shops.

A. which is B. it is C. which are D. them are

(2) The murder happened in an old building, beside _________ the city police station.

A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

(3) Next month we’ll move to a new building, next to _________ a nice restaurants where we can have Chinese food.

A. which are B. it is C. which is D. them are

2. A man with a bleeding hand hurried in and asked, ―Is there a hospital around _________ I can get some medicine for my wounded hand?‖

A. that B. which C. where D. what

【陷阱】容易误选 B,认为 around 是介词,选 which 用以代替前面的名词 hospital,在此用作介词 around 的宾语。

【分析】最佳答案为C。以上语法分析并不算错,但问题是,照此分析,此句的意思即为:有没有这样一个医院,我在它的附近可以买药治我的手伤?这样的语境显然有点不合情理,因为人们通常是在医院里面治伤,而不是在医院附近治伤。此题选 C 的理由是:句中的 around 不是介词,而是副词,意为―在附近‖;其后的 where 引导定语从句用以修饰其前的地点名词 hospital,句意为:附近有没有一家医院,我可以去治我的手伤?

3. David is such a good boy _________ all the teachers like. A. that B. who C. as D. whom

【陷阱】此题容易误选A,许多同学一看到题干中的such,再联系到选项中的 that,便认为这是考查such … that …句式。况且,这样理解意思也还通顺。

【分析】最佳答案为C,不是A,因为在such … that … (如此……以至……)结构中,that 引导的是结果状语从句,并且 that 在从句中不充当句子成分,若在上句填入 such … that …,句末的动词 like 缺宾语。选C的理由如下:as 用作关系代词,用以引导定语从句,修饰其前的名词 boy,同时 as 在定语从句中用作动词 like 的宾语,句意为―所有老师都喜欢的一位好男孩‖。有的同学可能还会问,假若选A,能否将其后的 that 视为引导定语从句的关系代词呢?不能,因为当先行词受到 such 的修饰时,其后的定语从句应用关系代词 as 来引导,而不用that。比较下面一题,答案为A,因为 like 后有自己的宾语 him: David is such a good boy _________ all the teachers like him. A. that B. who C. as D. whom

请再做以下试题(答案选D):

It was not such a good dinner _________ she had promised us. A. like B. that C. which D. as

4. The buses, most of _________ were already full, were surrounded by an angry crowd.

A. that B. it C. them D. which

【陷阱】容易误选 C,用 them 代指 the buses。

【分析】最佳答案是D。most of which were already full 为非限制性定语从句,修饰 the buses。类似地,以下各题也选D:

(1) His house, for _________ he paid $10, 000, is now worth $50, 000. A. that B. it C. them D. which

(2) Ashdown forest, through _________ we’ll be driving, isn’t a forest any longer.

A. that B. it C. them D. which

(3) This I did at nine o’clock, after _________ I sat reading the paper. A. that B. it C. them D. which 类似地,以下各题选 whom,不选 them:

(4) George, with _________ I played tennis on Sundays, was a warm-hearted person.

A. that B. him C. them D. whom

(5) Her sons, both of _________ work abroad, will come back home this summer.

A. that B. who C. them D. whom

(6) I met the fruit-pickers, several of _________ were still university students.

A. that B. who C. them D. whom

5. He had a lot of friends, only a few of _________ invited to his wedding.

A. whom B. them C. which D. who

【陷阱】容易误选 A,认为这是非限制性定语从句。

【分析】最佳答案是B,这不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 invited 并不是一个完整的谓语,而是一个过去分词。当然,假若在 invited 前加上助动词 were,则是一个非限制性定语从句,答案便应选A。比较:

(1) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _________ carried out in their work.

A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选B,none of them carried out in their work 是独立主格结构,其中的 carried out 为过去分词。

(2) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, none of _________ were carried out in their work.

A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选A,none of them were carried out in their work 是非限制性定语从句,注意与上例比较句中多了一个助动词were。

(3) They put forward a lot of plans at the meeting, but none of _________ were carried out in their work.

A. which B. them C. what D. that

答案选B,由于两句之间增加了一个并列连词but,使得该句成了一个并列句。

6. On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents seated together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

【陷阱】容易误选B,认为这是非限制性定语从句。

【分析】最佳答案是A。与上面一题相似,their parents seated together joking 不是非限制性定语从句,而是一个独立主格结构,因为空格后的动词 seated 不是谓语,而是一个过去分词,因为 seat 作动词用时,是及物动词。比较以下相似题:

(1) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents were seated together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选B。whose parents were seated together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为其后有完整的谓语 were seated。

(2) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, and _________ parents were seated together joking. A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选A。因为句中有并列连词and,整个句子为并列句。

(3) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents sitting together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选A。their parents sitting together joking 为独立主格结构。

(4) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents sat together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选B。whose parents sat together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为句中有完整的谓语 sat。

(5) On Sundays there were a lot of children playing in the park, _________ parents were sitting together joking.

A. their B. whose C. which D. that

选B。whose parents were sitting together joking 为非限制性定语从句,因为句中有完整的谓语 were sitting。

7. If the man is only interested in your looks, _________ just shows how shallow he is.

A. as B. which C. what D. that

【陷阱】容易误选A或B,误这是非限制性定语从句。

【分析】正确答案为D,注意逗号前是一个条件状语从句,逗号后是该状语从句的主句,that 在此代表前文所述的情况,用作主句的主语。类似地,下面几道题也选 that,而不选 which:

(1) If you promise to go with us, _________ will be OK. A. as B. which C. and it D. that

(2) If you want a double room, _________ will cost another £15. A. as B. which C. what D. that

(3) Whether you go or not, _________ is quite all right with me. A. that B. which C. and it D. so

(4) When I say two hours, _________ includes time for eating. A. as B. which C. what D. that

二、常见名词考点透析

一、单、复数名词的正确使用

[例] They have all sorts of course. (2006陕西高考·改错 )

[析] 英语中,名词有单数、复数或不可数的形式。本题中的course是可数名词,意指―课程‖,故应用复数形式courses。

二、仅以复数形式出现的名词

[例] Happy birthday, Peter, and many happy return of the day! (2000安徽春考·改错)

[析] Many happy returns of the day! 是一句固定的生日祝语,相当于汉语的―祝你年年有今日,岁岁有今朝!‖returns 在此处便是约定俗成的用法。

除这一结构外,像shake hands with (= shake sb’s hand), make friends with和change seats / trains / buses等常用的结构,及thanks, cheers, congratulations, things(情况), affairs, feelings, as follows(如下), in tears, in ruins, in pieces, in chains(被囚禁), in high spirits, in one’s teens / twenties, in the 1990’s (或in the 1990s), into halves, good manners, give one’s regards / best wishes to, make contributions to, make preparations for等,也都是常用或只用复数的名词式。

三、纯粹不可数名词的使用

[例] I’m glad you have made such a great progress that... (2006江西高考·改错)

[析] 在英语中,有些名词, 如advice(建议), news, information, fun, weather, progress, homework, housework等,无论在什么情况下都是不可数的,所以这些词没有复数形式,也不可把其与不定冠词连用。可见,such a great progress 使用有误(须改为such great progress)。再例: She was doing her homeworks one Sunday morning when she smelt something burning. (2004高考福建卷·改错)由于homework为不可数名词,所以,作业再多,也无复数。

四、转义名词的考查热点

[例] When you finish reading the book, you will have ______ better understanding of ______ life

A. a; the B. the; a C. 不填; the D. a; 不填

[析] 本题旨在考查考生对understanding和life这两个名词可数性的界定:understanding已为转义用法,life在此泛指―人生‖,是不可数名词,故而便可正确选用冠词。

转义名词主要分为两类:①把抽象意义转化为具体意义,因而赋予其可数功能;②把具体意义的名词抽象化,从而赋予其不可数性。

转义名词一直是高考测试的热点。其考查主要出现在单项和短文改错题中。其常考热点如下:

(1)抽象转具体: pleasure, surprise, help, success, failure, danger, difficulty, wonder等意为―...的人 / 物‖。如: The meeting is a success.

(2)抽象转具体: worry, honor, disaster, rain, snow, fog, wind, gas, fire, crop, coffee, tea, food等,指―一种‖、―一场‖及―多种‖、―多场‖时,有其单、复数形式。如:There have been strong winds over the last two months.

(3)抽象转具体: a need, a discovery, a love, a good time, a collection of, a knowledge of, a history of, a population of, an area of, an understanding of等已形成固定形式。如: He has a good practical knowledge of computer science

(4)具体转抽象: school, college, hospital, court, prison, bed, table, church等,都是可数名词,可以有具体的

意义,如a school, three schools。再例如:

When you come here for your holiday next time, don't go to _____ hotel; I can find you _____ bed in my flat.

A. the; a B. the; 不填 C. a; the D. a; 不填

但是,在不用冠词、不用复数,而只突出与之有关的活动时,它们便失去了具体意义。如: go to school, at table等。 再例如:

When he left ______ college, he got a job as ______ reporter in a newspaper office.

A. 不填; a B. 不填; the C. a; the D. the; the

(5)具体转抽象: day, night, morning, noon, evening, night等用指天色时,表达抽象概念(注意其前不用冠词)。如: Day may break now, for the birds are singing outside.

五、名词与形容词定语的区别

[例] There have been sports in America about people trying to steal person information for bad purposes.(2004全国高考III·改错)

[析] 形容词和名词都可作定语,但有时含义有别,有时则出现错误。如可说a golden medal(一块镀金奖牌/一块金色的奖牌),也可以说a gold medal (一块金牌); 但可说a chemistry teacher(化学老师),而不可说a chemical teacher(化学原料做的老师?),但可说a chemical works(一家化工厂)。据此可见,此题中的―个人信息‖不应用person information表达。

另应注意,除man, woman常用―单单 (a woman doctor)‖、―复复 (two women doctors)‖式,及一些特殊词,如a goods ship, the sports shoes, a clothes shop等以外,用作修饰词的名词,一般都要用单数式。如: a lady doctor, two lady doctors等。

六、与动词或介词构成的固定搭配

[例] It is said that dogs will keep you _____ for as long as you want when you are feeling lonely.

A. safety B. company C. house D. friend

[析] 无论是动宾结构还是介宾结构,有时名词虽然近义,但却不能主观臆断,而要选择固定的搭配式。本题的keep sb company就是一个典型的固定搭配式,意为―与……为伴‖。

七、名词搭配的语境限定

[例] You have been sitting on my hat and now it is badly out of ________. (2006广东高考)

A. date B. shape C. order D. balance

[析] out of date 意为―过期,不时髦‖;out of shape意思是―不成形的‖;out of order就是in disorder,意为―乱七八糟的‖。搭配并无问题,而意义决定了B是正确答案。

八、名词的同、近义词辨析

[例] I’m sure David will be able to find the library—he has a pretty good ______ of direction.

A. idea B. feeling C. experience D. sense

[析] 名词的同、近义词辨析,不仅仅较多地应用于书面表达,而且还可以较为灵活地设题于单项填空、完形填空或短文改错题中。本题的四个近义词选项中,sense的―意识‖性更强,因而答案选D。

常易设题的同、近义名词有如下各组:

(1)cause, reason, excuse, explanation; (2)family, home, house, room, space;

(3)sign, signal, mark, example, symbol; (4)award, reward, prize, money;

(5)value, price, cost, charge; (6)kind, sort, type, variety;

(7)range, reach, distance, length; (8)news, word, message, information, notice;

(9)energy, force, strength, power; (10)accident, incident, affair, event, business, matter;

(11)practice, training, exercise, drill;

三、从高考题看情态动词的用法

最近几年高考试题中常常借助语境来考查情态动词的基本用法及其区别,因此在平时学习时准确理解和掌握情态动词的基本用法十分重要。情态动词的用法复杂多变,在高考试题中,命题者常常利用语境和句子之间意义上的细微差别来考查学生对情态动词的理解和掌握。对于情态动词,除了要求考生能够准确掌握

它们的基本用法外,还要充分利用高考试题所设置的语境来分析句子之间所体现的特殊关系。下面就近几年来高考试题中出现的情态动词的考点进行归纳分析,以便同学们复习掌握。

一、用―情态动词+have +done‖结构表示对过去动作的推测,高考试题中常用过去时态或过去的时间状语给以暗示。情态动词的这一用法可以用 ―对立统一‖来概括。

1.当试题的前句和后句在动作和意义上相互补充说明,且整个句意在动作和时间上是一个整体时,我们可用―统一‖关系来解决这样的试题。常见的结构有:

must have done: 表示对过去动作的肯定推测,常译作―一定做了……‖,只能用于肯定句中。其否定形式为can't/couldn't have done 疑问式为Can/Could...have done?。

could /might have done:表示对过去发生的动作的可能性推测,常译作―可能做了……‖。如:

1) Sorry I'm late. I _____ have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again.

