The professor actually contradicts the statements made in the passage. She is of the view that dinosaurs are not endotherms i.e. they were not able to keep their body temperature at a constant rate.
The professor contradicts the issue of dinosaurs being endothers based on the availability of fossils being available in the polar regions, she say that the polar regions in those days were not as cold as they are today i.e at least warm enough for dinosaurs to live. During harsh winters she says that there is a possibility of the dinosaurs actually migrating to warmer regions.
The issue of leg position and movement being used as a reason to classify the dinosaurs as endotherms does not please the professor either. She says that dinosaurs had legs under their bodies to support their huge bodies i.e the legs under the body of the dinosaur were actually to support the huge weight of the dinosaur and not to provide it with a body structure like endotherms(which is actually suited for running).
The professor acknowledges the presence of haversian canals but also points out that that the fossils show the presence of growth rings. These rings occur due to the thickening of the bone. The thickening indicates that the dinosaurs were'nt actually growing continuously but were experiencing periods of rapid growth and periods of no growth in succession. This pattern. she says is characteristic of non endothermic animals.
Thus it can be inferred that the professor challenges the passage by giving reasons as to why she thinks that the dinosaur is not an endotherm.
Description of Response:
Despite initial appearances, this response largely succeeds in clearly and accurately presenting how the lecture points take issue with the points in the reading passage that dinosaurs were endotherms. The first point regarding dinosaurs in polar regions could be a bit clearer. Otherwise, the response mainly suffers from typographical errors, but these are not regarded as major problems; it is obvious that the writer has good control of structure and vocabulary and the ability to use these to convey in an organized and logical manner what has been understood and asked.
Question：Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Always telling the truth is the most important consideration in any relationship.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Score 5 Essay
Dishonesty kills reliability
There are certain considerations or factors that everyone takes into
account in a relationship.
People may look for honesty, altruism, understanding, loyalty, being thoughtful etc! Everyone would more or less wish that the person s/he is dealing with has some of these virtues above. Putting them in an order according to their importance however can be very subjective and relative. When someone asks him/herself the question “What do I consider to be the most important thing in my relationship?” the answer depends on a lot of factors such as how his/her earlier relationships were.
After stating that everyone’s opinion can be different about this, for me honesty, in other words, always telling the truth is the most important consideration in a relationship. Opposite of this is inarguably lying and if someone needs to lie, either s/he is hiding something or is afraid of telling me something.
In any relationship of mine, I would wish that first of all, the person I’m dealing with is honest. Even though s/he thinks that s/he did something wrong that I wouldn’t like, s/he’d better tell me the truth and not lie about it. Later on if I find out about a lie or hear the truth from someone else, that’d be much more unpleasant. In that case how can I ever believe or trust that person again? How can I ever believe that this person has enough confidence in me to forgive him/her and carry on with the relationship from there? So if I cannot trust a person anymore, if the person doesn’t think I can handle the truth, there’s no point to continuing
Although I would like to see altruistic, understanding, thoughtful and loyal behavior from people, an instance of the opposite of these behaviors would not upset me as much as dishonesty would. Among all the possible behaviors, dishonesty is the only one for me that terminates how I feel about a person’s reliability. Therefore honesty would be my first concern and the most important consideration in a relationship.
In this response the writer first approaches the topic by underscoring that a number of character traits are important to a relationship. The writer then effectively develops an argument that unlike other negative behaviors, dishonesty or unwillingness to fully disclose some bad action cannot be forgiven and can be the most important factor in destroying a relationship. The writer’s language is fluent, accurate, and varied enough to effectively support the progression and connection of ideas. There is a variety of sentence structures, including rhetorical questions. The essay is not mechanically perfect, but as long as such errors are occasional, minor, and do not interfere with the reader’s understanding, an essay like this one can still earn a top score.
Question：Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Always telling the truth is the most important consideration in any relationship.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
the traditional virtue of telling the truth in all situations is increasingly doubted by many in today’s world. Many believe that telling the truth is not always the best policy when dealing with people. Moreover, the line of a “truth” is becoming more and more vague. This essay will explore the importance of telling the truth in relationships between people.
