中石化围猎煤制气

来源:m.fanwen118.com时间:2022.4.22

中石化围猎煤制气

数千亿的煤制气发展计划已经破题。 4月初,中石化新疆准东煤制天然气项目总部基地工程在乌鲁木齐举行启动仪式。按照规划,中石化将总投资约700亿元,在准东建设两座各年产1500万吨的煤矿和一套80亿立方米/年煤制天然气装置,预计将于20xx年6月全面投产。

按照中石化官方的说法,这将是世界上规模最大、转化效率最高的煤制天然气生产基地。 这还只是中石化六大煤化工项目中开建的第一个。未来几年,中石化还将在内蒙古、贵州、安徽、河南和宁夏建设大型煤化工基地,外界预计其总投资规模将高达2000亿元以上。 面对中国蓬勃发展的天然气市场,中石化押下了重注。如果计划顺利完成,中石化将改写天然气市场中石油一家独大的局面。

然而,面对市场的急剧变化和政府的价格管制,最终收网之时,中石化猎到的会是怎样的一个煤制气天下?

“落地”新疆

中石化的煤制气布局,最早在20xx年已经开始有所动作。当时,中石化在新疆登记了350平方公里的煤炭区块,区块煤炭储量预计在150亿吨左右,中石化原本就计划在此地发展煤化工项目,但由于技术、市场等因素,一直没有实质性举动。

2年前,时任中国海洋石油总公司“掌门人”的傅成玉调任中石化,新疆的煤炭区块再度被中石化圈定为发展煤化工的重点。傅成玉的理由很简单:这里的煤炭资源太丰富、成本太低廉了。

20xx年3月,中石化与新疆维吾尔自治区共同出资,在乌鲁木齐正式注册成立了“中国石化新疆能源化工有限公司”,双方分别持股90%和10%。该公司董事长由中国石化(600028.SH)高级副总裁兼财务总监戴厚良出任。

经过一年多的前期工作,4月2日,中国石化新疆能源化工有限公司正式揭牌,并同时启动了年产80亿立方米煤制天然气项目总部基地工程建设。中石化将投资约40亿元,建设集发展规划、决策管理、科研培训等多功能于一体的总部战略基地,打造准东煤制天然气项目的“神经中枢”。

中国石化新疆能源化工有限公司总经理张瑞生对记者表示,新疆准东年产80亿立方米煤制天然气项目将立足于中石化在新疆准东148亿吨煤炭资源,将建设2座各年产1500万吨的煤矿和年产80亿立方米煤制天然气装置。

以此为标志,中石化的煤化工项目正式落地。目前,中石化新疆煤化工项目已经列入了国家煤炭深加工示范规划。中石化官方消息对外表示,预计20xx年6月,该项目有望于全面建成投产,可实现年销售收入150亿元。

千亿图谋

在中石化庞大的煤化工发展规划中,新疆准东仅仅是个起点。

履新中石化不足一年,傅成玉即在中石化内部成立煤化工领导小组,并亲自担任组长。20xx年9月,中石化挂牌成立了中石化长城能源化工有限公司,作为中石化旗下推进煤化工业务的专业化平台,全面负责公司煤化工业务的投资经营、项目建设。 在一次内部会议上,中石化高层定下了如下目标:“十二五”期间,将建设内蒙古、新疆、贵州、安徽、河南和宁夏等六大煤化工基地。外界预计,如果中石化的煤化工项目全部铺开,其总的投资额将超过2000亿元。

“中国的天然气市场是一个潜力巨大的市场,公司看中的正是这一点。中国的煤炭资源丰富,煤制气可有效利用煤炭资源,与煤制甲醇等煤基化工项目相比,煤制气的耗水也相对较低。”中石化内部人士告诉记者。

与新疆准东煤化工项目相配套,中石化还将建设一条覆盖十几个盛市、自治区的“新粤浙”煤制气外输管道。该项目西起新疆伊宁首站,东至广东韶关末站,全长达8280公里,总投资将达到1590亿元。 “新粤浙”管道的建设,将直接解决新疆煤制气外输市场问题。管道设计年输气量为300亿立方米,覆盖范围与中石油投入巨资建设的西气东输二线在很多区域重合,中石化试图分羹国内天然气市场大蛋糕的意图昭然若揭。

