summary写法

来源:m.fanwen118.com时间:2022.5.28

一、概述

文章摘要是对所写文章主要内容的精炼概括。美国人称摘要为“Abstract”,而英国人则喜欢称其为“Summary”。

通常国际刊物要求所要刊登的文章字数,包括摘要部分不超过1万字。而对文章摘要部分的字数要求则更少。因此,写摘要时,应用最为简练的语言来表达论文之精华。论文摘要的重点应放在所研究的成果和结论上。

国际会议要求的论文摘要的字数不等,一般为200字-500字。而国际刊物要求所刊登的论文摘要的字数通常是100字-200字。摘要的位置一般放在一篇文章的最前面,内容上涵盖全文,并直接点明全旨。语言上要求尽量简炼。摘要通常多采用第三人称撰写。 科学书籍、论文和学术报告一般都附有内容摘要,这样可以节省读者的时间,使他们不必读完整个文章就能够了解它的主要内容。书籍摘要,一般放在封二或封三;论文和学术报告的摘要,一般放在正文前面。摘要应做到简明扼要,切题,能独立成文,使读者能准确地了解书籍的要义。写摘要时,最好用第三人称的完整的陈述句,文长一般不超过200个词。

摘要分陈述性的(Descriptive)和资料性的(Informational)两类。陈述性摘要只陈述书籍或文章的主题,不介绍内容。资料性的摘要除了介绍主题外,还应介绍文章的要点和各个要点的主要内容。

它可以包括三个组成部分

①点明主题,解析文章或书籍的目的或意图;

②介绍主要内容,使读者迅速了解文章或书籍的概貌;

③提出结论或建议,以供读者参考。

二、常见句型

常见的摘要句型有:

1)This paper deals with...

2)This article focuses on the topics of (that,having,etc)...

3)This eassy presents knowledge that...

4)This thesis discusses...

5)This thesis analyzes...

6)This paper provides an overview of...

7)This paper elaborates on ...

8)This article gives an overview of...

9)This article compares...and summarizes key findings.

10)This paper includes discussions concerning...

11)This paper presents up to date information on...

12)This article covers the role of chemicals in...

13)This paper addresses important topics including...

14)This paper touches upon...

15)This paper strongly emphasizes...

16)This eassy represents the preceedings of ...

17)This article not only describes...but also suggests...

18)This paper considers...

19)This paper provides a method of ...

20)This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze..

21)This paper offers the latest information regarding...

22)This paper is devoted to examining the role of...

23)This article explores...

24)This paper expresses views on...

25)This paper reflects the state of the art in...

26)This paper explains the procedures for...

27)This paper develops the theory of ...

28)This

怎样写好英文summary

第一步:阅读

A.先要读懂、读透原作。认真阅读给定的原文材料,如果一遍不能理解,就多读两遍。阅读次数越多,你对原文的理解就越深刻。

B.拟出题目。题目反映作者对原作的理解。概要的题目要明确,一读就可以知道原作的

主要内容或主题,并且不应设任何障碍,如:不出现5个W问题(When, What,Where,Who, Why)和一个H问题(How)。题目的形式可写成句子,也可写成短语。用那些能概括文章主题思想的单词、短语或短句子作为标题。也可以采用文中的主题句作为标题。主题句往往出现在文章的开头或结尾。一个好标题有助于确定文章的中心思想。作为一篇文章的标题应该醒目,吸引人,可以设问,从而激发读者去思考。但作为一篇概要的题目须简明扼要,明确主题,没有谜点。

C.拟好提纲(outline)。原作者写作中一般均有写作提纲,这样写起文章来会繁而不乱,有条理。读者的阅读过程就是一个梳理原作框架,理解、吃透原文的解码过程。在此过程中,就须理出一个粗略的提纲,这个纲目对理解原作帮助很大,尤其在有关外报外刊的概要时更明显。因为外报外刊从行文顺序、谋篇布局到主论点的阐述方式均不同于汉语作品:中文的论点较为集中;外刊中解释性报道居多,解释多而细。文章越细,给人的印象越繁杂凌乱。因此,拟就一个小提纲(哪怕几个单词或词组),写起概要来文章就会有章法,而且也不会漏掉原作中的要点。因为概要也该是意义连贯、语篇衔接紧密的一段或几段文字。