We all understand that often the truth is offending and may not be a very nice thing to both hear or say. Lies or white lies often have their advantages. The manipulation of white lies is the most obvious the business world. How many times have we heard that some product is “the finest” or “the cheapest”? how many times have we heard that products have such and such “magical functions”? advertising is about persuasion, and many would agree that if a company is to tell the absolute truth about it’s products, no one would be interested in even having a look at the products.
The same logic applies to human relationships. If your friend had worn a newly purchased dress on her birthday and energetically asked you if it was a worthy buy, would you freely express your opinion that you had never seen a dress as the one she’s currently wearing? And spoil her birthday? Unarguably, hiding (entirely or particially) the truth in some situations can be quite handy indeed. Confrontations and disputes can seemingly be avoided.
However, there is always the risk factor of the truth emerging sooner or later when telling an
untruth. The basic trust in any relationships (businessman/customer, friends, parents/children) will be blotched, and would have an impact on the future relationship between both parties. The story of the “the boy who cried wolf” fully illustrates the consequences of telling untruths. No one will believe you when you’re telling the truth. Your word will have no weighting.
In addition, another “bad factor” of telling untruths is that you have absolutely no control over when the truth (of previous untruths) will emerge. Untruths breed pain in both parties: tears when the truth is uncovered after a period of time; fear and the burden of sharing a “secret”. In the long run, it seems that hiding the truth is not beneficial to either party.
Everyone hates betrayal. Even if it is the trend to occasionally hide the truth in relationships, it is strongly recommended that not to follow that trend as the risk and the consequences of the truth unfolded overwhelms the minimal advantages one can derive from not telling the truth After all, it is understood that relationships are founded on “trust” which goes hand in hand with “truth”. Indeed telling the truth is the most important consideration in any relationship between people. Always.
This lengthy essay presents a clear and very well-developed discussion of the issue. There are occasional instances of poor phrasing (“the line of a ‘truth’ is becoming more and more vague”), but these are more than offset by the rest of the response, which is fluent, varied, complex, and sophisticated. Again, the only noticeable fault is the failure to capitalize sentence-initial words.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
No one knows me as well as my parents. No one wants the best for me like my parents. It is natural that I should allow my parents to make important decisions for me. I think all older teenagers (15 to 18 year-olds) should take their parents advice on decisions that concern their education, their social life, and their future careers.
My parents have always chosen the best schools for me to attend. They have encouraged me to attend special prep classes to make sure that I was well prepared for the exams. They have given me tutors to make sure that I understood my subjects well. When it comes to choosing a college, I will trust my parents to make that decision. They know what they can afford and what will give me a good education.
When I was young, my parents would invite children over to play with me. Over the years, I have become very close to these children. They are like my family. We celebrate holidays and birthdays together. We even go to the mountains together in the summer. My parents do not want me to fall into the wrong crowd. They do not want me to meet and fall in love with someone they do not know. I understand that and I want to make them happy.
My father runs a very successful business and my mother is a well-known politician. They are very well connected and they have many friends who would like me to work for them when I finish school. This is a very good arrangement for me.
If all children follow their parents’ wishes, they would probably be happier. Parents only want the best for their children.
Some people like to travel with a companion. Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice.
Traveling alone is the only way to travel. If you take someone with you, you take your home with you. When you travel alone, you meet new people, have new experiences, and learn more about yourself.
When I traveled with my friend, I spend all my time with that friend. We eat together and sightsee together. When I travel alone, I spend my time looking for new friends. It is easy to fine other people, either other tourists or locals, to eat with or have a coffee with. When you share meals with strangers, they become friends.
When I travel with a friend, my routine is predictable. We maintain the same schedule that we do at home. When I travel alone, I adopt the rhythm of the place I visit. I might take a nap in the afternoon and eat dinner at 11 pm. I might go to a disco and dance all night.