“新疆建设煤化工项目的资源优势很明显,但是外输是一大瓶颈。新疆规划的煤化工项目很多,中石化建设这样一条大规模的输气管道,将有效促进新疆煤炭资源的开发,能起到很好的带动作用。”西北化工研究院气化所副所长贺根良评价说。

目前,中石化已将管道项目申请呈送至国家发改委。此前有媒体报道称,中石化已经拿到了国家发改委的“路条”,但这并没有得到中石化官方的证实。按照规划顺利推进,中石化新粤浙煤制气管道将于20xx年建成。届时,将与中石油的西气东输管线形成贴身肉搏之势,中石油在天然气市场的一家独大局面将被改写。

成败关键 公开资料显示,新疆拥有丰富的煤炭资源,预测资源量为2.19万亿吨,占全国总储量的40%。但在20xx年,新疆煤炭产量仅为1.4亿吨,这意味着,新疆煤炭几乎是一块沉睡的处女地。

中石化投入巨资开发煤制气,看好的正是新疆丰富、低廉的煤炭资源。 贺根良告诉记者说,新疆煤制气相比其他地区有很强的市场竞争力,从理论上计算,以新疆本地煤炭资源开发的煤制气,成本大概在1.6元/立方米,最多不超过1.8元/立方米,这样的成本价是比较低的。

即便如此,新疆煤制气能不能确保盈利还存在不确定性。以北京为例,目前的民用管道天然气价格为2.28元/立方米,如果中石化的新疆煤制气输送到北京,其管输成本不能超过0.7元/立方米,否则将面临亏损或者微利。

“管输成本这么低,基本不大可能。”中石化天然气分公司一位不愿透露姓名的人士告诉记者,“现在的管道建设成本与十年前不同,再过五年又不一样,现在要说新疆煤制气能不能赚钱,还不太好回答。”

中石化煤制气的大投入,面临的更大系统性风险还是在国内天然气市场的变化。虽然中国目前的能源消费中天然气占比较低,但在自产气、进口气、海外LNG(液化天然气)多股气源涌入后,中国的天然气市场正在发生微妙的变化。

前述中石化天然气分公司人士在天然气行业工作多年,早期还曾负责中石化“川气东送”的市场开拓,对于天然气市场的变动有着切身感受。他告诉记者,由于市场发展太快,而管线设施、储气库等配套设施没有建设好,过去天然气市场长期供不应求。

“但那是中石油西气东输二线投产前,此后就没有那么紧张了,大体上是市场上供应不是太富裕,但是也不是严重短缺,基本是处于一种紧平衡状态。未来的市场供应,可能还会进一步增加。”该人士说。

而据国家能源局的预计,20xx年中国天然气消费量为2300亿立方米左右,用气普及率将进一步提高,供应能力将超过2600亿立方米(包括煤层气、页岩气及煤制天然气等非常规天然气和进口天然气)。这意味着,天然气市场将在20xx年出现供大于求的局面。

这将是中石化新疆煤制气等几大煤化工项目未来面临的局面,市撤境的变化和政府天然气价格改革将成为中石化押下重注后的成败关键。

“在目前的天然气价格体系下,煤化工的市场并不会太好。但长远来看天然气涨价是迟早的事情。如果控制好成本,煤化工项目的前景还是可以看好的。”贺根良说。

(来源:财经国家新闻网 作者:王康鹏)


第二篇:中石化真题 34300字

英语水平考试

试卷类型:24

答卷注意事项

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2、本次考试包括试卷一和试卷二,考试时间为9:00-11:00。试卷一为客观选择

题,在标准答题卡上用2B铅笔将所选答案划出。试卷二为翻译题,将译文写在答题纸上,填上单位、姓名、准考证号、考场号、考点,以备核对总分。

3、试卷一为标准化考试,所有答案必须在标准化答题卡上划出,若答在试卷上

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英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

试 卷 一

I. Vocabulary

Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A,B,C and D. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.