A. might B. should C. can D. will

该题前句说明了结果,后句接着说出了产生这种结果的可能性,对前句进行补充说明。分析选项可知本题应选A。

2) My sister met him at the Grand Theater yesterday afternoon, so he ____ your lecture. 

A.couldn't have attended B.needn't have attended C.mustn't have attended D.shouldn't have attended 该题前句叙说一个客观事实,后句对前句进行补充说明,分析选项可知C是错误的; 而B、D两项不符合题意。故本题选A。又如:

Jack ____ yet, otherwise he would have telephoned me.

A.mustn't have arrived B.shouldn't have arrived C.can't have arrived D.need not have arrived (C)

2.当试题的前后句在动作和意义上构成转折关系时,常借助―but, however, instead‖等词来表示过去的动作与客观事实不符,这时我们就可以用―对立‖关系来解决这样的试题。这种结构常见的有:

should have done / ought to have done:表示过去本应该做某事而实际上没有做。

should not have done / ought not to have done:表示过去本不应该做某事但事实上却做了。

need have done:表示过去本来有必要去做某事,但事实上没有做。

need not have done:表示过去本来没有必要做某事,但事实上却做了。如:

3) I was really anxious about you. You _____ home without a word.

A.mustn't leave B.shouldn't have left C.couldn't have left D.needn't leave

分析该题前后句之间的关系和语气可知,事实上是 ―本不应该离家出走却走了‖,故本题选B。

4) I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I _____ for her. (NMET'94)

A.had to write it out B.must have written it out C.should have written it out D.ought to write it out 由句中的连词but可知前后句之间是对立关系,分析题意可知本题应选C。

二、考查情态动词基本用法之间的比较和辨析。最近几年高考试题中常借助具体的语境来考查考生对那些最常见的情态动词的基本用法的理解和掌握,因此在做这样的试题时应认真分析语境中所含的实际意义,并结合情态动词的基本含义和用法做出正确的选择。

5) —Is John coming by train? —He should, but he ______ not. He likes driving his car.

A.must B.can C.need D.may

mustn't 表示―禁止、不准‖;cannot 表示―不可能‖;need not 表示―不必要‖;may not 表示―可能不‖。分析语境可知本题应选D。

6) —I hear you've got a set of valuable Australian coins.___ I have a look?

—Yes, certainly. A.Do B.May C. Shall D.Should

分析语境可知这是在征求对方的许可,may表示―允许、可以‖,语气比较委婉 shall常用于第一、三人称作主语的疑问句中,表示征求对方意见和指示,如果此空用shall,则意为―要(我)看一下吗?‖,不符合上下文意思。故本题选B。

7) Mr Bush is on time for everything. How ____ it be that he was late for the opening ceremony?

A.can B.should C.may D.must

must be 表示肯定的猜测,只能用于肯定句中,由题意可知本题应选A。

8) —Are you coming to Jeff's party? —I'm not sure. I ____ go to the concert instead.

A.must B.would C.should D.might

由题意和下句中的 ―I'm not sure‖ 可知这段对话中存在一种可能性推测,might可以用来表示一种比较委婉的可能性判断,故本题选D。又如:

I should have been there, but I _____ not find the time.

A.would B.could C.might D.should

分析题意可知第二个分句表示过去的某种能力;C 项只表示语气上的可能性,与题意不符。故本题选B。

9) Johnny, you ____ play with the knife, you ____ hurt yourself.

A.won't; can't B.mustn't; may C.shouldn't; must D.can't; shouldn't

mustn't 表示―不可以;禁止‖,分析题意可知第二个空表示某种可能性,故本题选B。

10) —Will you stay for lunch? —Sorry, ______. My brother is coming to see me.

A.I mustn't B.I can't C.I needn't D.I won't

分析题意可知因为―我弟弟要来看我‖,所以―不能留下‖,因此对别人的邀请或要求应给予礼貌的拒绝。

A 项表示―禁止‖;C项表示―不必要‖;而D项表示―不会‖,均不符合题意。故本题选B。又如: —Could I borrow your dictionary? —Yes, of course you _____.

A.might B.will C.can D.should (C)

11)—When can I come for the photos? I need them tomorrow afternoon.—They __be ready by 1200.

A.can B.should C.might D.need

该题考查情态动词should的基本含义,分析句意可知本题应选B。又如:

The old man is always hunting the lions, so terrible things ____ happen to him.

A.might B.would C.should D. could C

12)The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ____ get out.

A.had to B.would C.could D.was able to

该题考查了could和be able to的区别,二者都可表示过去时间的能力,但如果表示过去成功地做了某事只能使用was / were able to do,故本题选D。

13)—Shall I tell John about it? —No, you ___.I've told him already.

A.needn't B.wouldn't C.mustn't D.shouldn't

情态动词shall在试题中表示征询对方意见或请求指示。答句暗示 ―没有必要了‖,故本题选A。

四、be to do, be going to do, be about to do辨析

1. be to do:

1) 表示事先商定、安排或准备要做的事情。如:The students are to meet at the school gate tomorrow. 明天学生们将在学校大门口集会。

2) 表示可能性,必要、责任、义务、禁止等。如:Her necklace was not to(couldn't)be found. 她的项链找不到了。

2. be going to do:

1) 表示将要发生的事情或打算最近要进行的动作。如:It is going to rain soon. 快要下雨了。

2) 在含有条件状语从句的主从复合句中,主句一般不用be going to,而常用will(第一人称用shall)。如:

The football match will be put off if it rains tomorrow. 如果明天下雨,足球赛将被推迟举行。

3. be about to do:

1) 表示即将发生的动作,在时间上指最近的将来。如:

We are about to start. 我们就要出发了。

The new school year is about to begin. 新学年开学在即。

2) 在含有be about to do的句子中,不能再加时间状语。如:

Wrong: The medical team is about to start immediately.

Right: The medical team is about to start. 医疗队就要出发了。

附:be to do 用法的详细讲解:

一般说来,―be to do‖ 这个结构有两种语法意义,其一是连系动词be+动词不定式做表语,其二是be to是一个独立词汇单位,具有情态含义,可以把它叫做情态习语(modal idiom)。

一、be +动词不定式, 不定式做表语,表示主语和表语在概念上是等同的。如:

The problem is to find a solution.

His plan is to clean the room.

My wish is to be a doctor.

二、be to +动词不定式中的be to用作情态习语, 这时的be to do表示: ―计划‖、―安排‖、―义务‖、―应该‖、―可能‖、―命运‖等。(have to, ought to)。如:

He is to have a holiday. (表示将来)

The committee is to meet today. (表示计划、安排)

You are to go to the hotel where rooms have already been booked for you.

1. 表示 ―将‖、―计划‖、―安排‖。(意思接近于be going to) 如:

Their daughter is to get married soon.

Who is to question him?

It was the last film at the cinema,which was to close next day.

After dinner they were to go to a movie.

was/ were to do 表示过去曾经计划要做的事,或者过去应当做的事,而且从现在的角度来看已经实现了。如:

I felt nervous because I was soon to leave home for the first time.

I was to play Juliet.

The expedition was to start in a week’s time.

was/ were to have done, 表示 ―本打算‖、―本计划‖或―本应当‖ 做的事而没有做成或没有发生。如: I was to have seen him last Wednesday, but he didn’t come.

We were to have been married last year.

2. 表示 ―义务‖、―应该‖ 。(意思接近于should,must,ought to,have to) 如:

No one is to leave the building. 谁也不得离开这楼房。

You are not to smoke in this room.=You are not supposed to smoke in this room.

You are to be back by 10 o’clock. 你必须十点以前回来。

3. 表示可能性, 相当于can, may 如:

Such books are to be found in the library. 这样的书在图书馆里就能找到。

Not a single sound was to be heard. 一点儿声音也听不到。

Not a soul was to be seen. 看不到一个人影。

She was nowhere to be found. 哪儿也找不到她。

She was never to see his wife and family again.

5. 表示 ―命运‖, 将来必然要发生的事, 译作 ―注定……‖。如:

He came to power, but he was to play dearly for it: soon he was assassinated.

The worst is still to come.

They said goodbye, little knowing they were never to meet again.

6. 用于―if…were to do‖,表示虚拟语气。如:

If it were to rain tomorrow, the sports meeting would be put off. 如果明天下雨, 运动会就会延期。

五、With引导的独立主格结构分析

with独立主格结构是英语中一种重要的句法现象,在句子结构方面具有相对独立的特点。多年来也一直是命题的热点、重点,因此应该引起我们的高度重视。众所周知,with引导的独立主格结构非常活跃,虽然

它在句子中只作状语,但是可以表示伴随、方式、原因、结果等各种复杂的情况。

现将with引导的独立主格结构总结如下。

一、句法结构

1. with +名词(代词)+介词短语

He sat there thinking, with his chin on his hand.他手托下巴,坐在那儿沉思。

The old man stood there, with his back against the wall.那位老人背倚着墙站在那里。

Mary was sitting near the fire, with her back towards the door.玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。

2. with +名词(代词)+形容词

He stared at his friend with his mouth wide open.他张大嘴巴凝视着他的朋友。

The man raised his head with eyes full of wonder and mystery.这人抬起头来,眼里充满了好奇。

He stood there trembling, with his face red with cold.他站在那儿瑟瑟发抖,脸都冻红了。

3.with +名词(代词)+副词

With production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year.产量上升了60%, 公司又是一个好年景。

The stupid Emperor walked in the procession with nothing on.这位愚蠢的皇帝一丝不挂地行进在游行队伍中。

The naughty boy stood before his teacher with his head down.这个淘气的男孩低着头站在老师面前。 He put on his socks with the wrong side out.他把袜子穿反了。

4.with +名词(代词)+名词

She used to sit reading in the evening with her pet dog her only companion.

她从前总爱在晚上坐着看书,她的宠物狗便是她唯一的伙伴。

He died with his daughter yet a schoolgirl.他去世的时候,女儿还是个中学生。

5.with +名词(代词)+现在分词

She stood there chatting with her friend, with her child playing beside her.她站在那儿跟朋友闲聊,孩子在旁边玩。

With you helping me whenever I’m in trouble, I feel very obliged to you.无论我什么时候遇到困难你总是帮助我,真是太感激你了。

6.with +名词(代词)+过去分词

―I think we can leave with our heads held high,‖ Eriksson said. ―We came out of the toughest group, beat Argentina, beat Denmark in a convincing way.‖―我认为我们可以高昂着头离开,‖艾里克松说。―我们来自死亡之组,以一种令人信服的方式击败了阿根廷,击败了丹麦。‖

The goalkeeper left Japan with his flaws laid bare.这位守门员离开了日本,而他的缺点却暴露无遗。

7.with +名词(代词)+不定式

With 10 minutes to go, you’d better hurry. 还有十分钟,你最好快一点。

With you to lead us, our group is sure to succeed. 有你领导我们,我们组肯定能成功。

二、句法功能

【作状语】 with独立主格结构主要用作状语,可以表示伴随、方式、原因、时间等。

例8 With Mary to help him, he is sure to succeed. 有玛丽的帮助,他一定能成功。

【作定语】 主要是用作后置定语。

例9 The girl reached a river bank with so many flowers on both banks.这个女孩来到了两岸开满鲜花的河边。

三、句法关系

【主表关系】 主表关系这种关系主要是由with独立主格结构中的名词和其后的形容词、副词以及介词短语构成。

例10 Mother looked at me with tears in her eyes. 妈妈眼含泪水看着我。

【主谓关系】这种关系主要是由with独立主格结构中的名词和其后的现在分词构成。

例11 With night coming on, we started for home. 夜幕降临,我们动身回家。

例12 The boy lay on the grass, with his eyes looking at the sky.小男孩躺在草地上,两眼望着天空。

【动宾关系】这种关系主要是由with独立主格结构中的名词和其后的过去分词及动词不定式构成的,前者表示―被动、完成‖,后者表示―未做、待做‖。

例13 With so much work to do, we had to sit up through the night.有这么多工作要做,我们不得不彻夜不眠。

四、句法省略

【省略特征】 with独立主格结构中的省略主要是指在―with + n + 介词短语‖结构中的省略,其特点是省去with及介词短语中的名词修饰词,也就是:―n + 介词 + n‖。

例14 She ran to the hero, flowers in hand.她手里拿着鲜花跑向这位英雄。

六、英语泛指与特指的转换与活用

泛指和特指是每年高考必考的一组概念,在英语中广泛使用。―泛指‖是指普遍、不确定的人或事物,而―特指‖则是指具体、特定的人或事物。在实践中,这两个概念是可以灵活运用且相互转换的。下面分几个方面谈谈:

一、―泛指‖与―特指‖的多种表达

说起―泛指‖,我们马上想起不定冠词(a/an),其实不带冠词的不可数名词和复数名词都可以表―泛指‖, 有些表―不定‖概念的限定词(another, some, a few, most, enough, hundreds of, plenty of等 )也可以充当这个作用。例如:

I want to buy a book/some books. Books are of great use. Air is all around us.