When I travel with a friend, we know how we will react to things. When I travel alone, each new experience requires a new reaction. If I don’t try new things, I won’t be able to decide if I like something or not. Shall I ride an ostrich or eat one?
I think it is always important to do things on your own. You can fine new friends, collect new memories, and adopt different ways of doing things. Isn’t that the point of travel?
In your country, is there more need for land to be left in its natural condition or is there more need for land to be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Even though our population is increasing and land is needed for housing and development. I would hope that our country could save the land in its natural state for future generations to enjoy. This land would be good for promoting tourism, for preserving the environment, and for remembering our history.
Although tourism has many negative side effects, it is an industry that can create enormous revenues. Tourism of course needs something to see. They would not come to our country to see rows of apartment buildings or new industrial parks. What is interesting for tourists is the pristine countryside that our country is known for.
Preserving the land as it is, would be good for the environment. More factories and other industries would further pollute our rivers and air. We need frees and wide open spaces to make us feel like humans, not machines.
Untouched land reminds us of our history. When we walk through the countryside, we can imagine our ancestors on the same path. If we cover the earth with asphalt and concrete, we will loose touch with our past. We will forget our roots.
Preserving the land is good not only for the economy and environment; it is good for us as citizens of our soil. We must preserve what little we have left. Can we afford not to?
Holidays honor people or events. If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
October 24 is Union Nations Day. This day is noted in the calendars, but not observed as a holiday around the world. I want the entire world to celebrate the birth of the United Nations because of its attempts to promote peace, education, and health around the world.
Peace is the most important thing that we can have today. The sooner that we can stop war the sooner we can all have better lives. There are countries around the world that have been at war for generations. In some of these countries, UN Peacekeepers have temporarily stopped the violence so people can go about their lives. If this peace could be made lasting, the lives of these citizens would be much richer.
The UN actively works to promote education. Universal literacy is one of its important goals. Every child in the world deserves to know how to read and write. The UN is also involved in job training for adults. The age of information technology demands new job skills. The UN works with continuing education programs around the world so workers are not left out of the job market. The UN has played an instrumental role in the eradication of smallpox. Polio vaccines and AIDS-awareness programs have also helped reduce the incidence of these diseases. There is a lot to be done in these areas.
Much of the work of the UN is unknown and underappreciated. If we want to live in a peaceful world, where every child can attend school and where every citizen has access to health care, we need to support the work of the UN. We need to recognize its importance and celebrate its birthday.
A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of it either to go on a vacation or to buy a car.Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend’s two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific reasons and details to support your choice.
Trying to decide how to use your money is always tough. Should you use your money to buy a car or go on a vacation? Both afford lasting pleasure, but of a very different kind. From a vacation you get the pleasure of doing wonderful things and of totally relaxing and enjoying yourself. The memories you bring home with you can give you that same pleasure again every time you think of them.
A car also gives you pleasure, every time you drive it. There’s the pleasure of not having to depend on public transportation. You can go places off the beaten track, where public transportation doesn’t go. There is also the pleasure of being independent. You are able to go anywhere your car can take you, without depending on others.
A vacation gives you the opportunity to learn new things and meet new and interesting people. However, it’s only for a short period of time. A car gives you the same opportunities on a smaller level, but on a more regular basis. With a car, you can go someplace new every weekend. You can also join a car pool. That way you can share travel expenses with the new people you meet.
Some people might say that spending your money on a vacation instead of on a car is being impractical. But nothing is as satisfying as a really good vacation. It’s mentally and physically healthy. It gives you a chance to get away from all that is familiar to you and see the world from a new perspective. It lets you do nothing but play, the way you did when you were a child. Being able to play, even for a short period of time, is absolutely necessary for everyone’s mental health. I would choose the vacation, because we all deserve to indulge ourselves sometime.
What are some of the qualities of a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer.