1. Being able to save and accumulate wealth is not automatic.

A. considerate B. considerable C. conscious D. careful

2. Wonderful of nature are all around us.

A. appearance B. experience C. phenomena D. philosophy

3. The whole county with little red hearts on Valentine’s Day.

A. breaks in B. breaks into C. breaks off D. breaks out

4. If I were the president of a university I should a compulsory course in “How to Use Your Eyes”.

A. escape B. establish C. estate D. elapse

5. The statement that oil originated in the sea is of the world.

A. confined B. confessed C. conformed D. confirmed

6. Almost 70 percent of all non-food purchases in supermarkets are generated by in-store A. decided B. decisive C. decide D. decisions

7. I believe that truth and justice are to an enduring social order.

A. fundamental B. fountain C. formation D. friction

8. Some of these “upside down” airmail stamps are now over $6,000.

A. worthy B. worthed C. worth D. worthwhile

9. The early pioneers had to many hardships to settle on the new land.

A. go into B. go along with C. go back on D. go through

10. Remember that customers don't about prices in that city.

A. dispute B. bargain C. consult D. discuss

11. Difficulties and hardships have the best qualities of the young geologist.

A. brought about B. brought in C. brought up D. brought out

12. Do you know where the pictures on money ?

A. resulted from B. removed from C. came from D. fell from

13. I often about how quickly time flies.

A. complain B. complaint C. compile D. conceive

14. I'm with computer programs that correct spelling through the use of built-in dictionaries.

A. common B. familiar C. known D. friendly

15. Male cigarette smokers have a higher death from heart disease than non-smoking males. 1

英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

A. rate B. price C. speed D. degree

16. With winter here you can these skirts till you need them again next summer.

A. get rid of B. give away C. do away with D. put away

17. The good service at the hotel the poor food to some extent.

A. made for B. made out C. made up for D. mad use of

18. Those gifts of rare books that were given to us were deeply A. applied B. appreciated C. approved D. appealed

19. Inflation is the first problem that the new government will have to .

A. revolve B. grasp C. seize D. tackle

20. Few people who of high school will be rich.

A. run down B. check in C. drop out D. check out

II. Grammatical Structure

Directions: There are 20 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.

21. The young receptionist doesn't permit in the exhibition center.

A. smoking B. to smoke C. smoke D. to have smoked

22. I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality for the Chinese people are justly famous throughout the world.

A. what B. whom C. that D. which

23. More than two thousands work in this refinery.

A. Russias B. Russian C. Russians D Russia

24. The ancient Egyptians believed all illnesses were related to was eaten.

A. what B. which C. it D. that

25. If all the continents and mountains were bulldozed fiat, the earth by water more than 12,000 feet deep.

A. could have been covered B. might had been covered

C. is covered D. would be covered

26. Since 1939, numerous scientific studies to determine whether smoking is a health hazard.

A. have been conducted B. are conducted

C. is conducted D. being conducted

27. All the money A. has been spent B. have been spent

C. being spent D. having been spent

28. One main branch of sea science, A. physical oceanography B. is physical oceanography

C. called physical oceanography D. what is physical oceanography

2

英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

29. An crowd is awaiting the arrival of the famed statesman.

A. excite B. excitedly C. excited D. exciting

30. There a lot of on the roads yesterday.

A. were...traffic B. was...traffic

C. were...traffics D. was...traffics

31. China and America are separated by .

A. Pacific Ocean B. a Pacific Ocean

C. the Pacific Ocean D. Pacific Oceans

32. to completely cut off its oil supply, it would badly damage its own economy.

A. If Iran was B. Was Iran C. If Iran is D. Were Iran

33. in 1943 the harmful smog made its appearance in Los Angeles.

A. Only...that B. It was...then

C. That it was...when D. It was...that

34. The population of Beijing is three times that of Qingdao.

A. so large as B. as large to C. as large as D. as larger than

35. He his office for there was no one to answer the phone.

A. must have left B. must leave

C. may have left D. can have left

36. Jane's family couldn't agree on where to spend vacation.

A. his B. her C. its D. their

37. I will leave him a note he will know where we are.

A. so that B. that C. in order D. in case

38. The teacher thinks that Tom for the accident and instead we should try to comfort him.

A. doesn't blame B. is to blame

C. isn't to blame D. isn't blamed

39. When I pulled into her driveway, she by the door with her coat on.

A. is waiting B. was waiting C. waits D. waited

40. The clerk asked Robey later in the day.

A. returning B. to return C. return D. to be returned

III. Reading Comprehension

Section A

Directions: There are 5 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by4 questions or

unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should decide on the best choice and mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.