I will stay there for a few days/another few days.

―特指‖经常由定冠词(the)或表―特定‖概念的限定词(物主代词,指示代词,名词所有格等)来充当。假如将―中国的第二大河流‖说成 ―China’s the second longest river‖ 是不妥当的, 因为China’s 和the 在―特指‖的概念上是重复的。―那个门破了的教室‖既可以译成 ―the classroom whose door is broken‖也可以说成 ―the classroom the door of which is broken‖,因为 ―door‖ 前应该有个表―特指‖的限定词。同样,―with one’s help/ take one’s place‖ 可能在另一场合会变成―with the help of/ take the place of‖。

在表达―倍数‖时,我们常常看到这样一个公式:―倍数 + the + 名词(size/height/ length) + of ‖。如果把它改为―倍数 + 表特指的名词/代词‖就可以更好理解的下面的句子了:

① The size of the newly broadened square is four times that of the previous one. (that=the size)

② I offer ten times the money that Antonia has borrowed. =I offer ten times what Antonia has borrowed. (what=the money that 定语从句)

③ You can’t imagine that rats eat 40 to 50 times their weight.(their weight=the weight of rats)

二、―泛指‖与―特指‖的转化

―泛指‖与―特指‖在不同的语境中并非一成不变,它们是可以转换的。

(一)―泛指‖转化为―特指‖

1.① I spent many happy hours with them.

② This picture reminds me of the many happy hours I spent with them.

2.① I bought a few books in the bookstore.

② The few books I bought in the bookstore are written in English .

3. ① I don’t feel like drinking water.

② I don’t feel like drinking the water from this well.

4.① Cotton played an important part in Industrial Revolution.

② The most important thing about cotton in history is the important part that it played in Industrial Revolution.

5.① I have done a little to help you.

② I hope the little that I’ve been able to do has been of some use to you.

以上的②句中的划线部分都是由于有一个定语限定而转化为―特指‖。

另外,在一些限定词的后面只能接泛指的名词,如:a lot of, plenty of, dozens of, hundreds of等。然而,有些却可以增加一个 ―of‖,便只能后接特指的成分:

后接表―泛指‖的名词 后接表―特指‖的名词/代词

some (students) some of (the students) a good many (people) a good many of (the people) most most of (us) a dozen a dozen of (these apples) five hundred five hundred of (them)

(二)―特指‖转化为―泛指‖

1.When the spaceship traveled above, a new-looking earth appeared before us, an earth that we had never seen before. 当宇宙飞船在上空运行时,一个全新的地球出现在我们面前,以往我们都不曾看过。

2.It is a world of wonders, a world where anything can happen.(2004福建卷)

3.It’s really fun to walk alone with a full moon hanging in the sky.

4.Having been overseas for half a century, he returned and found himself in a brand-new China.

本来―the earth/ the world/ the moon/ China‖都是特指的,但是,如果增加一些修饰成分之后,指不同时期、不同角度看到的或不同形状的―地球、世界、月亮、中国‖的话,它们就转化为泛指了。

5.I knew a John Lennon, but not the famous one. (2005高考山东卷)

John Lennon是一个著名歌手,当然是特指。句中的a John Lennon= another person whose name happened to be John Lennon, 是泛指。

6.① He, who led the USA through these years, was shot on April 14, 1865 at a theatre in Washington, D.C. ② He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man. 不到长城非好汉。

第一个He=Abraham Lincoln,是特指,要用非限制性定语从句;第二个He= anyone,是泛指;。

7.①—What new subjects are you going to have in the second grade?(特指)

—I’m going to learn a second foreign language.(表―又一‖,泛指。)

② No one can have a higher IQ (=an IQ which is even higher) than the taller of the twin brothers. ③ The most diligent student in our class have a most(=very)interesting book.

一般情况下,在比较级、最高级、序数词中用 ―a/an‖表―泛指‖,用 ―the‖表―特指‖。

七、反意疑问句特殊形式总结

英语中,反意疑问句是由陈述句和附在其后的附加疑问句组成。其中附加疑问句是对陈述句所说的事实或观点提出疑问,起证实作用,一般用于证实说话者所说的事实或观点。现将特殊形式的反意疑问句归纳如下:

一、There be 句型陈述句比较特殊, 其附加疑问句的结构为there be的倒装,而不带句子主语。例如: There is something wrong with the computer, isn't there? 这台电脑有点毛病,是不是?

There aren't any fish in the river, are there? 这条河里没有鱼, 是吗?

二、当陈述部分的主语是everyone, everybody, someone, nobody, no one, none, anyone, somebody等合成不定代词时, 在非正式文体中,附加疑问句中的主语通常用he或they。例如:

Someone opened the door, didn't he/they? 有人开了门,是不是?

Nobody went to the cinema, did they? 没人去看电影,是吗?

三、当陈述部分的主语是everything, nothing, something, anything等合成词,附加疑问句中的主语用it。例如:

Nothing serious happened, did it? 什么事情也没有发生,对吗?

Everything is ready, isn't it? 一切准备就绪了,不是吗?

四、当陈述部分的谓语动词是am的肯定形式时,附加疑问句的谓语动词用aren't,而不用am not;当陈述部分的谓语动词为am not时,附加疑问句的谓语仍用am。例如:

I am five years younger than you, aren't I? 我比你小五岁,不是吗?

I am not late, am I? 我没有迟到,对吗?

五、当陈述部分带有few, little, hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom, never, nowhere, nothing, no one, nobody等表示

否定或半否定意义的词时,附加疑问句的动词用肯定形式。例如:

The old man can hardly read, can he? 这位老人不识字,对吗?

Little food has been left, has it? 吃的东西几乎没剩下,是吗?

He has few good friends, has he? 他几乎没有要好的朋友,是不是?

六、当陈述句部分带有否定前缀的词时,此陈述句当作肯定句, 其后的附加部分用否定形式。例如: The students were impolite, weren't they? 那些学生没有礼貌,不是吗?

It's illegal to drive a car without a license, isn't it? 没有驾照开车是违章的,不是吗?

〔注〕含有否定含义的词在陈述部分作动词的宾语时,其反意疑问句用肯定结构,也可以用否定结构。例如:

You got nothing from him, did you? 你从他那儿什么也没得到,是吗?

七、如果陈述句是主从复合句而主句的谓语是动词I(we) + think, believe, suppose, imagine, reckon, fancy等词时,附加部分应与从句中的谓语在时态上保持一致。例如:

I suppose you are not serious, are you? 我想你不是当真吧,是吗?(不可用don't I?)

We think they have finished their homework, haven't they? 我们认为他们已经完成了家庭作业,不是吗? I believe that you will enjoy the party, won't you? 我相信你会喜欢这次聚会的,不是吗?

八、当陈述部分是祈使句时,附加部分可以不与前面的祈使句的动词保持一致,而是根据不同的用意选用shall, will, can 等。例如:

Don't make noise, will you? 不要吵闹,行吗?

Let's help each other, will you/won't you? 让我们互相帮助,好吗?

Let me do it for you, will you/won't you? 让我来帮你做这件事,行吗?

Let us have a look at your new dictionary, will you/won't you? 让我们看一看你的新词典,好吗?

〔注〕Let's(包括说话者本人)开头的祈使句,附加部分常用shall we?或shan't we? 表示征求意见。 Let us/me/him不包括听话人在内开头的祈使句,附加部分则要用will you?或won't you?

九、含had better的陈述句,附加部分用助动词had; 含would 的陈述句,附加部分动词用would。例如: You'd better go home now, hadn't you? 你最好现在回家,好不好?

You'd like to see the film, wouldn't you? 你很想看电影,是吗?

〔注〕陈述部分有have to 时,其反意疑问句要用助动词的否定形式。例如:

You have to water the vegetables every day, don't you?你每天都要浇菜,对吧?

十、8.陈述部分的主语是不定代词one时,反意疑问句的主语可以用one,也可用you(美式英语用he)。例如:

One should be ready to help others, shouldn't one? 每个人都应该乐于助人,是吧?

※ 当陈述部分主语是从句、不定式(短语)、动词-ing形式时,反意疑问句的主语应该用it。例如: What you need is more important, isn't it?你需要的东西更重要,是吧?

十、附加疑问句有时可用Eh? Right? Am I right? Don't you think? Isn't that so?等。例如:

She didn't pass the entrance examination, eh? 她没有通过入学考试,呃?

They forgot to attend the lecture, am I right? 他们忘记去上那次课了,对不对?

十一、用must表推测的反意疑问句的有关用法

1) 对现在情况的推测,问句部分用主动词(do,be)一般现在时的适当形式。若是现在进行时,问句部分用现在进行时的适当形式表示。若是there be结构,问句用isn't/aren't there。如:

a. He must be there,isn't he?

b. He must have a big family,doesn't he?

c. He must be waiting outside,isn't he?

d. There must be some students in the room,aren't there?

2) 对已发生的过去情况的推测,若陈述句谓语部分有―must have done‖,而且有表示过去的时间状语,问句部分用didn't;若没有表示过去的时间状语,问句部分用haven't或hasn't。如:

a. They must have gone there last night,didn't they?

b. They must have arrived by now,haven't they?(根据by now来判断)

c. They must have been to the Great Wall,haven't they?

3) 若是被动,应按被动结构来处理。如:

a. The room must have been cleaned yesterday,wasn't it?

b. The room must have been cleaned,hasn't it?

4) 若句中有表示过去完成时的时间状语,问句部分应用hadn't. 如:

They must have learnt 5000 English words by the end of last term,hadn't they?

(本题中must表推测,如果将它去掉,还原为真实句就是They had learnt 5000 English words by the end of last term.因此,反意问句是hadn't)

八、否定句式常见错误及分析

英语和汉语在否定的表达形式上存在着许多差异,如果以中国人的思维方式和习惯用法去套英语,这样在汉译英时难免会出现一些错误。部分常见的错误举例如下:

1、未经允许,任何人不得入内。 误:Anybody can not come in without permission. 正:Nobody can come in without permission. "任何……不"是汉语中常用的否定句式,而在英语中与any构成的合成词或被any修饰的词语作主语时,谓语动词不能用否定式,因此any ... not的表达形式不符合英语的习惯。翻译这类句子时须用"否定形式的主语+肯定形式的谓语"。但当any的合成词或any所修饰的词带有后置定语时,谓语可以用否定式,如: 干那种事的人都是不诚实的。 Anyone who does that isn't honest.

2、听到这个消息后,没有一个人不感到兴奋。 误:Having heard the news, nobody did not feel excited. 正:Having heard the news, everybody felt excited. 汉语中常用"没有+主语+不+谓语"这一双重否定的结构,而英语中否定形式的主语习惯上不能与否定形式的谓语连用。因此nobody... not的结构不符合英语的表达习惯。翻译这类句子时,(1)可把主语和谓语都改成肯定形式;(2)也可用另一结构的双重否定式:there be +否定的主语 + 否定形式的定语从句,如: There was nobody who did not feel excited. 或:There was nobody but felt excited.