I am fortunate to have good parents so it is easy for me to identify the qualities that make them good. These qualities are unconditional love, trust, and respect for me and my brothers and sisters. All mothers and fathers love their children. They nurture them and keep them from harm. But not all love is unconditional. Some parents would not love their children if they married someone of a different religion or from a different ethnic group. Some parents would not love their children if they were of a different sexual orientation. My parents won’t. My parents would love us regardless of whom we married or whom we chose to love.
Part of unconditional love is trust. My parents trust us to do what is right. They know we would never do anything to hurt them or to disgrace them. They trust us so we trust them. We are confident that they would never do anything to hurt us.
Because our parents love us, they also respect us. They treat us as individuals. They accept our differences. They do not expect us to be like them. They want us to be our own persons. They want us to make our own way in the world, not follow in their footsteps.
Without their love, I would not be as confident as I am. Without their trust, I would not be free to do what I want. Without their respect, I would not feel comfortable being on my own. All children should have such wonderful parents.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion.
In modern society, media, which serve as our major source of information, is indispensable in our daily lives. Far too often, I realize that most media, no matter centralizing in which field, cover an excessive number of topics concerning personal lives of famous people. It is sad but true
that both lives of the famous and the well-being of the society are endangered by this fact. Considering the nature of humans, the situation can hardly be improved in the future.
The current extensive concentration on the personal lives of famous people by media imposes immense pressure on these people. It is natural that almost no one wants their private life under scrutiny of others, especially when it is not glorious. We have learnt so much about the importance of respecting others' personal things. Even inquiring a woman's age would be regarded as inappropriate. Therefore, it is not difficult to conceive that the revelation of famous people's personal lives could be detrimental to their feelings. Every time Britney Spears did something even slightly improper, the world would know. Through her big sun glasses and rigid lips, all we could see was unwillingness and resistance.
Furthermore, this over exposure jeopardizes the development of the youth, especially teenagers. Via various colorful magazines, what they acquire is not life guidance or decent knowledge, but some inglorious peek into other’s lives. This situation misleads teenager's attention to trivia and unhealthy topics. Moreover, this might even increase their curiosity about other’s privacy and make them think these sneaky topics are justified. When teenage girls enjoy gathering to gossip about the privacy of famous people, we have to worry about this huge impact on their moral standard.
The cause, the fundamental reason for media's indulgence in discovering the personal lives of famous ones lies in the eagerness of audiences to know more about the common or even embarrassing aspects of the perfect idols. Drawn by the endless desire for revenue, media never hesitate to try their best to please the interest of audiences. After all, the curiosity for other's privacy is human nature; needless to say the personal lives of famous people. On the other hand, famous people have benefited so much from the audience’s attention. Sometimes they should be able to understand the audience’s curiosity, as long as it is not too egregious.
If by "suburb" is meant an urban margin that grows more rapidly than its already developed interior, the process of suburbanization began during the emergence of the industrial city in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Before that period the city was a small highly compact cluster in which people moved about on foot and goods were conveyed by horse and cart. But the early factories built in the 1840’s were located along waterways and near railheads at the edges of cities, and housing was needed for the thousands of people drawn by the prospect of employment. In time, the factories were surrounded by proliferating mill towns of apartments and row houses that abutted the older, main cities. As a defense against this encroachment and to enlarge their tax bases, the cities appropriated their industrial neighbors. In 1854, for example, the city of Philadelphia annexed most of Philadelphia County. Similar municipal maneuvers took place in Chicago and in New York. Indeed, most great cities of the United States achieved such status only by incorporating the communities along their borders.
With the acceleration of industrial growth came acute urban crowding and accompanying social stress-conditions that began to approach disastrous proportions when, in 1888, the first commercially successful electric traction line was developed. Within a few years the horse-drawn trolleys were retired and electric streetcar networks crisscrossed and connected every major urban area, fostering a wave of suburbanization that transformed the compact industrial city into a
dispersed metropolis. This first phase of mass-scale suburbanization was reinforced by the simultaneous emergence of the urban Middle Class, whose desires for homeownership in neighborhoods far from the aging inner city were satisfied by the developers of single-family housing tracts.