Questions 41 to 44 are based on the following passage:

One of the most interesting paradoxes in America today is that Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, is now engaged in a serious debate about what a university should be, and whether it is measuring up.

3

英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

Like the Roman Catholic Church and other ancient institutions, it is asking—still in private rather than in public—whether its past assumptions about faculty, authority, admissions, courses of study, are really relevant to the problems of the 1990's.

Should Harvard—or any other university—be an intellectual sanctuary, apart from the political and social revolution of the age, or should it be a laboratory for experimentation with these political and social revolutions; or even an engine of the revolution? This is what is being discussed privately in the big clapboard houses of faculty members around the Harvard Yard.

The issue was defined by Waiter Lippmann, a distinguished Harvard graduate, several years ago.

“If the universities are to do their work," he said, "they must be independent and they must be disinterested...They are places to which men can turn for judgments which are unbiased by partisanship and special interest. Obviously, the moment the universities fall under political control, or under the control of private interests, or the moment they themselves take a hand in politics and the leadership of government, their value as independent and disinterested sources of judgment is impaired...”

This is part of the argument that is going on at Harvard today. Another part is the argument of the militant and even many moderate students: that a university is the keeper of our ideals and morals, and should not be “disinterested” but activist in bringing the nation's ideals and actions together.

Harvard's men of today seem more troubled and less sure about personal, political and academic purpose than they did at the beginning. They are not even clear about how they should debate and resolve their problems, but they are struggling with them privately, and how they come out is bound to influence American universities and political life in the 1990's.

41. The issues in the debate on Harvard's goals are whether the universities should remain independent of our society and its problems, and whether they should A. overcome the widespread drug dependency

B. take an active part in solving society's ills

C. fight militarism

D. support our old and established institutions

42. The word “paradox” in paragraph 1 is A. an abnormal condition

B. a parenthetical expression

C. a difficult puzzle

D. a self-contradiction

43. The word “sanctuary” in paragraph 3 is A. a temple or nunnery of middle age

B. a certain place you can hide in and avoid mishaps

C. a holy place dedicated to a certain god

4

英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

D. an academy for intelligent people

44. In the author's judgment, the ferment going on at Harvard .

A. will soon be over, because times are bound to change

B. is of interest mostly to Harvard men and their friends

C. will influence future life in America

D. is a sad symbol of our general bewilderment

Questions 45 to 48 are based on the following passage:

Scientists now believe that many, if not all, living things are born with some type of hidden clock. These clocks are sometimes set by the number of hours of light or darkness in a day, by the rhythm of the tides or by the seasons.

One of the most remarkable of nature's living clocks belongs to the fiddler crab, that familiar beach-dweller with tile overgrown claw. Biologists have long known that the crab's shell is darkest during the day, grows pale in late afternoon, then begins to darken again at daybreak. This daytime darkening is valuable for protection against enemies and sunlight, and for many years it was thought to be a simple response by the crab to the sun--just as if we were to get a tan during the day and lose it at night.

But when an enterprising scientist placed a fiddler crab in darkness, be was amazed to find that the color of the crab's shell kept ticking off the time with the same accuracy.

Yet another startling fact was revealed: the crab's shell reached the darkest color about 50 minutes later each day. There was a second clock inside the crab, for the tides also occur 50 minutes later from day to day. Moreover, even when the crabs were taken from the beach and put back in the dark, they continued their tidal rhythm. More research disclosed that a crab from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, reached its darkest color four hours earlier than the one taken from a beach on a neighboring island. The tides on the nearby island were found to be exactly four hours later than the Cape Cod tides.