D.快速成文,反复推敲。拟好提纲后,写作尽量一气呵成,一次成文。一旦有了初稿,等于画树有了枝干,这时的写作成了一半。然后再读原文,对照修改润色,看是否漏掉了什么重要信息或主要内容。另外,用词上看是否搭配恰当、达意。这一过程中的修改很重要,因为概要中的每个字(词)都要有用场。可用可无的,要删去。使别人读了概要,基本不用了解原文,足矣。

E.注意写作细节。第一,例子、数据的问题。概要中的例子数据不可多用,用一两个说明问题即可;第二,引语(用)问题。写概要时尽量用自己的话,当然不排斥引用。外报外刊中有的短语、句子写的十分精彩。若引用得当,势必起到画龙点睛的作用(写作有关外报外刊的概要更是如此)。反过来讲,引用不当就是画蛇添足。需要注意一点:引用不是抄袭,而是为我所用。语言上要多加润色。注意词类、时态、语态等的适当调整。第三、改写后的句子根据行文需要,将动词换成了名词,变换了人称、时态、语态。这就是为我所用。

第二步:动手写作

A. 摘要应该只有原文的三分之一或四分之一长。因此首先数一下原文的字数,然后除以三,得到一个数字。摘要的字数可以少于这个数字,但是千万不能超过这个数字。

B. 摘要应全部用自己的话完成。不要引用原文的句子。

C. 应该遵循原文的逻辑顺序。这样你就不必重新组织观点、事实。

D. 摘要必须全面、清晰地表明原文所载的信息,以便你的读者不需翻阅原文就可以完

全掌握材料的原意。

E. 写摘要时可以采用下列几种小技巧:

1) 删除细节,只保留主要观点。

2) 选择一至两个例子。原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从中筛选一至二个例子。

3) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子。如果材料中描述某人或某事用了十个句子,那么你只要把它们变成一两句即可。

4) 避免重复。在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明。但是这在摘要中是不能使用的。应该删除那些突出强调的重述句。

5) 压缩长的句子。如下列两例:

“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.”

可以概括为:”He was very brave in battle.”

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.”

可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.”

6) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。请看下面的例子:

“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.”

可以概括为:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.”

7) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:

“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.”

可以概括为:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.”

8) 使用最短的连接词。比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不能使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等较长的连接词。通常,使用分号就能够达成使用连接词的效果。

9) 文章中的第一人称说的话通常在摘要中转换成第三人称,从而把大段的对白简化,

比如:

Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful? like eating cardboard or sand? just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.”

可以用第三人称概括为:

Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.

第三步:修改成文 草稿拟好以后,对它进行修改。首先,与原文比较看是否把所有重要的观点都概括了,摘要中的观点是否与原文中的完全一致。其次,如果摘要中出现了不必要的词汇、短语或长句子,删除它们。第三,检查拼写、语法和标点符号的错误。最后,保持语言简单明了。


第二篇:summary的写法 2 4900字

一、概述

文章摘要是对所写文章主要内容的精炼概括。美国人称摘要为“Abstract”,而英国人则喜欢称其为“Summary”。

通常国际刊物要求所要刊登的文章字数,包括摘要部分不超过1万字。而对文章摘要部分的字数要求则更少。因此,写摘要时,应用最为简练的语言来表达论文之精华。论文摘要的重点应放在所研究的成果和结论上。

国际会议要求的论文摘要的字数不等,一般为200字-500字。而国际刊物要求所刊登的论文摘要的字数通常是100字-200字。摘要的位置一般放在一篇文章的最前面,内容上涵盖全文,并直接点明全旨。语言上要求尽量简炼。摘要通常多采用第三人称撰写。

科学书籍、论文和学术报告一般都附有内容摘要,这样可以节省读者的时间,使他们不必读完整个文章就能够了解它的主要内容。书籍摘要,一般放在封二或封三;论文和学术报告的摘要,一般放在正文前面。摘要应做到简明扼要,切题,能独立成文,使读者能准确地了解书籍的要义。写摘要时,最好用第三人称的完整的陈述句,文长一般不超过200个词。

摘要分陈述性的(Descriptive)和资料性的(Informational)两类。陈述性摘要只陈述书籍或文章的主题,不介绍内容。资料性的摘要除了介绍主题外,还应介绍文章的要点和各个要点的主要内容。

它可以包括三个组成部分

①点明主题,解析文章或书籍的目的或意图;

②介绍主要内容,使读者迅速了解文章或书籍的概貌;

③提出结论或建议,以供读者参考。

二、常见句型

常见的摘要句型有:

1)This paper deals with...