新托福考试写作考生想拿高分，“肚子里必须有点墨水”，背上一篇两篇优秀范文，以备不时只需。以下这篇范文的题目是：Types of Speech。
Standard usage includes those words and expressions understood, used, and accepted by a majority of the speakers of a language in any situation regardless of the level of formality. As such, these words and expressions are well defined and listed in standard dictionaries. Colloquialisms, on the other hand, are familiar words and idioms that are understood by almost all speakers of a language and used in informal speech or writing, but not considered appropriate for more formal situations. Almost all idiomatic expressions are colloquial language. Slang, however, refers to words and expressions understood by a large number of speakers but not accepted as good, formal usage by the majority. Colloquial expressions and even slang may be found in standard dictionaries but will be so identified. Both colloquial usage and slang are more common in speech than in writing.
Colloquial speech often passes into standard speech. Some slang also passes into standard speech, but other slang expressions enjoy momentary popularity followed by obscurity. In some cases, the majority never accepts certain slang phrases but nevertheless retains them in their collective memories. Every generation seems to require its own set of words to describe familiar objects and events. It has been pointed out by a number of linguists that three cultural conditions are necessary for the creation of a large body of slang expressions. First, the introduction and acceptance of new objects and situations in the society; second, a diverse population with a large number of subgroups; third, association among the subgroups and the majority population.
Finally, it is worth noting that the terms "standard" "colloquial" and "slang" exist only as abstract labels for scholars who study language. Only a tiny number of the speakers of any language will be aware that they are using colloquial or slang expressions. Most speakers of English will, during appropriate situations, select and use all three types of expressions.
Archaeology is a source of history, not just a bumble auxiliary discipline. Archaeological data are historical documents in their own right, not mere illustrations to written texts, Just as much as any other historian, an archaeologist studies and tries to reconstitute the process that has created the human world in which we live - and us ourselves in so far as we are each creatures of our age and social environment. Archaeological data are all changes in the material world resulting from human action or, more succinctly, the fossilized results of human behavior. The sum total of these constitutes what may be called the archaeological record. This record exhibits certain peculiarities and deficiencies the consequences of which produce a rather superficial contrast between archaeological history and the more familiar kind based upon written records.
Not all human behavior fossilizes. The words I utter and you hear as vibrations in the air are certainly human changes in the material world and may be of great historical significance. Yet they leave no sort of trace in the archaeological records unless they are captured by a Dictaphone
or written down by a clerk. The movement of troops on the battlefield may "change the course of history," but this is equally ephemeral from the archaeologist’s standpoint. What are perhaps worse, most organic materials are perishable. Everything made of wood, hide, wool, linen, grass, hair, and similar materials will decay and vanish in dust in a few years or centuries, save under very exceptional conditions. In a relatively brief period the archaeological record is reduce to mere scraps of stone, bone, glass, metal, and earthenware. Still modern archaeology, by applying appropriate techniques and comparative methods, aided by a few lucky finds from peat-bogs, deserts, and frozen soils, is able to fill up a good deal of the gap.
From Boston to Los Angeles, from New York City to Chicago to Dallas, museums are either planning, building, or wrapping up wholesale expansion programs. These programs already have radically altered facades and floor plans or are expected to do so in the not-too-distant future.
In New York City alone, six major institutions have spread up and out into the air space and neighborhoods around them or are preparing to do so.
The reasons for this confluence of activity are complex, but one factor is a consideration everywhere - space. With collections expanding, with the needs and functions of museums changing, empty space has become a very precious commodity.
Probably nowhere in the country is this more true than at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, which has needed additional space for decades and which received its last significant facelift ten years ago. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen its collections.
Deaccessing - or selling off - works of art has taken on new importance because of the museum’s space problems. And increasingly, curators have been forced to juggle gallery space, rotating one masterpiece into public view while another is sent to storage.