Ants don't carry calendars around with them any more than fiddler crabs possess real wrist watches. But ants show amazing accuracy as to the day of the year. Each year, an ant nest sends out winged, young queens on mating flights. Hundreds of them may fly out of a single nest in the soil. Last summer, at the crest of my mountain, I watched an ant city prepare to send forth its young queens. At the precise moment that they took wing, a colony of the same species that my wife was watching near the bottom of the mountain, also sent its queen on a wedding flight. There was, of course, no way could the two colonies have checked take off time with each other.

Entomologist Albro T. Gaul once jotted down in his notebook that a particular the same time! This split-second timing is not always the rule. However, most flights take place within a definite period of time.

Birds also have built-in timepieces which send them off on fall and spring migrations. What the birds really have is a clock like mechanism which allows them to time hours of darkness or light in each day.

But what sends birds northward again in the spring? New research by Dr. Albert Wdifson of Northwestern University seems to indicate that the timing of return flight is extraordinarily complex. In the fall of the year the short days and long nights cause the "clocks" in migratory birds to 5

英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

undergo a kind of "winding" in preparation for their spring return and breeding. Then during the late fall and winter as the clock "ticks", certain physiological changes occur in the bird. The length of each day during the winter determines how fast the clock will run, and hence when the "alarm" will ring for the spring migration. The clock continues to run through breeding time, then stops—to be re-wound again the next fall.

45. The alarm clock that determines the activity of certain living things is governed by ____.

A. hours of daylight B. the time of day in their native environments

C. the moon D. something we don't understand completely

46. The fiddler crab seems to darken his color according to ____.

A. time of sunrise B. its background

C. amount of daylight D. time of tides

47. The reported activity of the ant colony occurred in relation to ____.

A. the position of the sun B. the day of the year

C. the temperature D. the geographical location

48. What controls the migration of birds seems to be ____.

A. dark, cloudy days and bright, sunny days

B. direction of migration

C. time between sunrise and sunset

D. breeding habits

Questions 49 to 52 are based on the following passage:

Medicine comes in many forms. In its liquid form, medicine affects the body very quickly. But the effects of liquid medicine aren't usually long lasting. That is why pills and capsules are also used.

The pills and capsules being sold today aren't perfect, either. Pills dissolve in the stomach. The medicine in the pills is released when the pills dissolve. But often, the pills dissolve too quickly.

Scientists have been trying to develop a pill that can release medicine slowly over a long period of time. They have applied their knowledge of plants to produce the “osmotic (渗透的) pump pill”.

The cell walls of plants are made of cellulose (纤维素). Cellulose is a very porous substance. There are millions of tiny holes, or pores, in the cellulose walls of plants. These holes are big enough to allow water through the cell walls. As water enters a cell, pressure builds up in the cell. The pressure pumps other substances out of the cell. These substances leave the cell through the cellulose wall. This slow, steady process is called osmosis.

The osmotic pump pill is coated with synthetic cellulose. Liquid medicine is contained in the pill. The holes in the cellulose coating of the pill are big enough to allow water in the pill. As water from the body enters the pill, pressure builds up and the medicine is then slowly pumped out of the pill.

49. The passage implies that the osmotic pump pill is better than other pills and capsules because____.

A. it releases medicine slowly over a long period of time

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英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

B. the coating doesn't dissolve in the stomach

C. the medicine in the pill can affect the body quickly

D. it helps to build pressure in the body

50. The way that the osmotic pump pill works is based on a process called ____.

A. cellulose B. osmosis C. pressure D. synthesis

51. The passage implies that medicine in an osmotic pump pill will leave the pill when ____.

A. the pill is swallowed

B. the cellulose coating is dissolved

C. enough pressure builds up in the pill

D. the medicine is dissolved with water from the body

52. The passage implies that cellulose is a very porous substance because it contains ____.

A. millions of tiny holes

B. a substance that dissolves it

C. a substance that creates pressure

D. liquid medicine

Questions 53 to 56 are based on the following passage:

Prices determine how resources are to be used. They are also the means by which products and services that are in limited supply are rationed among buyers. The price system of the United States is a very complex network composed of the prices of all the products bought and sold in the economy as well as those of a myriad of services, including labor, professional transportation, and public-utility services. The interrelationships of all these prices make up the "system" of prices. The price of any particular product or service is linked to a broad, complicated system of prices in which everything seems to depend more or less upon everything else.