3、这两本书都不是英国出版的。 误:Both of the books are not published in England. 正:Neither of the books is published in England. 我不同意所有这些方案。 误:I don't agree to all these projects. 正:I agree to none of these projects. 或:I don't agree to any of these projects. 英语中的概括词all, every, both, 以及与every 构成的合成词,用语否定句式时,只表示部分否定,常译成"并非……都",因此两个错误译句的含义分别为:并非两本书都是英国出版的,并非所有这些方案我都同意。要表达全部否定意义时,英语须用全否定词语,如none neither, no, nobody, nothing, not…any, not…either等。

4、这台车床不能再用了,那台也一样。 误:This lathe can not be used any longer, and that one can't, too. 正:This lathe can not be used any longer, and that one cna't either. 或:This lathe can not be used any longer, neither (nor) can that one. 否定句中的"也"不能译成too,而须用either,或用neither(nor)的倒装句型。

5、你不必为你的军衔和薪金担心。 误:You won't have to worry about rank and pay. 正:You won't have to worry about rank or pay. 在肯定句中用and来连接两个并列成分,表示"和",但在否定句中and应改为or, 这时否定词对or的前后部分同时加以否定。

九、英语部分否定归纳

英语中的部分否定(即不完全否定)有如下一些表示方法:

一、all 的否定式:not all…(或:all…not)表示"并非都……"、"不是所有的都……"例如:

Not all men can be masters. (= All men cannot be masters.) 并非人人都能当头头。

Not all bamboo grows tall. 并非所有的竹子都会长得很高。

二、both 的否定式:not…both (或:both… not) "并非两个……都……" 例如:

I don't want both the books. 我不是两本书都要。

Both (the) windows are not open. 两扇窗子并不都开着。

三、every…的否定式:"不是每……都……" 例如:

Not every book is educative. (或:Every book is not educative.) 不是每本书都有教育意义的。

Not everyone likes this book. 并非人人都喜欢这本书。

This flower is not seen everywhere. 这花并不是随处可见的。

四、always的否定式:"并非总是(并非一直)……" 例如:

He is not always so sad. 他并不是一直都这样悲伤。

五、entirely, altogether, completely 和quite 的否定式:"不完全……","并非完全……" 例如:

The businessman is never to be entirely trusted. 不可以完全信任商人。

He felt not altogether satisfied. 他并不完全满意。

I don't agree completely. 我并不完全同意。

What he did was not quite proper. 他做的不十分妥当。

六、all the time 的否定式:"并非一直……"、"未必老是……" 例如:

A foolish man doesn't make a mistake all the time. 笨人未必老是犯错误。

七、not…and…的否定式,被否定的往往是and后面的那一部分。 例如:

He did not speak clearly and correctly. 他讲得清楚但不正确。

This film is not interesting and instructive. 这部电影有趣但无教育意义。

She cannot sing and dance. 她会唱歌但不会跳舞。

如果将and 换成or,not 对其后面的两部分就全盘否定了。

He did not speak clearly or correctly. 他讲的既不清楚也不正确。

如要对上述的all, both, every, always, 以及entirely, altogether, completely, quite 和 all the time 等词作完全否定,那就分别要用与之相对应的全否定词,如no, none, neither, no one, never, not (never)… at all 等。例如:

All of them can do it.--- None of them can do it.

Both are good.--- Neither is good.

Everybody likes it. ---Nobody likes it.

He is always late. --- He is never late.

We don't trust them entirely. --- We never trust them at all.

He was here all the time. --- He was never here.

十、不定式作定语表主动及被动的区别

不定式是非谓语动词的重要情形之一。由于它具有名词、动词、形容词和副词的多种特征,所以在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语、状语、宾语补足语、主语补足语、同位语或独立成分。不定式作定语时兼有主动式和被动式两种形式,现归纳如下:

一、不定式作定语只能用主动式的情形

1.不定式所修饰的名词和不定式中的动词所表示的动作是逻辑上的主谓关系(此时,该不定式短语可转化为一个定语从句)。例如:

Li Xuemei was the first athlete to get to the finishing line(=... athlete who got to the finishing line).李雪梅是第一个到达终点的选手。

We need someone to help to repair the computer(=...someone who will help to repair the computer).我们需要一个能帮助我们修电脑的人。

He is always the first to bear hardships(=...the first who will bear hardships),the last to enjoy comforts(=the last who will enjoy comforts). 他总是一个吃苦在前,享乐在后的人。

2.不定式与它修饰的名词是逻辑上的动宾关系,且主语是不定式中的动词所表示动作的逻辑主语或在句中能找到其逻辑主语。例如:

He has a lot of work to do today.今天他有大量的活要干。

Do you have anything more to say?你还有什么话要说吗?

Our teacher arranged us six exercises to do at home.老师给我们安排了六道练习题在家里做。(us是to do的逻辑主语)

Father always bought his son some toys to play with after his business.父亲每次出差回来都给他的儿子买玩具玩儿。(son是to play with的逻辑主语)

3.有些句子中,尽管行文上没有不定式的逻辑主语,但是从句意角度可以体会出不定式中隐含着―for sb.to do‖结构。此时,不定式应该用主动式。例如:

There is nothing(for us) to worry about.没有什么可值得担忧的。

That will be the only thing(for us)to do now.这恐怕是目前(我们)唯一可行的办法。

It is a good opportunity(for us/them)to learn from the farmers.这可是一个向农民学习的大好机会。

4.部分形容词,如eager,anxious,determined,able等,其后常跟不定式,他们的同源名词后要用不定式的主动式作定语。例如:

(Mr.Smith was eager to get back to teach at the school.)

Mr.Smith's eagerness to get back to teach at the school was quite obvious.史密斯先生急于回校教学这一点是显而易见的。

(He was anxious to know the results of the test.)

We could see his anxiety to know the results of the test.我们看得出他很想知道这次测验的结果。 (They were determined to catch up with us.)

In their speech they expressed their determination to catch up with us.他们在讲话中表达了他们要赶上我们的决心。

5.部分动词,如attempt,promise,plan, intend,refuse等,其后常跟不定式作其宾语,它们的同源名词后要用不定式的主动式作定语。例如:

(They attempted to reach there before five o'clock.)

They failed in their attempt to reach there before five o'clock.他们试图在五点以前赶到那里,但是没有办到。 (You promised to give me a present on my birthday.)

You haven't kept your promise to give me a present on my birthday.你没有遵守在我过生日时给我礼物的诺言。

(They are planning to be in business on National Day.)

I guess they will make some changes in their plan to be in business on National Day.我猜他们在国庆节开始营业的计划得做些变动了。

6.在―with/without +宾语+宾语补足语‖结构中,若宾语补足语是不定式(作定语),不定式所表示的动作将要发生,且句子的主语是该动作逻辑上的执行者,此时不定式须用主动式。例如:

With a lot of difficult problems ___________ , the newly-elected president is having a hard time.

A.settled B.settling C.to settle D.being settled

With several meetings to attend,he couldn't go to the Great Wall with us.由于有几次会议要参加,所以他不能和我们一起去长城了。

Without two members to come,we'd better not start the meeting.还有两位成员未到,我们最好先别开始开会。

Without anything to do,he turned off the lights and went to bed.已无事可做,所以他关灯睡觉了。

二、不定式作定语只能用被动式的情形

1.为了表达需要,强调不定式动作的执行者时,须用被动式,常用by结构引导。例如:

2008 Olympic Games is the first great Olympic Games to be held by Chinese.20xx年奥运会是中国人首次举办的奥运盛会。

2.不定式所修饰的名词是将要被做的事情时,不定式须用被动式。例如:

The problem to be discussed at the next meeting is of great importance.下次会议上将要讨论的这个问题至关重要。

The building to be built next year will be used as the office building.明年要建设的大楼将用作办公楼。

注意:在―There be‖结构中,主语被不定式修饰(不定式作定语)时,既可用主动式,也可用被动式,意义上无甚区别。例如:

There was a lot of problems to deal with/to be dealt with.有许多问题需要处理。

十一、例析方式状语从句

方式状语从句通常由as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though引导。

1)as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构中位于句首,这时as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如…","就像",多用于正式文体,例如:

Always do to the others as you would be done by. 你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人。

As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。

Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds. 正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。

2)as if, as though

两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作"仿佛……似的","好像……似的",例如: They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed.

他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. 他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon. 看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能性较大,谓语用陈述语气。)

说明:as if / as though也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语,例如:

He stared at me as if seeing me for first time. 他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似的。

He cleared his throat as if to say something. 他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。

The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger. 波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒。

十二、名词性从句引导词用法详析

主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句都属于名词性从句范畴。引导这些从句的连词大体上相同,但是部分学生对其中某些连词之间的区别还不甚清楚。此外连词之间的差异也一直是各类英语试题的命题热点。本文就这些易错易混的连词谈谈它们的用法区别。

一、that, what和which

1. that引导名词性从句时只起连接从句的作用, 本身没有任何意义, 因此在从句中不充当任何句子成分,它的使用须注意以下几点:

A. 引导宾语从句时,that常可省略,但如果主句后跟有并列宾语从句时,只能省略第一个that;若宾语从句前插有别的从句时,that也不能省略。例如:

He told me (that) he was all right and that he would come to see me when he was free. 他告诉我说他很好,并说在他有空时来看我。

B. that引导主语从句位于句首时不可省略.如果it作形式主语,而that从句置于句末, 这时that可以省略。例如:

That he has lost his work is not true. 他丢了工作不是真的。

=It is not true (that) he has lost his work.

C.当主语为the reason时,注意应用that 引导其表语从句,不能受汉语影响而误用because。例如:

The reason why he was late was that he missed the early bus. 他迟到的原因是他没赶上早班车.(此句中的that不可用because代替)

D.引导同位语从句时,切不可错用which。例如:

Word has come that some American guests will come to visit our school next week. 有消息说下周将有一些美国客人来我校参观。

2. what与which引导名词性从句时都在从句中充当句子的某一成份,如主语、表语、宾语或定语,其区别是:what表示泛指的事物,常译为"什么"或"所……的事物", whatever是它的强语势"无论什么";which表示特定事物中的"哪一个(些)",一般情况下在从句中充当定语,后接名词,在一定的语境中,它所修饰的名词可以省略,whichever是它的强语势"无论哪一个(些)"。例如:

I believe what (whatever) he says. 我相信他说的(不管他说什么我都相信)。

I will give her which (whichever) book she likes on the shelf. 这个书架上的(任何一本)书,只要她喜欢,我都会给她。

二、who,whoever,whom和whomever

在引导名词性从句时,在句中作主语时用who,意思是"谁",含有疑问意味,whoever是它的强语势"无论谁",不含有疑问意味。作宾语时用whom, 其相应强语势为whomever。判别时要根据句意以及在句中的语法功能来决定该用哪个引导词。例如:

Who has taken away my bag is unknown.谁拿走了我的包还不知道。(若用Whoever显然句意不通)

Whoever wants to see this film can go with us tonight. 无论谁想看这部电影今晚可以和我们一起去.(Whoever wants 相当于Anybody who wants,意为"凡是想……的人"。这里不可换为Who。)

Have you decided whom you are to nominate as your candidate? 你们是否已经决定提名谁作侯选人了? You can give the ticket to whomever you like. 你可以把票给任何你想给的人。

十三、定语从句考查点归纳

定语从句是高中英语学习的重要语法项目之一,也是历年高考的热点。它的难度主要是通过改变句子的正常语序或借助于其它语法项目来体现的,为了提高同学们的应变能力, 现对定语从句的一些常见考点归纳和总结如下:

一、疑问句中考查定语从句

1. Is this the farm ________ you visited last week?

A. where B. the one C. on which D. /

【解析】答案是D.

命题人经常利用疑问句的特殊结构来干扰学生的正确选择。遇到这类定语从句时,最好的办法是先把疑问句还原成陈述句,然后判断谁是先行词,再看关系词在定语从句中所充当的成分,最后确定正确答案。

二、倒装句中考查定语从句

2. We came to a place, ________ stood a big tower.

A. which B. that C. / D. where

【解析】正确答案是D.为了保持句子平衡,句子用了倒装语序。倒装的使用使定语从句的结构变得较为特殊,因此对于使用倒装语序的定语从句,应先把倒装语序还原成正常语序,这样句子结构就比较清晰了。

三、拆分词组和固定搭配

3. The second is connected with the use ________ the body makes of food.

A. of which B. where C. to do D. that

4. Why can’t you realize the part ________ they have played in our life?

A. which B. on which C. when D. where

【解析】正确答案分别是D和A.一些词组和搭配被拆开后,句子的含义就变得难以理解。首先把拆开的词组复原是理解此类定语从句的关键。上述句子中包含以下词组:make use of, play a part (in)。

四、添加插入语或状语

5. The scientist has made another discovery, _______ I believe is of great importance.

A. that B. / C. which D. why

【解析】应选择C.这类句子主要利用插入语或状语的添加来增加试题的难度。常见的插入语有:I think (suppose, expect, believe, imagine), in my opinion, to tell you the truth等。做这类题目时,最佳

的办法是先删去插入语或状语,这样句子的主干部分就一目了然了。

五、插入非谓语动词

6. Is this the man ________ you want to have ________

the radio for me?

A. who;repaired B. that;repaired

C. whom;repairing D. that;repair

【解析】D项正确。非谓语动词是英语中难度较大的语法项目之一,因而在定语从句中加入非谓语动词就成了学生最易失分的题目。对付这类题目最有效的办法就是将句子还原。如:我们可以把几个句子中的定语从句进行还原,还原后的句子应是:

You want to have the man repair the radio for me.