Despite the clear need for additional gallery and storage space, however," the museum has no plan, no plan to break out of its envelope in the next fifteen years," according to Philadelphia Museum of Art’s president.
新托福考试写作考生想拿高分，“肚子里必须有点墨水”，背上一篇两篇优秀范文，以备不时只需。以下这篇范文的题目是：Skyscrapers and Environment。
In the late 1960’s, many people in North America turned their attention to environmental problems, and new steel-and-glass skyscrapers were widely criticized. Ecologists pointed out that a cluster of tall buildings in a city often overburdens public transportation and parking lot capacities.
Skyscrapers are also lavish consumers, and wasters, of electric power. In one recent year, the addition of 17 million square feet of skyscraper office space in New York City raised the peak daily demand for electricity by 120, 000 kilowatts-enough to supply the entire city of Albany, New York, for a day.
Glass-walled skyscrapers can be especially wasteful. The heat loss (or gain)through a wall of half-inch plate glass is more than ten times that through a typical masonry wall filled with insulation board. To lessen the strain on heating and air-conditioning equipment, builders of
skyscrapers have begun to use double-glazed panels of glass, and reflective glasses coated with silver or gold mirror films that reduce glare as well as heat gain. However, mirror-walled skyscrapers raise the temperature of the surrounding air and affect neighboring buildings.
Skyscrapers put a severe strain on a city’s sanitation facilities, too. If fully occupied, the two World Trade Center towers in New York City would alone generate 2.25 million gallons of raw sewage each year-as much as a city the size of Stanford, Connecticut , which has a population of more than 109, 000.
新托福考试写作考生想拿高分，“肚子里必须有点墨水”，背上一篇两篇优秀范文，以备不时只需。以下这篇范文的题目是：A Rare Fossil Record。
The preservation of embryos and juveniles is a rate occurrence in the fossil record. The tiny, delicate skeletons are usually scattered by scavengers or destroyed by weathering before they can be fossilized. Ichthyosaurs had a higher chance of being preserved than did terrestrial creatures because, as marine animals, they tended to live in environments less subject to erosion. Still, their fossilization required a suite of factors: a slow rate of decay of soft tissues, little scavenging by other animals, a lack of swift currents and waves to jumble and carry away small bones, and fairly rapid burial. Given these factors, some areas have become a treasury of well-preserved ichthyosaur fossils.
The deposits at Holzmaden, Germany, present an interesting case for analysis. The ichthyosaur remains are found in black, bituminous marine shales deposited about 190 million years ago. Over the years, thousands of specimens of marine reptiles, fish and invertebrates have been recovered from these rocks. The quality of preservation is outstanding, but what is even more impressive is the number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos. Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around Holzmaden, suggesting that a specific site was used by large numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time. The embryos are quite advanced in their physical development; their paddles, for example, are already well formed. One specimen is even preserved in the birth canal. In addition, the shale contains the remains of many newborns that are between 20 and 30 inches long.
Why are there so many pregnant females and young at Holzmaden when they are so rare elsewhere? The quality of preservation is almost unmatched and quarry operations have been carried out carefully with an awareness of the value of the fossils. But these factors do not account for the interesting question of how there came to be such a concentration of pregnant ichthyosaurs in a particular place very close to their time of giving birth.
新托福考试写作考生想拿高分，“肚子里必须有点墨水”，背上一篇两篇优秀范文，以备不时只需。以下这篇范文的题目是：The Nobel Academy。
For the last 82years, Sweden’s Nobel Academy has decided who will receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, thereby determining who will be elevated from the great and the near great to the immortal. But today the Academy is coming under heavy criticism both from the without and from within. Critics contend that the selection of the winners often has less to do with true writing ability than with the peculiar internal politics of the Academy and of Sweden itself. According to Ingmar Bjorksten, the cultural editor for one of the country’s two major newspapers, the prize continues to represent "what people call a very Swedish exercise: reflecting Swedish tastes."