If one were to ask a group of randomly selected individuals to define "price", many would reply that price is an amount of money paid by the buyer to the seller of a product or service or, in other words, that price is the money value of a product or service as agreed upon in a market transaction. This definition is, of course, valid as far as it goes. For a complete understanding of a price in any particular transaction, much more than the amount of money involved must be known. Both the buyer and the seller should be familiar with not only the money amount, but also with the amount and quality of the product or service to be exchanged, the time and place at which the exchange will take place and payment will be made, the form of money to be used, the credit terms and discounts that supply to the transaction, guarantees on the product or service, delivery terms return privileges, and other factors. In other words, both buyer and seller should be fully aware of all the factors that comprise the total "package" being exchanged for the asked amount of money in order that they may evaluate a given price.

53. According to the passage, the price system is related primarily to ____.

A. labor and education

B. transportation and insurance

C. utilities and repairs

D. products and services

54. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT a factor in complete understanding of price?

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英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

A. Instructions that come with a product.

B. The quantity of a product.

C. The quality of a product.

D. Warranties that cover a product.

55. In the last sentence of the passage, the word "they" refers to ____.

A. return privileges B. all the factors

C. buyer and seller D. money

56. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses ____.

A. unusual ways to advertise products

B. types of payment plans for service

C. theories about how products affect different levels of society

D. how certain elements of a price "package" influence its market value

Questions 57 to 60 are based on the following passage:

Following the end of the Apollo space program, the National Geographic Society published an excellent set of articles about the moon. Here, in shorter form, are some questions and answers from one of these articles.

Is the moon like the earth?

Yes and no. It is more like it than many scientists thought before Apollo. Like the earth, the moon is in layers, with a crust on the outside and a deep mantle below. It may also have a core, as the earth does. However, the crust is almost four times thicker than the earth's crust. We do not know much yet about the moon's mantle, that section of superheated rock which goes down hundreds of miles below the crust. We think—but we are not sure that the moon has a center core which includes molten rock, as the earth does.

In other ways, of course, the moon is very different. There is no life, and there is no water. The makeup of its atmosphere is very different; the earth creatures cannot breathe in it.

Is the moon hot or cold?

Most scientists agree that some of the moon was hot for at 1east a time. Rocks from the moon show that they were once melted. Right now there seems to be heat someplace inside the moon, possibly a great deal of it. On the surface, however, there is no sign of heat -- no volcano, for example. The surface itself ranges from heat of 230 F to cold of minus 290~F, depending upon where the sun is.

Where did the moon come from?

We don't know. The three main theories (ideas) are (1) that the moon was horn from the earth,

(2) that the earth and the moon were born together at the same time from the same cloud of gas and dust, and (3) that the moon was born someplace else in the solar system and then captured by the earth's gravity. So far, none of these theories has been proved to be either fight or wrong. Professor George W. Wetherill of the University of California in Los Angeles says that he would give the first two theories each a 10 percent chance and the third theory a 20 percent chance. The other 60 percent he would give to "things we haven't thought of yet."

57. The atmosphere of the moon is __ that of the earth.

A. much the same as B. harder to see than

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英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

C. much different from D. cleaner than

58. The surface of the moon is ___.

A. so hot that it warms the earth

B. much colder at all times than the earth

C. about the same as that of the earth in terms of heat and cold

D. sometimes much hotter, sometimes much colder than the earth

59. In talking about the question of where the moon came from, Professor Wetherill of the University of California said that he believes that the answer is ____.

A. going to be found by 1990 at the latest

B. that the moon was once part of the earth

C. a chmd of gas and dust thom which both the earth and the sun were born

D. probably something no one has thought of yet

60. Since earth creatures cannot breathe in the moon's atmosphere, we can safely say that ____.

A. it is impossible for people to live on the moon

B. people would need special equipment in order to live on the moon

C. there is no way to grow food there

D. no one would want to live there

Section B

Directions: There are 10 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark your answer on the Answer Sheet.

In1772, Goethe went as a young lawyer to Wetzlar, where he fell in love with the fiancte of himself. These events formed of his beautiful novel The Sorrows of Young Werther, which is the most important literary work of the early romantic period.