十四、特殊分词用法归纳

1. considering ―就……而论、照……来看;考虑到‖,既可用作介词,又可用作连词。例:

I hear he is more than 70, but he is still very strong, considering his age.

听说他已经 70 多岁了,但从他的年纪来看,他仍然很结实。

Considering(that)he did not study hard, he did well on the test.考虑到他没有用功,他考得还不错。 另:considering 还可用作副词,通常置于句尾,意为―从各方面看‖。例:

She seems(to be)very bright, considering.从各方面看,她似乎很聪明。

2. providing / provided ―倘若……;在……的条件下‖,用作连词,引导条件状语从句,但从句不用虚拟语气。例:

We'll visit Europe next year, provided / providing(that)we have the money.如果我们有这笔钱,我们明年将去欧洲游览。

I shall go provided / providing(that)it does not rain.倘若天不下雨,我就去。

3. supposing / suppose ―假如、假定‖用作连词,引导条件状语从句,从句可用陈述语气,也可用虚拟语气。例:

Supposing / Suppose(that)the weather were bad, where would you go?假如天气不好,你去什么地方? Supposing / Suppose(that)she doesn't come, what should we do?假如她不来我们该怎么办?

supposing 可用在一个简单句中,相当于 What would / will happen if … / What does it matter if …例: Supposing I don't see her.(=What will happen if I don't see her?)假如我见不到她,那该怎么办? suppose 意为―假定;万一;倘若;不妨;何不‖。例:

(Let us)Suppose(that)his statement is right.假定他的陈述是正确的。

4. according to /by ―根据…… / 按照……‖,用作连词。例:

According to my watch, it's 4 o'clock.按照我表上的时间,现在是4点钟。

You may go or stay, according as you decide.去还是留,由你来决定。

You may / will be praised or blamed according as your work is good or bad.根据工作好坏你将会受到奖惩。 according to 与 according by 的区别在于:

(1)according by 不可与表示人的名词或代词连用; according to 可与表示人的名词或代词连用。

(2)according to 只能表示来自他处的信息,而不能表示来自说话者本身的信息。

例:

According to(不能用 by)my clock, it is 12 o'clock.根据我表上的时间,现在是 12 点。

According to(不能用 by)her (不能用 me), the war broke out in 1923. 根据她所说的,那场战争在 1923 年爆发。

5. compared with/to ―将……与……比较‖,用作介词。例:

Compared with/to her mother,she is tall.和她母亲比起来,她算很高了。

6. including ―包含‖,用作介词。例:

I have to prepare food for seven people,including me. 我必须准备包括自己在内 7 个人的食物。

7. owing to ―由于……因为……‖,用作介词。seeing(that)―由于……;既然……;因为……‖,用作连词。例:

Owing to unfavourable weather,I was unable to carry on with it. 由于天气不好,我不能把它进行下去。 Seeting(that)he is ill, he's unlikely to come. 由于生病的缘故,他可能不来了。

8. judging from / by(=to judge by)―由……来判断‖,用作介词。例:

Judging from / by what he said, he must be an honest man.由他所说的来判断,他一定是个诚实的人。

Judging from / by his accent, he must be from Guangdong province. 从他的口音来判断,他一定来自广东。

9. regarding(=as regards, in regard to, with regard to)/ respecting(=as respects, in respect to, with respect to)/ concerning(=as concerns)/ relating to 均用作介词,意为―关于,就……而言‖,相当于 about, 但比 about 正式。例:

Regarding this point, he is correct.关于这一点,他是对的。

Respecting your salary, we shall come to a decision later. 关于你的工资,我们将在以后做出决定。

Concerning your letter, I am pleased to inform you that your plans are quite acceptable. 关于来信,我很高兴地通知你,我们觉得你的计划是可接受的。

10. given ―如果有……,假定……,考虑到……‖,既可用作介词,也可用作连词。例:

Given that they are inexperienced, they have done a good job. 考虑到他们经验不足,他们的工作做得还不错。

Given his support,I think we'll win the election.若能获得他的支持,我想我们会赢得这次选举。

11. granted / granting 用作连词,意为―就算……,假定……,纵使……,姑且承认‖例:

Granted / Granting you are right, I won't do it. 就算你说的是正确的,我也不打算做那事。

12. assuming / say (用于句首,与 Let's 连用)意为―假定……假使‖例:

Assuming / Say ( Let's say ) that war breaks out, what do you do?

十五、不可不知的插入语用法归纳

插入语用法很多,在句子中的位置比较灵活,在学习中应当认真去体会。大体而言,插入语可以分为以下几类:

1. 用简短的句子结构作插入语 这类短语有:I think, I hope, I guess, I believe, I suppose, I wonder, I tell you, I say, I'm afraid, I'm sure, you see, you know, as you know, that is, that is to say, what's more等等,它们可以置于句中或句尾。如:

I suggest you choose someone who you think is kind and friendly.

This diet, I think, will do good to your health.

It won't be raining long, I hope.

You will have to work harder, you know, if you want to succeed.

2. 副词或副词短语用作插入语 这类插入语一般放在句首或句尾。如:

Happily for him, his father's second wife was kind to him too.

You'll be able to pass the coming exam, surely.

Luckily for him, he didn't hurt in the accident.

Honestly, I don't need it at the moment.

3. 介词或介词短语作插入语 这类插入语一般放在句首,有时也可放在句中。如:

Like most of my schoolmates, I have neither brothers nor sisters-in other words, I'm an only child.

By the way, Bob sends his best wishes.

On the other hand, I didn't know you were there.

In short, things have begun to improve since schools were called on to reduce learning load.

4. 分词短语作插入语 如:

Judging from your accent, you must be from England.

Generally speaking, he is the best student in our class.

Compared with China, the USA is smaller.

5. 不定式短语作插入语 如:

To put it mildly, he was not up to the mark.

To tell you the truth, I don't want to see her.

To be sure, Jim is a faster skater, but he is not good at doing figures.

To conclude, it was a great success.

十六、高考重点时态考点归纳

根据试题统计,动词语法占语法考题中的50%左右,其内容主要包括动词的时态、语态、要掌握英语的时态和语态,必须掌握好英语中的助动词(do, be, have)和时间状语这两个核心问题。现将各考点分别归纳如下。

1. 一般现在时

主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time 等时间状语;表示客观规律和永恒真理等。

He usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning.

She has a brother who lives in New York. The earth goes around the sun.

Guangzhou is situated in the south of China.

考点一:表示永恒的真理,即使出现在过去的语境中,仍用一般现在时。如:

I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in primary school.

考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时,常用的引导词有:

时间:when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment / minute / day / year

条件:if, unless, provided If he accepts the job, he will get more money soon.

考点三:在make sure (certain), see to it, mind, care, matter +宾语从句中,从句用一般现在时代替一般将来时。

So long as he works hard, I don’t mind when he finishes the experiment.

只要他努力工作,我不介意他什么时候做完试验。

考点四:在the more… the more … (越…越…) 句型中, 若主句是一般将来时, 从句通常用一般现在时。 The harder you study, the better results you will get.

2. 现在进行时

表说话时或目前一段时间内正在进行的活动;与频率副词,如always,constantly,continually,again等连用,表示说话人的某种感情色彩(赞叹、厌烦、埋怨等)。

We are having English class. The house is being built these days.

The little boy is always making trouble.

考点一:在时间状语或条件状语从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。

Look out when you are crossing the street.

Don't wake him up if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning.

考点二: 表示在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这时多有表示将来的时间状语)。

Marry is leaving on Friday.

3. 现在完成时

表示动作发生在过去,完成在过去,但强调与现在情况仍有联系,其结果或影响仍存在。现在完成时有一些标志性的时间状语。

考点一:for + 时间段;since + 时间点

They have lived in Beijing for five years.

They have lived in Beijing since 1995. I have learned English for ten years.

考点二:常见的不确定的时间状语:lately, recently, just, already, yet, up to now; till now; so far, these days Has it stopped raining yet?

考点三:在表示―最近几世纪/年/月以来……‖时间状语中,谓语动词用现在完成时。

in the past few years/months/weeks/days, over the past few years, during the last three months, for the last few centuries, through centuries, throughout history 等

In the past 30 years China has made great advances in socialist construction.

考点四:表示―第几次做某事,‖或在 ―It is the best (worst, most interesting ) +名词+that‖ 后面用现在完成时。 This is my first time that I have visited China. That is the only book that he has written.

This is the most interesting film I have ever seen.

4.一般过去时

表在过去某个特定时间发生且完成的动作,或过去习惯性动作,不强调对现在的影响,只说明过去。常与明确的过去时间状语连用,如:yesterday,

last week, in 1945, at that time, once, during the war, before, a few days ago, when。

考点一:used to + do 表示过去经常但现在已不再维持的习惯动作。to为不定式符号,后接动词原形。 比较:be / become / get used to + doing 表示习惯于

He used to smoke a lot. He has got used to getting up early.

考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替过去将来时。

He promised to buy me a computer if he got a raise.

5. 过去进行时

表示过去某个时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。

The boy was doing his homework when his father came back from work.

He was taking a walk leisurely by the lake when he heard someone shouted for help.

What were you doing at nine last night?

The radio was being repaired when you called me.

6. 过去完成时

表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作,即过去完成时的动作发生在―过去的过去‖,句中有明显的参照动作或时间状语,这种时态从来不孤立使用。

There had been 25 parks in our city up till 2009.

By the end of last term we had finished the book.

They finished earlier than we had expected.

考点一:用于hardly/scarcely...when; no sooner ...than句型中,主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。 I had hardly finished my work when he came to see me.

I had no sooner got into the room than it began to snow.

No sooner had I arrived home than the telephone rang. (注意倒装)

考点二:表示―第几次做某事‖,主句用过去时,从句用过去完成时。

That was the second time that she had seen her grandfather.

考点三:动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan 用过去完成时,表示未实现的愿望、打算和意图。

I had hoped that I could do the job. I had intended to see you but I was too busy.

7. 一般将来时

表示在将来某个时间发生的动作或情况。常和tomorrow, next year, in 2008等表示将来的时间状语连用,其表现形式多达5种。

考点一:一般将来时总是用在一些时间状语从句或条件状语从句的主句中。

We will begin our class as soon as the teacher comes.

(主句用一般将来时,从句中一定要用一般现在时替代一般将来时。)

考点二:某些表示短暂性动作的动词如arrive, come, go, leave, start等,用现在进行时形式表示将来。 I am leaving for Beijing tomorrow.

考点三:―祈使句 + and / or + 句子‖,这种结构中and后面的句子谓语用一般将来时。

Use your head and you will find a way.

考点四:―be going to + 动词原形‖,表示打算要做的事或可能要发生的事。

―be about to + 动词原形‖表示按照预定计划或打算准备着手进行的动作。

―be to + 动词原形‖表示必须、必然或计划将要做的事。

They are to be married in May.

8. 将来进行时

表示将来某个时间正在发生的动作,或按计划一定会发生的事情。

I’ll be doing my homework this time tomorrow. 明天这会我正在写作业。

The President will be meeting the foreign delegation at the airport.

9. 将来完成时

表示在将来某时刻之前业已完成的事情,时间状语非常明显。

考点一:常用的时间状语一般用by + 将来时间 ,如:by the end of this year, by 8 o’clock this evening, by March next year以及由by the time…, before或when等引导的从句。

By the end of next month, he will have traveled 1000 miles on foot.

By the time you reach the station, the train will have left.

By next Tuesday, I will have got ready for the exams.

考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,将来完成时则由现在完成时表示。

The children will do their homework the moment they have arrived back from school.

10. 动词的语态

一般用于强调受者,做题时谓语动词后通常不再有名词或宾语。动词的语态一般不单独考,而是和时态、语气和非谓语动词一起考,需要注意以下考点。

考点一:不能用于被动语态的动词和词组

come true, consist of, take place, happen, become, rise, occur, belong, break out, appear, arrive, die, fall, last, exist, fail, succeed

It took place before liberation.