The Academy has defended itself against such charges of provincialism in its selection by
asserting that its physical distance from the great literary capitals of the world actually serves to protect the Academy from outside influences. This may well be true, but critics respond that this very distance may also be responsible for the Academy’s inability to perceive accurately authentic trends in the literary world.
Regardless of concerns over the selection process, however, it seems that the prize will continue to survive both as an indicator of the literature that we most highly praise, and as an elusive goal that writers seek. If for no other reason, the prize will continue to be desirable for the financial rewards that accompany it; not only is the cash prize itself considerable, but it also dramatically increases sales of an author’s books.
新托福考试写作考生想拿高分，“肚子里必须有点墨水”，背上一篇两篇优秀范文，以备不时只需。以下这篇范文的题目是：the war between Britain and France。
In the late eighteenth century, battles raged in almost every corner of Europe, as well as in the Middle East, South Africa, the West Indies, and Latin America. In reality, however, there was only one major war during this time, the war between Britain and France. All other battles were ancillary to this larger conflict, and were often at least partially related to its antagonist’ goals and strategies. France sought total domination of Europe. This goal was obstructed by British independence and Britain’s efforts throughout the continent to thwart Napoleon; through treaties. Britain built coalitions (not dissimilar in concept to today’s NATO) guaranteeing British participation in all major European conflicts. These two antagonists were poorly matched, insofar as they had very unequal strengths; France was predominant on land, Britain at sea. The French knew that, short of defeating the British navy, their only hope of victory was to close all the ports of Europe to British ships. Accordingly, France set out to overcome Britain by extending its military domination from Moscow t Lisbon, from Jutland to Caldaria. All of this entailed tremendous risk, because France did not have the military resources to control this much territory and still protect itself and maintain order at home.
French strategists calculated that a navy of 150 ships would provide the force necessary to defeat the British navy. Such a force would give France a three-to-two advantage over Britain. This advantage was deemed necessary because of Britain’s superior sea skills and technology because of Britain’s superior sea skills and technology, and also because Britain would be fighting a defensive war, allowing it to win with fewer forces. Napoleon never lost substantial impediment to his control of Europe. As his force neared that goal, Napoleon grew increasingly impatient and began planning an immediate attack.
新托福考试写作考生想拿高分，“肚子里必须有点墨水”，背上一篇两篇优秀范文，以备不时只需。以下这篇范文的题目是：Evolution of sleep。
Sleep is very ancient. In the electroencephalographic sense we share it with all the primates and almost all the other mammals and birds: it may extend back as far as the reptiles.
There is some evidence that the two types of sleep, dreaming and dreamless, depend on the life-style of the animal, and that predators are statistically much more likely to dream than prey, which are in turn much more likely to experience dreamless sleep. In dream sleep, the animal is powerfully immobilized and remarkably unresponsive to external stimuli. Dreamless sleep is much shallower, and we have all witnessed cats or dogs cocking their ears to a sound when apparently fast asleep. The fact that deep dream sleep is rare among pray today seems clearly to be
a product of natural selection, and it makes sense that today, when sleep is highly evolved, the stupid animals are less frequently immobilized by deep sleep than the smart ones. But why should they sleep deeply at all? Why should a state of such deep immobilization ever have evolved?
Perhaps one useful hint about the original function of sleep is to be found in the fact that dolphins and whales and aquatic mammals in genera seem to sleep very little. There is, by and large, no place to hide in the ocean. Could it be that, rather than increasing an animal’s vulnerability, the University of Florida and Ray Middies of London University have suggested this to be the case. It is conceivable that animals who are too stupid to be quite on their own initiative are, during periods of high risk, immobilized by the implacable arm of sleep. The point seems particularly clear for the young of predatory animals. This is an interesting notion and probably at least partly true.
新托福考试写作考生想拿高分，“肚子里必须有点墨水”，背上一篇两篇优秀范文，以备不时只需。以下这篇范文的题目是：Modern American Universities。
Before the 1850’s, the United States had a number of small colleges, most of them dating from colonial days. They were small, church connected institutions whose primary concern was to shape the moral character of their students.