In 1786, Italy, and this had a on his his earlier romantic style with the classic ideas to Greece and Rome.

His masterpiece, “Faust”, published in 1831, was theof 50 years of work. It is the greatest dramatic poem in the German language.

as one of Europe's most famous poets is with his name throughout the world.

61. A. Mournfully B. Happily C. Deceived D. Broken-hearted

62. A. greatness B. condition C. basis D. reasons

63. A. went B. arrived C. toured D. came

64. A. resultant B. gear C. modify D. influence

65. A. permitted B. allowing C. making D. convincing

66. A. associate B. connect C. combine D. develop

67. A. result B. consequence C. ending D. product

68. A. reproach B. remainder C. reputation D. latter

69. A. forehead B. ever C. usual D. others

70. A. associated B. joined C. resulted D. connected

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英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

IV. Translation

Directions: There are 1 passage in this part of the test. You are to translate the passage into Chinese on your Answer Sheet.

A级:

71.

The diffusion of knowledge is the dominant trend of our time. What was happening in Britain during the Industrial Revolution was not an isolated phenomenon. A succession of visitors to Britain would go back to their countries to report on the technological innovations they saw there. Sometimes societies were able to learn extremely fast, as in the United States. Others, like Italy, benefited from starting late, leapfrogging the long-drawn-out process that Britain went through.

This diffusion of knowledge accelerated dramatically in recent years. Over the last 30 years we have watched countries like Japan, Singapore and now China grow at a pace that is four times that of Britain at tile peak of the Industrial Revolution. They have been able to do this because of their energies, of course, but also because they cleverly adopted certain ideas about development that had worked in the West relatively free markets, open trade, a focus on science and technology, among them. And this shift is happening all around the world. From Thailand to South Africa, from Brazil to Mexico, countries are far better managed economically than they have ever been.

We are sometimes reluctant to believe in progress. But the evidence is unmistakable. The management of major economies has changed greatly in the last few years. Careful monetary policy has tempered the boom-and-bust economic cycles of the industrial world, producing milder recessions and fewer shocks. Every day one reads of a new study campaigning nations in everything from Intemet penelration to interest rates. All these studies and lists are symbols of a learning process that is accelerating, reinforcing the lessons of success and failure.

B级:

71.

The diffusion of knowledge is the dominant trend of our time. What was happening in Britain during the industriai Revolution was not an isolated phenomenon. A succession of visitors to Britain would go back to their countries to report on the technological innovations they saw there. Sometimes societies were able to learn extremely fast, as in the United States. Others, like Italy, benefited from starting late, leapfrogging the long-drawn out process that Britain went through.

This diffusion of knowledge accelerated dramatically in recent years. Over the last 30 years we have watched countries like Japan, Singapore and now China grow at a pace that is four times that of Britain at the peak of the Industrial Revolution. They have been able to do this because of their energies, of course, but also because they cleverly adopted certain ideas about development that had worked in the West--relatively free markets, open trade, a focus on science and technology, among them. And this 10

英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

shift is happening all around the world. From Thailand to South Africa, from Brazil to Mexico, countries are far better managed economically than they have ever been.

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英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

答案解析 21. permit许可;执照;营业证;允许 You can’t enter the research without a permit .

〖点拨〗permit sb to do允许某人干……。permit doing允许干……。如:

We don’t permit smoking here .

注意:permit常用在独立主格结构中。如:Time permitting , we’ll have a meeting this evening . = If time permits , …

另外,注意permit的现在分词、过去式和过去分词要双写词尾:permitting , permitted 。

1.paradox n. 似非而是的论点;似非而可能是的隽语;自相矛盾的话

2.sanctuary n. 避难所

3.clapboard n. 隔板,墙板,桶板

4.distinguished adj. 卓著的,著名的,高贵的

5.partisanship n. 党派性,党派偏见

6.disinterested adj. 无私的

7.impair v. 削弱,伤害

8.militant adj. 好战的,战斗性的

9.be bound to 一定要??

长难句解析

①【解析】此句由两个并列的句子组成,“apart from?”做第一个句子“sanctuary”的补语。

【译文】哈佛或其它一些大学应当是一个智力的避难所,远离当今的政治和社会变革;还应当是政治和社会变革的一块实验基地,或者甚至是革命的一部发动机呢?