考点二:下列动词的主动语态表示被动意义, 而且常与well, quite, easily, badly等副词连用:lock, wash, sell, read, wear, blame, ride , write

Glass breaks easily. 玻璃容易破碎。 The car rides smoothly. 这车走起来很稳。

The case locks easily. 这箱子很好锁。 The book sells well. 这本书很畅销。

考点三:一些常用经典被动句型

It is said…, It is reported…, It is widely believed…,It is expected…, It is estimated…,

这些句子一般翻译为―据说…‖,―人们认为…‖,而―以前人们认为…‖则应该说:It was believed…, It was thought…。

十七、英文常见陷阱句

有些句子的意思,尤其是一些惯用句子的意思,我们是不能单从字面来理解的。下面就是一些常见的容易引起误解的句子:

1. He is the last person to do such a thing. 他决不会干这种事。

She is the last woman I want to sit next to at dinner. 她是我在宴席上最不愿意与之相邻就座的女子。 That's the last thing I should expect him to do. 那是我最不可能指望他去做的事情。

注:― the last + 名词 + 不定式或定语从句‖中的 last 作―least likely / suitable/ willing/ desirable‖解,即常常将 last 译为―最不可能的;最不合适的;最不愿意的;最不希望的‖,而不作―最后的‖解。

2. We cannot estimate the value of modern science too much. (=We cannot estimate the value of modern science much enough. = It is impossible to estimate the value of modern science too much/ much enough.) 无论怎么重视现代科学的价值都不为过分。

We cannot be too careful in doing experiments. (= We cannot be careful enough in doing experiments.) 我们做实验时无论怎样小心都不过分。

注:― cannot/ could not…… too + 形容词或副词 = cannot/ could not…… + 形容词或副词 + enough ‖。我们不能把第 1 句理解成:―我们不能过分估算现代科学的价值。‖也不能把第 2 句理解成:―我们做实验时不能太小心。‖

3. It is a wise man that never makes mistakes. 无论怎样聪明的人也难免要犯错误。

It is a long lane that has no turning. 无论怎样长的巷子也有弯。

注:这个句子含有比较储蓄的让步意味。我们不能把第 1 句理解成:―从不犯错误的人是一个聪明的人。‖也不能把第 2 句理解成:―那是一个没弯的长巷。‖

4. If the sun were to rise in the west, I would not break my word. 使太阳从西方出来,我也不会背弃我的诺言。

Were the danger even greater (= Even if the danger were greater), I should feel compelled to go. 即使危险再大,我也觉得非去不可。

注:从形式上看上面句子中的从句像是条件状语从句,但实际上却是让步状语从句,因为其中的主句和从句在意义上形成鲜明的对照。若句子含条件状语从句,则从句表示的是条件,主句表示的是结果。下面句子中的从句就是条件状语从句:

If the sun were to rise in the west, I would break my word. 如果太阳从西方出来,我就会背弃我的诺言。

Were the danger even greater, I should not go. 如果危险再大一些,我就不去了。

5. A mountain is not famous because it is high. 山出名不在高。

I don't believe that he will come tomorrow. 我相信他明天不会来。

Mary did not leave the office in order to meet Tom. 玛莉离开办公室为的是不见汤姆。

注:上面这三句话中都包含一个被转移的否定词 not .因此不能把第 1 句理解成:―山不出名是因为高。‖也很少将第 2 句转换成:― I believe that he will not come tomorrow. ‖第 3 句可以转换成:―Mary left the office in order not to meet Tom. ‖也可以将其理解成:―玛莉没离开办公室是为了见到汤姆‖。为了避免产生上述歧义,我们最好说:―It was in order to meet Tom that Mary did not leave the office.‖(玛莉没离开办公室是为了见到汤姆。)和― It was in order not to meet Tom that Mary left the office. ‖(玛莉离开办公室为的是不见汤姆。)

6. Who in the world (on earth) told you that? 那事到底是谁告诉你的?

注:这里的 in the world (on earth) 是用来加强语气,意思是―到底‖,―究竟‖,而不是―在世界上‖。

7. He is too ready to talk 他爱说话。

Men are too apt to forget. 人们往往健忘。

We are only too pleased to work together with the workers. 我们和工人们一起劳动,太高兴了。 They are but too glad to do so. 他们非常喜欢这么做。

注:若 too 后面跟 ready, apt, likely 等形容词,或 only too, but too, all too 和 not too 后面跟一个形容词或副词,则后面的不定式没有否定意义。

8. No man is so old but he may learn. (= No man is too old to learn.) 没有人因为太老而不能学(活到老学到老)。

I never go past my old school but I think (= without thinking)of Mr Wilkins,the headmaster.

每当我走过我的母校时,都想起校长威尔金斯先生。

注:这里的 but 是从属连词,本身有否定含义,而不能被理解成―可是‖。

(1)表语从句

1. 定义:用作表语的从句叫做表语从句。

2. 构成:关联词+简单句

3. 引导表语从句的关联词的种类:

(1) 从属连词that。如:

The trouble is that I have lost his address. 麻烦是我把他的地址丢了。

(2) 从属连词whether, as, as if。如:

He looked just as he had looked ten years before. 他看起来还与十年前一样。

The question is whether they will be able to help us. 问题是他们是否能帮我们。

注:从属连词if一般不用来引导表语从句,但as if却可引导表语从句,如:

All this was over twenty years ago, but it's as if it was only yesterday.

这都是20多年前的事了,但宛如昨天一样。

能跟表语从句的谓语动词一般为系动词be, seem, look等。如:

It looked as if it was going to rain. 看起来天要下雨了。

(3)连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever

连接副词 where, when, how, why。

如:The problem is who we can get to replace her. 问题是我们能找到谁去替换她呢。

The question is how he did it. 问题是他是如何做此事的。

That was what she did this morning on reaching the attic. 那就是她今晨上了阁楼干的。

解释:

1. 连词because可引导表语从句。如:

I think it is because you are doing too much. 我想这是因为你做得太多。

2. 在一些表示―建议、劝说、命令‖的名词后面的表语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气。should+动词原形表示,should可省略。如:

My suggestion is that we (should) start early tomorrow. 我的建议是我们明天一早就出发。

(2)主语从句

1. 定义:用作主语的从句叫做主语从句。

2. 构成:关联词+简单句

3. 引导主语从句的关联词有三类:

(1) 从属连词that。 如:That they were in truth sisters was clear from the facial resemblance between them. 很明显,她们确是亲姐妹,她们的脸型很相似。

(2) 从属连词whether。如:

Whether he’ll come here isn’t clear. 他是否会来这里还不清楚。

(3) 连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever

连接副词 where, when, how, why。如:

What she did is not yet known. 她干了什么尚不清楚。

How this happened is not clear to anyone. 这事怎样发生的,谁也不清楚。

Whoever comes is welcome. 不论谁来都欢迎。

Wherever you are is my home ---- my only home. 你所在的任何地方就是我的家----我唯一的家。

解释:

1. 主语从句能用it作形式上的主语。常以it作形式主语的句型有:

A. It+be+形容词(obvious, true, natural, surprising, good, wonderful, funny, possible, likely, certain, probable, etc.)+that从句。如:

It is certain that she will do well in her exam. 毫无疑问她考试成绩会很好。

It is probable that he told her everything. 很可能他把一切都告诉她了。

B. It+be+名词词组(no wonder, an honour, a good thing, a pity, no surprise, etc.)+that从句。如:

It’s a pity that we can’t go. 很遗憾我们不能去。

It’s no surprise that our team should have won the game. 我们没赢这场比赛真意外。

C. It+be+过去分词(said, reported, thought, expected, decided, announced, arranged, etc.)+that从句。如: It is said that Mr. Green has arrived in Beijing. 据说格林先生已经到了北京。

It is reported that China has sent another man-made earth satellite into orbit.

据报道中国又成功地发射了一颗人造地球卫星。

D. It+seem, happen等不及物动词及短语+that从句。如:

It seems that Alice is not coming to the party at all. Alice似乎不来参加晚会。

It happened that I was out that day. 碰巧我那天外出了。

E. It+doesn’t matter (makes no difference, etc.)+连接代词或连接副词引起的主语从句。如:

It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not. 她是否来这无关紧要。

It makes no difference where we shall have the meeting. 我们在哪里开会毫无区别。

F. 当that引导的主语从句出现在疑问句中时,要以it作形式主语,而把主语从句后置。如:

Is it true that the scientist will give us a lecture next week? 下周那位科学家将给我们作报告是真的吗? Does it matter much that they will not come tomorrow? 他们明天不来很要紧吗?

G. 当主语从句出现在感叹句中时,要以it作形式主语,而把主语从句后置。如:

How strange it is that the children are so quiet! 孩子们这么安静真奇怪!

2.注意连接代词whoever, whatever, whichever等引导主语从句的含义

Whoever comes will be welcome. (whoever=the person who) 来的人将受到欢迎。

Whatever he did was right. (whatever=the thing that) 他所做的事情是正确的。

Whichever of you comes in will receive a prize. (whichever=anyone of you who) 你们当中不论哪个进来将会得到奖

(3)宾语从句

1. 定义:用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。

2. 构成:关联词+简单句

3. 引导宾语从句的关联词有三类:

(1) 从属连词that。如:

He told us that he felt ill. 他对我们说他感到不舒服。

I know he has returned. 我知道他已经回来了。

注: that在引导宾语从句时也并不是任何情况下都可以省略。在以下情况下,that不能省略。

1. Everybody could see what happened and that Tom was frightened.(and连接两个宾语从句,that宾语从句放在and的后面时,that不能省略。)

大家都会看出所发生的事情并知道Tom非常害怕。

2.I know nothing about him except that he is from the south.(that引导的宾语从句作介词宾语时,that不能省略。)

对他我一无所知,只知道他是南方人。

3.That he ever said such a thing I simply don’t believe. (that从句位于句首时,that不可省略。)

我简直不相信他曾说过这样的话。

4. We decided, in view of his special circumstances, that we would admit him for a probationary period. (主句谓语动词与that从句之间有插入语,that不可省略。)

鉴于他的特殊情况,我们决定应允他一段试用期。

(2)从属连词if/whether。如:

I doubt whether he will succeed. 我怀疑他是否会成功。

I don’t know if you can help me. 我不知道你能否帮助我。

(3)连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever

连接副词 where, when, how, why。

如:

Who or what he was, Martin never learned.

他是什么人?他是干什么的?马丁根本不知道。

I wonder what he’s writing to me about. 我不知道他要给我写信说什么事。

I’ll tell you why I asked you to come. 我会告诉你我为什么要你来。

You may do what you will. 你可做任何你想做的事。

(1) 介词宾语从句

宾语从句也可用作介词的宾语。如:

He was deeply displeased by what had occurred that day.

他对那天发生的事感到很不快。

I walked over to where she sat. 我走向她坐的地方。

I am curious as to what he will say. 我很想知道他要说什么。

Your success will largely depend upon what you do and how you do it.

你是否成功将主要取决于你做什么和怎样做。

有时介词可以省略。如:

I don’t care (for) who marries him. 我不管谁跟他结婚。

Be careful (as to) how you do that. 你要注意做这件事的方式。

解释:

1.如果宾语从句后还有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句后置。如:

We thought it strange that Xiao Wang did not come yesterday.

我们认为小王昨天没来是奇怪的。

He has made it clear that he will not give in.

他已表明他不会屈服。

2.作介词的宾语:连词that引导的名词性从句很少作介词的宾语,只用在except, but, in后。其他一些介词的宾语从句如果由连词that引导,则需用it先行一步,作形式宾语。如:

He is a good student except that he is careless.

他是一个好学生,只是有点粗心。

You may rely on it that I shall help you. 你可以指望我会帮助你的。

介词宾语不可以用which来引导,而要用what来引导。如:

Are you sorry for what you've done?

你为你所做的一切感到内疚吗?

3.某些形容词或过去分词后常接宾语从句,这类形容词或过去分词有sure, glad, certain, pleased, happy, afraid, surprised, satisfied等,连词that可省略。如:

I am not sure what I ought to do.

我不能确定我该做什么。

I'm afraid you don't understand what I said.

恐怕你没领会我说的意思。

I'm surprised that I didn't see all that before.

我好奇怪,我以前没看到过。

Mother was very pleased her daughter had passed the exams.

妈妈为她的女儿通过了考试而感到高兴。

4.连词whether (…or not)或if引导的宾语从句

if和whether引导的宾语从句可以互换使用,但whether常和or not连用,if一般不与or not连用。如:

I wonder whether it is true or not. 我不知它是真是假。

用if引导宾语从句如果会引起歧义,应避免使用if而用wheter。试比较:

Please let me know if you want to go.