Throughout Europe, institutions of higher learning had developed, bearing the ancient name of university. In German university was concerned primarily with creating and spreading knowledge, not morals. Between mid-century and the end of the 1800’s, more than nine thousand young Americans, dissatisfied with their training at home, went to Germany for advanced study. Some of them return to become presidents of venerable colleges-----Harvard, Yale, Columbia---and transform them into modern universities. The new presidents broke all ties with the churches and brought in a new kind of faculty. Professors were hired for their knowledge of a subject, not because they were of the proper faith and had a strong arm for disciplining students. The new principle was that a university was to create knowledge as well as pass it on, and this called for a faculty composed of teacher-scholars. Drilling and learning by rote were replaced by the German method of lecturing, in which the professor’s own research was presented in class. Graduate training leading to the Ph.D., an ancient German degree signifying the highest level of advanced scholarly attainment, was introduced. With the establishment of the seminar system, graduate student learned to question, analyze, and conduct their own research.
At the same time, the new university greatly expanded in size and course offerings, breaking completely out of the old, constricted curriculum of mathematics, classics, rhetoric, and music. The president of Harvard pioneered the elective system, by which students were able to choose their own course of study. The notion of major fields of study emerged. The new goal was to make the university relevant to the real pursuits of the world. Paying close heed to the practical needs of society, the new universities trained men and women to work at its tasks, with engineering students being the most characteristic of the new regime. Students were also trained as economists, architects, agriculturalists, social welfare workers, and teachers.
新托福考试写作考生想拿高分，“肚子里必须有点墨水”，背上一篇两篇优秀范文，以备不时只需。以下这篇范文的题目是：children’s numerical skills。
People appear to born to compute. The numerical skills of children develop so early and so inexorably that it is easy to imagine an internal clock of mathematical maturity guiding their
growth. Not long after learning to walk and talk, they can set the table with impress accuracy---one knife, one spoon, one fork, for each of the five chairs.
Soon they are capable of nothing that they have placed five knives, spoons and forks on the table and, a bit later, that this amounts to fifteen pieces of silverware. Having thus mastered addition, they move on to subtraction. It seems almost reasonable to expect that if a child were secluded on a desert island at birth and retrieved seven years later, he or she could enter a second enter a second-grade mathematics class without any serious problems of intellectual adjustment. Of course, the truth is not so simple. This century, the work of cognitive psychologists has illuminated the subtle forms of daily learning on which intellectual progress depends. Children were observed as they slowly grasped-----or, as the case might be, bumped into----- concepts that adults take for quantity is unchanged as water pours from a short glass into a tall thin one. Psychologists have since demonstrated that young children, asked to count the pencils in a pile, readily report the number of blue or red pencils, but must be coaxed into finding the total. Such studies have suggested that the rudiments of mathematics are mastered gradually, and with effort. They have also suggested that the very concept of abstract numbers------the idea of a oneness, a twoness, a threeness that applies to any class of objects and is a prerequisite for doing anything more mathematically demanding than setting a table-----is itself far from innate
Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
【范文】The Advantages of Saving Money
Everyone must work to live, but many people are fortunate enough to make more money than they immediately need. What should they do with this extra income? While it is tempting for people to spend it all on things they desire, I believe it is better to save at least a portion of the extra income for the future.
By saving money, people give themselves more security. They cannot predict the future; perhaps one day they will be jobless. At a time like this their savings can spare them a great deal of suffering and help to see them through the hard time. In addition, saving money allows people to build up a larger sum. They can then buy something more worthwhile than the small things they can but if they spend the money right away. For example, they may be able to buy a house with their savings. Finally, the practice of saving helps people develop the habit of setting goals and planning for their future. In this way they are bound to lead more meaningful and successful lives. Most people would like to enjoy their money immediately. Nobody likes to wait for the things that he wants. However, if we learn to save our money, we can gain more advantages in the future. We will lead more secure and, thus, happier lives. We will also be able to buy the things we truly want but cannot afford right now.