托福作文分类

来源:m.fanwen118.com时间:2022.11.7

I 描述解释型

1)概念判断

判断一道作文题是否属于“描述解释型”,可以看题目是是否包含下列词汇:describe, explain, identify, why, reason, cause, what, how等。如:

1. (独立写作185题库21题。一下括号中的题号均为ETS同一题库的题号)

In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

2. (168题)

Many students choose to attend schools or universities outside their home countries. Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

3. (179题)

What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer.

2)对应结构分析

由上述三道题目中关键词causes, why, what,我们可以判断它们属于“描述解释型”题目。那么此种问题模式所对应的文章结构安排如下:

第一段:引言

1. 背景陈述

2. 给出主题陈述

第二段:讨论话题第一点

1. 分论点一(段落主题句)

2. 例证一(论证过程)

第三段:讨论话题第二点

1. 分论点二(段落主题句)

2. 例证二(论证过程)

第四段:讨论话题第一点

1. 分论点三(段落主题句)

2. 例证三(论证过程)

第五段: 结论

1. 复述主题陈述

2. 总结几个分论点

对应的英文文章结构如下所示:

Paragraph 1: Introduction

Background + layout

Paragraph 2-4: Body

Reason one / Quality one

Topic Sentence + supporting sentences

Reason two / Quality two

Topic Sentence + supporting sentences

Reason three / Quality three

Topic Sentence + supporting sentences

Paragraph 5: Conclusion:

Restatement of the Body

根据上述结构,给刚刚列举的三道题目中的第一题列出下列提纲: 原创范例(21题):

Introduction: A few reasons are thought to contribute to such phenomenon of a longer life expectancy than before.

Main body 1: First of all, availability of basic health care makes people live longer.

eg. More doctors and medicine for common diseases readily available Main body 2: Moreover, advances in medicine enable people to live a longer life.

eg. development of vaccines against some diseases and flus to prolong patients’ lives.

Main body 3: Last but not least, increasing awareness of health makes people live longer.

eg. regular exercise and change of health-related habits. 原创范例(168题):

Introduction: Several factors are thought to be the essential to lead to this phenomenon that an increasing number of students choose to further their education abroad instead of at home, three of which are most significant.

Main body 1: First of all, studying abroad enables the students to pursue a program that is not available in their home country. eg. learning US accounting system

Main body 2: Moreover, studying overseas is a good way to enhance their competitive edge in the future job market.

eg. developing a western critical mind

Main body 3: Last but not least, students can have access to a new language via pursuing education in a foreign country.

eg. learning English in the USA

通过上述结构的介绍,考生可以自行扩展第三题,模仿原创范例,写一个提纲。从上面提纲我们不难发现,在写此类文章过程中,要使文章结构上有逻辑的话,必须掌握表示列举关系和因果关系的连词,先列举如下:

列举Enumeration:

第一项,首先: in the first place, firstly, initially, first of all, to begin with, to start with, first and foremost

第二项,此外: second, secondly, in the second place, also, besides, in addition, moreover, furthermore

第三项,最后: third, thirdly, in the third place, last but not least, finally, eventually

因果Cause and effect:

原因: because, as, since, for

because of, due to, on account of, as a result of, stemming from 结果: as a result, consequently, therefore, thus, hence

只有在掌握了表示此类关系的连词的基础上,考生才能自如地运用之前所列举的结构,连贯逻辑的表达。值得一提的是,在最近的考题中,描述解释型的题目出现的几率相对较低。但考生在考前还是需要全面复习,掌握此种问题模式和对应的文章结构,才能在考试中胸有成竹。在上一系列的介绍我们,我们了解到ETS公布的独立写作185题库和改革后网考中出现的独立写作题,它们有一定的共性。从应考方面而言,在接触一个新托福独立写作的题目时,我们必须要掌握的是文章的结构。严谨的结构对观点的表达有事半功倍的作用。分析认为,ETS公布的185题库的题目和近几年的托福网考考题,除了话题上的共性外,在问题模式上和雅思议论文一样,可以归为固定的几类问题模式:

II 二选一型

此种题型是当前考试的重点,最值得关注。主要包括两种形式

1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

2. Which opinion do you prefer?

1) 概念判断

判断一道题是否属于“二选一型”,可以看题目中是否包含下列词汇:agree or disagree, prefer, which is better, recommend等。例如:

1. (39题)

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help of technology, students nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

2) 对应结构分析

单边论证

熟悉了问题模式后,我们来分析一下其所对应的文章结构。以上五种问题模式,考生一般较熟悉的是Do you agree or disagree?和 What is your opinion?这两类问题。而通常这两类问题所对应的文章可以用以下的五段论结构来完成:引言段(introduction)提出观点,正文 (body)三段通过三个理由来对观点进行论证,结尾段(conclusion)重申一下自己的观点。因为此种结构只对自己支持的观点进行论证,因此叫单 边论证,可以用下图来表示:

第一段:引言

1. 背景陈述

2. 给出自己的观点

第二段:支持理由第一点

1. 分论点一(段落主题句)

2. 例证一(论证过程)

第三段:支持理由第二点

1. 分论点二(段落主题句)

2. 例证二(论证过程)

第四段:支持理由第一点

1. 分论点三(段落主题句)

2. 例证三(论证过程)

第五段: 结论

1. 重申自己的观点

2. 总结几个分论点

对应的英文文章结构如下所示:

Paragraph 1: Introduction

Background + my opinion

Paragraph 2-4: Body

Reason one

Topic Sentence + supporting sentences

Reason two

Topic Sentence + supporting sentences

Reason three

Topic Sentence + supporting sentences

Paragraph 5: Conclusion:

Restatement of my opinion

上述结构中的supporting sentences在议论文中的体现方式是一些论证方法,如举例子(exemplification),对比对照(contrast& comparison),列数据(raising figures),让步(making concession)等来对自己支持的观点进行论证,使考官信服。而此类结构也是中国学生较熟悉的议论文结构,在各类中国的考试中,如高考英语、大学四六级考试等,应用也较广。但是,要提醒各位考生的是,单边论证有其缺点,就中国学生而言,是较难扩展论证过程,而且像讲道理、举例子等论证方法必须正确使用,显示其逻辑性才能得到高分 III 比较对比型

1). 概念判断

判断一道作文题是否属于“比较对比型”,可以看题目中是否包含下列词汇:compare and contrast,compare,advantages and disadvantages等。例如:

1. (第4题)

It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in books.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why?

2. (5题)

A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position.

3. (113题)

The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a new university in your community. Use specific detains in your discussion. 由上述三道题中的compare and contrast,advantages and disadvantages可以判断它们都属于“比较对比型”的题目。由此可见,比较对比型和之前介绍过的二选一型有个区别,它要求考生必须两个观点或方面(即优缺点)都要提到,它显然是不能用单边论证结构。它可以采用的结构如下。

2). 对应结构分析

双边论证

根据前一系列的介绍,双边论证基本为四段论,它与单边的最大区别在正文,正文两段分别对题干提出的两个观点或优缺点进行论证。此系列通过上面的例题二来理解这一结构的使用:

原创范例(5题)

Introduction: The new factory does bring a range of benefits, yet the residents are not advised to establish it.

Main body 1:

Topic sentence: Admittedly, the residents and the local government as well gain benefits from the construction of this factory in the community.

Reason 1: For one thing, a new factory requires plenty of new workers, providing employment opportunities for the community.

Reason 2: For another, the new factory is certain to pay tax to the indigenous government, and thus enhance the tax income of the whole community.

Main body 2:

Topic sentence: However, building a large factory could bring along a great many disadvantages.

Reason 1: First and foremost, a large factory will definitely produce pollution to the community.

Reason 2: In the second place, it is possible that traffic jams could happen due to the returning tide during rush hours.

Reason 3: Last but not least, flowing population resulted from the establishment of the factory will undoubtedly increase, which casts threat to the community.

半支持半反对结构

所谓半支持半反对,就是在第二段讨论比较对比设计的两个对象中的一个,在第三段和第四段讨论另一个对象。请参考下面的结构图:

第一段:引言

1. 明确话题

2. 给出文章结构布局

第二段:弊端/观点一

1. 分论点一(段落主题句)

2. 例证一(论证过程)

第三段:有利之处一/观点二的理由一

3. 分论点一(段落主题句)

4. 例证一(论证过程)

第四段:有利之处二/观点二的理由二

5. 分论点二(段落主题句)

6. 例证一(论证过程)

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