Please let me know whether you want to go.

if从句可理解为宾语从句,意为―请告诉我你是否想去‖;此句又可理解为条件状语从句意为―如果你想去的话,请告诉我一声‖。

5.宾语从句的否定转移。在think, believe, suppose, expect等动词后的宾语从句,有时谓语尽管是否定意思,却不用否定形式,而将think等动词变为否定形式。如:

I don’t think you are right. 我认为你错了。

I don’t believe they have finished their work yet. 我相信他们还未完成他们的工作。

I don’t suppose he cares, does he? 我想他不在意,是吗?

6. 宾语从句的时态变化规律:

(1) 当主句是一般现在时态时,从句可根据需要用任何时态。

(2) 当主句是一般过去时态时,从句只能使用过去范围内的任何时态。但客观真理除外。如:

The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.

老师说地球绕着太阳运行。

(4)同位语从句

1. 定义:用作同位语的从句叫做同位语从句。

2. 用法:同位语从句的先行词多为fact, news, idea, thought, question, reply, report, remark等,关联词多用从属连词that。如:

They were all very much worried over the fact that you were sick.

对你生病这件事,他们都很焦虑。

Where did you get the idea that I could not come?

你在哪儿听说我不能来?

Early in the day came the news that Germany had declared war on Russia.

德国已对俄国宣战的消息一大早就传来了。

注:同位语从句偶尔由从属连词whether引导。如:

I have no idea whether he’ll come or not. 我不知道他是否来。

连接代词who, which, what和连接副词where, when, why, how亦可引导同位语从句。

The question who should do the work requires consideration.

谁该干这项工作,这个问题需要考虑。

We haven't yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.

到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。

It is a question how he did it.

那是一个他如何做了此事的问题。

解释:

1.that引导的同位语从句与定语从句之区别

that引导的同位语从句

that引导的定语从句

句法功能上

that只起连接从句的作用,无意义。在从句中不充当句子成分。不可省。

that替代先行词在从句中不仅起连接作用,还充当一个句子成分。如在从句中作动词的宾语时可省略。 意义上

从句是被修饰名词的内容。

从句起限定作用,是定语

如:The news that Mr. Li will be our new English teacher is true. (同位语从句,that不可省。)

李先生将是我们的新英语老师这个消息是真的。

The news (that) he told me yesterday is true. (定语从句,that在从句中作told的宾语,可省。)

他昨天告诉我的消息是真的。

2.一些表示―建议、命令、要求‖的名词后所跟的同位语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气should+动词原形表示。should可省。如:

This is our only request that this (should) be settled as soon as possible.

这就是我们唯一的请求:尽快解决这个问题。

测试:

A. 用适当的连接词填空:

1. It worried her a bit her hair was turning gray.

2. I have no idea we can do with these waste materials.

3. the doctor really doubts is my mother will recover from the serious disease soon.

4. It is hoped nature will never be destroyed.

5. do you guess will give a talk on English tomorrow?

6. ---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

---- Is that you had a few days off?

7. Word came I was wanted at the office.

8. Do you know of them will be our new headmaster?

9. The teacher didn't tell me we were wrong.

10. It's generally considered unwise to give a child he or she wants.

B. 单项选择:

1. It was true Alice did surprised her mother.

A. that B. what C. that, what D. what, that

2. Does matter much he can't come to the meeting.

A. it, if B. that, if C. it, whether D. this, whether

3. ----What are you anxious about? ---- .

A. How can we succeed B. Whether we can succeed

C. When can we succeed D. That we can succeed

4. The reason the little actress has been such a success is she is both clever and hard-working.

A. why, why B. why, that C. that, because D. for, because

5. leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights.

A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. The person

6. I really don't know ____________ I had this photo taken.

A. where it was that B. it was that C. where it was D. it was why

7. Dr. Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge. I can't remember .

A. where B. there C. which D. that

8. ----What do you think of China? --- different life is today from it used to be.

A. How, what B. What, what C. How, that D. What, that

9. Give this to you think can do the work well.

A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever

10. troubles me is I can't learn all these English idioms by heart.

A. That, that B. What, what C. That, what D. What, that

答案:

A. 1. that 2. what 3. what, whether 4. that

5. who 6. why 7. that 8. which

9. where 10. whatever

B. 1-5 CABBB 6-10 ACACD

(5)同位语从句

1. 定义:用作同位语的从句叫做同位语从句。

2. 用法:同位语从句的先行词多为fact, news, idea, thought, question, reply, report, remark等,关联词多用从属连词that。如:

They were all very much worried over the fact that you were sick.

对你生病这件事,他们都很焦虑。

Where did you get the idea that I could not come?

你在哪儿听说我不能来?

Early in the day came the news that Germany had declared war on Russia.

德国已对俄国宣战的消息一大早就传来了。

注:同位语从句偶尔由从属连词whether引导。如:

I have no idea whether he’ll come or not. 我不知道他是否来。

连接代词who, which, what和连接副词where, when, why, how亦可引导同位语从句。

The question who should do the work requires consideration.

谁该干这项工作,这个问题需要考虑。

We haven't yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation.

到哪儿去度暑假,这个问题我们还没有决定。

It is a question how he did it.

那是一个他如何做了此事的问题。

解释:

1.that引导的同位语从句与定语从句之区别

that引导的同位语从句

that引导的定语从句

句法功能上

that只起连接从句的作用,无意义。在从句中不充当句子成分。不可省。

that替代先行词在从句中不仅起连接作用,还充当一个句子成分。如在从句中作动词的宾语时可省略。 意义上

从句是被修饰名词的内容。

从句起限定作用,是定语

如:The news that Mr. Li will be our new English teacher is true. (同位语从句,that不可省。)

李先生将是我们的新英语老师这个消息是真的。

The news (that) he told me yesterday is true. (定语从句,that在从句中作told的宾语,可省。)

他昨天告诉我的消息是真的。

2.一些表示―建议、命令、要求‖的名词后所跟的同位语从句中,谓语动词用虚拟语气should+动词原形表示。should可省。如:

This is our only request that this (should) be settled as soon as possible.

这就是我们唯一的请求:尽快解决这个问题。

测试:

A. 用适当的连接词填空:

1. It worried her a bit her hair was turning gray.

2. I have no idea we can do with these waste materials.

3. the doctor really doubts is my mother will recover from the serious disease soon.

4. It is hoped nature will never be destroyed.

5. do you guess will give a talk on English tomorrow?

6. ---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

---- Is that you had a few days off?

7. Word came I was wanted at the office.

8. Do you know of them will be our new headmaster?

9. The teacher didn't tell me we were wrong.

10. It's generally considered unwise to give a child he or she wants.

B. 单项选择:

1. It was true Alice did surprised her mother.

A. that B. what C. that, what D. what, that

2. Does matter much he can't come to the meeting.

A. it, if B. that, if C. it, whether D. this, whether

3. ----What are you anxious about? ---- .

A. How can we succeed B. Whether we can succeed

C. When can we succeed D. That we can succeed

4. The reason the little actress has been such a success is she is both clever and hard-working.

A. why, why B. why, that C. that, because D. for, because

5. leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights.

A. Who B. Whoever C. Anyone D. The person

6. I really don't know ____________ I had this photo taken.

A. where it was that B. it was that C. where it was D. it was why

7. Dr. Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge. I can't remember .

A. where B. there C. which D. that

8. ----What do you think of China? --- different life is today from it used to be.

A. How, what B. What, what C. How, that D. What, that

9. Give this to you think can do the work well.

A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever

10. troubles me is I can't learn all these English idioms by heart.

A. That, that B. What, what C. That, what D. What, that

答案:

A. 1. that 2. what 3. what, whether 4. that

5. who 6. why 7. that 8. which

9. where 10. whatever

B. 1-5 CABBB 6-10 ACACD

(6)不定式的构成

1. 不定式的构成

不定式是由不定式符号to+动词原形构成,在某些情况下to也可省略。

不定式一般有时式和语态的变化,通常有下表中的几种形式(以do为例):

主动式

被动式

一般式

to do

to be done

完成式

to have done

to have been done

进行式

to be doing

/

完成进行式

to have been doing

/

1) 不定式的一般式

不定式的一般式所表示的动作通常与主要谓语的动作同时或几乎同时发生,或是在它之后发生。如: They invited us to go there this summer. 他们邀请我们今年夏天去那儿。

He stood aside for me to pass. 他站到一边让我通过。

2) 不定式的完成式

不定式的完成式所表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之后发生,它在句中可作表语、状语、宾语,有时也可作主语、定语等。如:

She seemed to have heard about this matter. 她似乎已听说过这件事。

I am sorry to have kept you waiting so long. 我很抱歉让你等了这么久。

I meant to have told you about it, but I happened to have an important thing to do.

我本来想告诉你这件事的,但我碰巧有一件重要的事要做。

It has been an honor for me to have traveled so much in your country.

对我来说,在你们国家旅行这么多地方是一件很荣幸的事情。

3) 不定式的进行式

不定式的进行式表示正在进行的与谓语动词同时发生的动作。它在句中可以用作除谓语以外的所有成分。如:

It’s nice of you to be helping us these days. 你真好,这些天一直帮我们。

He pretended to be listening to the teacher carefully. 他假装在认真地听老师讲课。

We didn’t expect you to be waiting for us here. 我们没料到你一直在这儿等我们。

4) 不定式的完成进行式

如果不定式表示的动作是谓语所表示时间之前一直进行的动作,就需要用完成进行式。如:

They are said to have been working in Tibet for 20 years. 据说他们已经在西藏工作20年了。

We are happy to have been helping each other these days. 我们很高兴这些天能互相帮助。

5) 动词不定式的否定形式是由not或never加不定式构成。如:

Try not to be late again next time. 尽量下次不要再迟到。

He wished us never to meet her again. 他希望我们永远不要再见到她。

6) 疑问词+动词不定式:

不定式和疑问词whether, what, which, whom, where, when, how, why等连用可以在句中起名词的作用,通常跟在tell, know, show, decide, learn, wonder, explain, advise, teach, discuss, find out等动词后面作宾语,有时也可以充当主语、表语等。如:

On hearing the news, he didn't know whether to laugh or to cry.

听到这个消息,他不知道该哭还是该笑。

When to hold the meeting has not decided. 什么时候开会还没有决定。

The most important problem is how to get so much money.

最重要的事情是如何搞到这么多钱。

介词后一般不直接接不定式,但可以接疑问词+不定式短语作宾语。如:

Mary gave some advice on how to learn English. 玛丽提了一些如何学习英语的建议。

I have no idea of how to do it. 我不知道该怎么做。

(7)-ing分词的构成

1. -ing分词的构成

-ing分词是由动词原形加词尾-ing构成。-ing分词同样有时态和语态的变化,通常有下表几种形式(以do为例):

主动形式

被动形式

一般式

doing

being done

完成式

having done

having been done

-ing分词的否定形式是由not 加-ing分词构成。如:

Not knowing his address, I could do nothing but stay at home and wait.

不知道他的地址,我只好在家里等着。

His not coming made all of us angry. 他没来使我们大家都很生气。

2. -ing分词的一般式和完成式:

-ing分词的一般式表示和谓语动词所表示的动作同时进行的动作;完成式表示在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。如:

Being a student, he was interested in books. 作为一个学生,他对书本很感兴趣。

Not having studied his lessons very hard, he failed the examinations. 因为没有努力学习功课,他考试不及格。

3. -ing分词的被动式:

-ing分词的被动式表示它的逻辑主语是-ing分词动作的承受者。根据-ing分词动作发生的时间,-ing分词的被动式有一般被动式(being done)和完成被动式(having been done)。如:

The question being discussed is very important. 正在被讨论的问题很重要。

He never talked about his having been interviewed by the reporter. 他从来没谈起过他被记者采访的事情。 Having been criticized by the teacher, he gave up smoking. 被老师批评以后,他把烟戒了。

注意:在need, want, require, be worth等动词(短语)后,作宾语的-ing分词常用主动形式来表示被动含义。如: Your shoes need cleaning. = Your shoes need to be cleaned. 你的鞋需要清洗一下了。

This book is well worth reading. 这本书很值得一看。

4. -ing分词的语法作用

-ing分词一方面具有动词的性质,另一方面也相当于一个名词或形容词、副词,在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语等。

1)–ing分词(短语)作主语:

Laying eggs is the ant queen''s full-time job. 产卵是蚁后的专职工作。

Saying is easier than doing. 说比做容易。

在下面两种结构中,-ing分词也作主语。

①为了保持句子平衡,通常用作形式主语,而把真实主语放在句末。如:

It is no use crying over spilt milk. 作无益的后悔是没有用的。

It''s a waste of time arguing about it. 辩论这事是浪费时间。

②在There is no结构中,通常用-ing分词。如:

There is no joking about such matters. 这种事开不得玩笑。

There is no holding back the wheel of history. 历史车轮不可阻挡。

2) -ing分词(短语)作表语:

His hobby is collecting stamps. 他的爱好是收集邮票。

The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人困惑。

3) -ing分词作宾语:

①–ing分词作动词宾语。如:I suggest doing it in a different way. 我建议用另一种方法做这件事。

We enjoy attending Miss Li''s class. 我们喜欢听李老师的课。

②-ing分词作宾语也可用在复合宾语中作真正的宾语,而用it作形式宾语。如:

I don’t think it possible living in such a cold place. 我认为住在这么寒冷的地方是不可能的。

Do you consider it any good trying again? 你觉得再试一次会有好处吗?