2)This article focuses on the topics of (that,having,etc)...

3)This eassy presents knowledge that...

4)This thesis discusses...

5)This thesis analyzes...

6)This paper provides an overview of...

7)This paper elaborates on ...

8)This article gives an overview of...

9)This article compares...and summarizes key findings. 10)This paper includes discussions concerning... 11)This paper presents up to date information on... 12)This article covers the role of chemicals in... 13)This paper addresses important topics including... 14)This paper touches upon... 15)This paper strongly emphasizes... 16)This eassy represents the preceedings of ... 17)This article not only describes...but also suggests... 18)This paper considers... 19)This paper provides a method of ... 20)This paper introduces an applicable procedure to analyze.. 21)This paper offers the latest information regarding... 22)This paper is devoted to examining the role of... 23)This article explores... 24)This paper expresses views on... 25)This paper reflects the state of the art in... 26)This paper explains the procedures for... 27)This paper develops the theory of ...

28)This article reviews the techniques used in ....

29)This paper investigates the techniques and procedures to ....

怎样写好英文summary 2011-06-30 15:54:59| 分类: 图书文件夹 | 标签: |字号大 中

小 订阅

第一步:阅读

A.认真阅读给定的原文材料。如果一遍不能理解,就多读两遍。阅读次数越多,你对原文的理解就越深刻。

B.给摘要起一个标题。用那些能概括文章主题思想的单词、短语或短句子作为标题。也可以采用文中的主题句作为标题。主题句往往出现在文章的开头或结尾。一个好标题有助于确定文章的中心思想。

C.现在,就该决定原文中哪些部分重要,哪些部分次重要了。对重要部分的主要观点进行概括。

D.简要地记下主要观点——主题、标题、细节等你认为对概括摘要重要的东西。

第二步:动手写作

A. 摘要应该只有原文的三分之一或四分之一长。因此首先数一下原文的字数,然后除以三,得到一个数字。摘要的字数可以少于这个数字,但是千万不能超过这个数字。

B. 摘要应全部用自己的话完成。不要引用原文的句子。

C. 应该遵循原文的逻辑顺序。这样你就不必重新组织观点、事实。

D. 摘要必须全面、清晰地表明原文所载的信息,以便你的读者不需翻阅原文就可以完全掌握材料的原意。

E. 写摘要时可以采用下列几种小技巧:

1) 删除细节。只保留主要观点。

2) 选择一至两个例子。原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从中筛选一至二个例子。

3) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子。如果材料中描述某人或某事用了十个句子,那么你只要把它们变成一两句即可。

4) 避免重复。在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明。但是这在摘要中是不能使用的。应该删除那些突出强调的重述句。

5) 压缩长的句子。如下列两例:

“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.”

可以概括为:”He was very brave in battle.”

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.”

可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.”

6) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。请看下面的例子:

“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.”

可以概括为:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.”

7) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:

“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.”

可以概括为:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.”

8) 使用最短的连接词。比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不能使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等较长的连接词。通常,使用分号就能够达成使用连接词的效果。

9) 文章中的第一人称说的话通常在摘要中转换成第三人称,从而把大段的对白简化,比如:

Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful… like eating cardboard or sand… just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.”

可以用第三人称概括为:

Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.

第三步:修改成文

草稿拟好以后,对它进行修改。首先,与原文比较看是否把所有重要的观点都概括了,摘要中的观点是否与原文中的完全一致。其次,如果摘要中出现了不必要的词汇、短语或长句子,删除它们。第三,检查拼写、语法和标点符号的错误。最后,保持语言简单明了。

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