③-ing分词作介词宾语,经常用在一些短语的后面。如:

I''m against inviting him to dinner. 我反对邀请他来吃饭。

They don’t feel like walking that much. 他们不喜欢走那么多路。

He went to London in the hope of being a famous painter. 他去了伦敦,希望能成为一个著名的画家。

此类短语还有很多。如:look forward to(渴望,盼望), be proud of(以……自豪), be responsible for(对……负责), insist on(坚持), think of(考虑,想到), dream of(梦想), object to(反对,抗议), hear of(听说), prevent…from(防止,阻止), keep…from(防止,阻止), stop…from(防止,阻止), be engaged in(从事于), depend on(依*,依赖), thank…for(因……而道谢), excuse…for(因……而道歉), aim at(目的在于), devote…to(献身于), set about(着手做), be/get used to(习惯于), be fond of(喜欢), be afraid of(害怕), be tired of(对……厌烦), succeed in(成功地做……), be interested in(对……感兴趣), be ashamed of(对……感到羞愧)等等。

注意:在有些句子中,介词常可省去。如:

I have no difficulty (in) communicating with foreigners. 我在和外国人交谈方面没有什么困难。

He used to spend a lot of time (in) playing games. 过去他常花很多时间玩游戏。

What can prevent us (from) getting married? 有什么能阻止我们结婚?

另外,-ing分词可以和一些介词如in, on, after, against, before, by, for, without, besides等构成短语,在句中作状语。如:

He left ahead of time without saying a word. 他一句话也没说就提前离开了。

Besides cooking and sewing, she had to take care of four children.

除了做饭和缝纫以外,她还要照顾四个孩子。

On hearing the news, all the pupils jumped with joy. 听到这个消息后,所有的学生都高兴得跳了起来。

4) -ing分词作定语:

①单个的分词作定语一般放在被修饰词的前面。如:

reading room 阅览室 swimming pool 游泳池 dining car 餐车

sleeping car 卧车 singing competition 歌咏比赛 waiting room 候车室

a waiting car 一辆等待着的车 a sleeping child一个酣睡的孩子 flying fish 飞鱼

the exciting news令人振奋的消息 a boring speech令人乏味的演出

②-ing分词短语作定语应放在被修饰词的后面,也相当于一个定语从句。如:

Who is the comrade standing by the door? 站在门边的同志是谁?

They lived in a house facing south. 他们住在一所朝南的房子里。

③–ing分词还可以作非限制性定语,相当于一个非限制性定语从句,常用逗号和句子其它部分分开。如: The words, usually dealing with current work, were mostly written by himself.

歌词一般讲当前的工作,大部分是他自己写的。

When she appeared, John, wearing a dirty and worn-out overcoat, ran to her with joy. 当她出现的时候,约翰穿着一件又脏又破的大衣高兴地跑了过去。

5) -ing分词做状语:

-ing分词作状语可以表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。

①-ing分词短语作时间状语,相当于一个时间状语从句,有时可由连词when, while引出。如:

While reading the book, he nodded from time to time. 他一边看书,一边不时地点头。

Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood. 看到那些画,他想起了她的童年。

②-ing分词短语作原因状语,相当于一个原因状语从句。如:

Not knowing his address, I can’t send this book to him. 因为不知道他的地址,我不能把这本书送给他。 Many of us, being so excited, couldn’t go to sleep that night. 因为非常激动,那晚我们许多人都没睡着。 ③–ing分词短语作结果状语。如:

His father died, leaving him a lot of money. 他父亲死了,留给他许多钱。

She was so angry that she threw the toy on the ground, breaking it into pieces.

她非常生气,把玩具扔在地上,把它摔成了碎片。

④-ing分词作伴随状语,可以放在句子的前面、后面或中间,表示主语的另一个、较次要的动作。如: They stood there for half an hour watching the stars in the sky. 他们在那儿站了半小时,观察着天上的星星。 Following the old man, the young people started walking slowly.

年轻人跟在老人的后面开始慢慢地走起来。

⑤-ing分词间或也可作条件状语和让步状语,相当于一个状语从句。如:

A person standing at the foot of a high mountain will find himself very small.

一个人如站在大山的脚下会发现自己很渺小。

Knowing all this, they made me pay for the damage. 尽管知道了一切情况,他们还是要我赔偿损失。 注:-ing分词作状语时,它的逻辑主语就是整个句子的主语。

⑥―with/without+名词普通格或代词宾格+-ing分词‖结构在句中作状语,表示伴随情况或时间、原因等。如: His hair became grey with the years passing. 随着时间的推移,他的头发变花白了。

Without anyone noticing, he slipped through the window. 没人注意,他从窗户溜了出去。

6) -ing分词作补语:

①--ing分词可以在see, hear, notice, watch, feel, look at, listen to, observe, have, get, leave, keep, set, catch, find等动词后面和一个名词或代词构成一个复合宾语,作宾语补语。如:

I noticed a man running out of the bank when I got off the car.

我下车的时候注意到一个男人匆匆忙忙地从银行里跑出来。

Last night the shopkeeper caught a child stealing some food in the shop.

昨晚,店主在商店里抓到一个小孩在偷东西。

②上面这类句子也可变成被动语态,这时,-ing分词可看成是主语补语。如:

We were kept waiting for quite a long time. 让我们等了好长时间。

Jily was never heard singing that song again. 人们再也没有听到吉丽唱这首歌了。

5. -ing分词的复合结构:

-ing分词的复合结构通常由物主代词、人称代词宾格、名词所有格或者名词的普通格+-ing分词构成,在句子开头时必须用物主代词和名词所有格,通常在句中作主语和宾语。如:

His coming made us very happy. 他的到来使我们大家都很高。

He was awakened by someone’s knocking at the door. 他被某人的敲门声吵醒了。

1. –ing分词作主语和表语时与不定式的区别:

-ing分词和动词不定式作主语和表语的主要区别在于:在表示比较抽象的一般的多次性行为时多用-ing分词;在表示具体的或一次性的动作,特别是将来的动作时,多用不定式。如:

Smoking is forbidden here. (泛指吸烟)这里禁止吸烟。

It’s not good for you to smoke so much. (指你吸烟)吸这么多烟对你的身体不好。

My job is teaching. 我的工作是教书。

My job is to teach you English this term. 我这一学期的工作是教你们英语。

2. 高中阶段能接-ing分词作宾语的常见动词:

mind(介意), suggest(建议), enjoy(欣赏,), admit(承认), appreciate(感激,欣赏), avoid(避免), delay(推迟), dislike(不喜欢,厌恶), escape(逃脱), finish(完成), forgive(宽恕), imagine(想象), keep(保持), miss(错过), practise(训练), resist(抵抗,抵制), risk(冒险), deny(拒绝,否认), consider(考虑)等。

3. 有些动词既能接不定式,又能接-ing分词,含义有所不同。如:

①forget, remember, regret等词后面接不定式表示不定式动作后于谓语动作,而后接-ing分词作宾语表示分词动作先于谓语动作。如:

Do you remember seeing me before? 你记得以前见过我吗?

Remember to lock the door when you leave. 离开时要记得锁门。

②动词mean, stop, try, go on等动词后面接分词和接不定式作宾语,意思也有所不同。如:

I try not to think about that. 我尽量不去想那件事。

Would you please try doing that again? 请你再试一次好吗?

I mean to change it for another one. 我想换成另外一个。

Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 误了这班车就意味着再等一个小时。

Having finished the exercises, we went on to learn the new words in the next unit.

做完练习以后,我们继续学习下一单元的单词。

After a short rest, they went on working. 短暂地休息以后,他们又继续工作。

He stopped talking when the bell rang. 铃响的时候,他停止了讲话。

While working, he stopped to talk with Tom at times. 工作的时候,他不时地停下来和汤姆谈话。

注意:有时人们把stop后的动词不定式理解为目的状语。

③动词allow, advise, forbid, permit等可直接跟-ing分词作宾语,不可以接动词不定式作宾语,但可接不定式作宾语补语。如:

Please permit me to say a few words. 请允许我说几句话。

We don’t permit smoking here. 我们这儿不允许吸烟。

④动词need, require, want作―需要‖解时,后面接-ing分词或不定式的被动式。如:

The room wants cleaning/to be cleaned. 这个房间需要打扫。

These little children require looking after carefully/to be looked after carefully.

这些小孩需要细心地照料。

⑤动词like, hate, prefer等后面,如表示一般性动作,多用-ing分词;如指特定的具体的某次动作,多用不定式。如:

I like swimming, but I don’t like to swim with you. 我喜欢游泳,但我不喜欢和你一起游泳。

I prefer walking to school every day. 我情愿每天步行去学校。

I prefer to stay at home today. 今天我情愿呆在家里。

⑥动词begin, start后面,如表示有意识地开始做某事,常用-ing分词,否则用不定式更多一些。如: We began to do that job last year. 我们去年开始做那工作的。

They started talking about the film at once. 他们立刻开始谈论那部电影。

注:下面几种情况多用不定式作宾语:

a. 当start, begin本身用于进行时态时。

When the teacher came into the room, he was starting to write to his parents.

老师走进教室的时候,他正开始写信给他的父母亲。

b. 当start, begin后接表示心理活动的动词时。

Hearing the news, he started to think of a good way to solve the problem.

一听到消息,他就开始考虑一个好办法来解决这个问题。

c. 当句子的主语是无生命的东西时。

We were about to leave when it began to rain. 我们正准备离开,天开始下雨了。

4. -ing分词作表语的两种不同含义:

①-ing分词作表语可以表示主语的内容是什么。如:

Their job is building houses. 他们的工作是盖房子。

The real question is getting to know the needs of the people. 真正的问题是了解人民的需要。

②-ing分词作表语还可以表示主语所具有的特征。如:

This story is very interesting. 这故事很有趣。

The problem is quite puzzling. 这个问题很令人困惑。

①–ing分词作定语可用来说明被修饰的名词的用途和性能。如:

reading material 阅读材料 walking stick 手杖 fishing pole 鱼杆

flying suit 飞行服 writing table 写字台 listening practice 听力训练

②-ing分词作定语还可以表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态,在意思上接近一个定语从句,可以表示正在进行的动作,也可表示经常性动作或当时的状态。如:

developing countries = countries that are developing 发展中国家

a growing city = a city that is growing 发展着的城市

an ordinary-looking house = a house that looks ordinary 看起来很普通的房子

a touching story = a story that is touching 一个动人的故事

working people= people who are working 劳动人民

6. 不定式和-ing分词作宾语补语的区别:

在see, hear, feel, watch, notice等感官动词后,既可用-ing分词构成复合宾语,也可用不定式构成复合宾语,两者之间有一定的区别。用-ing分词时,表示动作正在进行;用不定式时,表示动作发生了,即动作的全过程结束了。如:

Do you hear someone knocking at the door? (Someone is knocking at the door.) 有人在敲门你听见了吗? Do you hear someone knock at the door? (Someone knocked at the door just now.) 你听见有人敲门了吗?

7. 高中阶段常见的带介词to的短语,后接-ing分词或名词。如:

admit to(承认), contribute to(捐助、贡献), get down to(着手做), give way to(让位于),keep to (坚持、遵守), lead to (导致),look forward to(期待), take to(从事), turn to (求助于), stick to(忠于、坚持), point to(指向、表明), see to (注意、处理), be used to (习惯于), devote oneself to (献身于), be equal to (胜任的、等于), be familiar to (为……熟悉).

高中阶段有一些固定的-ing分词短语,如generally speaking(一般来说), judging from…(根据……来判断), considering…(考虑到……), talking of…(谈到……,提到……), supposing…(假如……)等,它们的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致。这种短语可以被称之为句子的状语,也可当作一个插入语。如: Judging from his accent, he must come from Canada. 从他的口音看他一定来自加拿大。

Considering how poor he was, we decided to let him attend the concert for free.

考虑到他是多么的穷,我们决定让他免费听音乐会。

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