②【解析】两个“the moment”引导的句子做此句的时间状语从句。

【译文】显然,当大学处于政治和私有企业的控制下,或者他们自己从事政治和政府的领导时,他们作为独立和公正判断的价值观将会收到伤害。

③【解析】这个长句由三个句子组成,“but”引导了一个转折句,“and”引导了一个并列句。be bound to“肯定会,必定”。

【译文】他们甚至不清楚应当怎样讨论和解决他们的问题,但是他们每个人正在奋斗,并且哈佛大学议论的结果必定影响20世纪90年代美国的大学和政治生活。

答案与详解

【短文大意】本文主要讲述哈佛大学正面临的一个重要的争论,即一所大学应当是什么样的,现在的大学是否是符合标准的,哈佛大学应当远离政治和社会,还是作为政治和社会的一块实验田。

41.B细节题。文章第三段实际上已经告诉我们本文要讨论的议题。选项C提到的观点是“大学应该保持独立”这一论点的对立面,属议题范围之内。

42.D词汇题。从第四段我们可以猜出paradox是“自相矛盾”的意思。因此选项D正确。

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英语水平考试 试卷类型:24

43.B词汇题。意为:“Sanctuary”就是你可躲起来避过灾祸的地方。在中世纪一般是某些教堂或者修道院可以充当躲避任何政府惩罚的避难所,所以A、C两项也是与它词义有一点关联的,D关系最小。

44.C观点题。根据文章末尾,and how they come out is bound to influence American university and political life in the 1990’s. 作者认为在哈佛的争论的结果一定会影响美国的大学和政治生活。本题中的ferment意为“骚动,纷扰”,指的就是文章所说的争论。因此C符合作者的观点。

B级(试题类型:20))

This diffusion of knowledge accelerated dramatically in recent years. What was happening in Britain during the Industrial Revolution was not an isolated phenomenon.

A succession of visitors to Britain would go back to report to their countries on the technological and commercial innovations they saw there. Sometimes societies were able to learn extremely fast, as in the United States. Others, like German, benefited from starting late, leapfrogging the long-drawn-out process that Britain went through.

The diffusion of knowledge is the dominant trend of our time. And this shift is happening around the world. From Thailand to South Africa , from India to Mexico, countries are far better managed economically than they have ever been. Over the last 30 years we have watched countries like Japan, Singapore, South Korea and now China grow at a pace that is five times that of Britain or the United States at the peak of the Industrial Revolution. They have been able to do this because of their energies and exertions, of course, but also because they cleverly and perhaps luckily adopted certain ideas about development that had worked in the West—highly free markets, open trade, a focus on science and technology, among them.

(画线的地方为删除的地方,红字体部份做了改动。)

21. More than two thousands __ work in this refinery.

A. Russia B. Russias C. Russian D. Russians 答案D名次的数

22. __ in 1943 __ the harmful smog made its appearance in Los Angeles.

A. Only...that B. It was...then

C. That it was...when D. It was...that 答案D强调

23. The population of Beijing is three times __ that of Qingdao.

A. so large as B. as large to C. as large as D. as larger than 答案C数量词的比较

24. The young receptionist doesn't permit __ in the exhibition center.

A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. to have smoked 答案B动名词

25. The clerk asked Robey __ later in the day.

A. to return B. return C. returning D. to be returned 答案A不定式

26. I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality for __ the Chinese people 2

英语水平考试 试卷类型:24 are justly famous throughout the world.

A. which B. what C. whom D. that 答案A定语从句中介词后用which When I pulled into her driveway, she __ by the door with her coat on.

A. waits B. waited C. is waiting D. was waiting 答案D,动词时态过去进行时

28. Since 1939, numerous scientific studies __ to determine whether smoking is a health hazard.

A. is conducted B. being conducted

C. have been conducted D. are conducted 答案C动词时态现在完成时

29. There __ a lot of on the roads yesterday.

A. were...traffics B. was...traffics

C. were...traffic D. was...traffic 答案D主谓一致以及名次单复数

30. All the money __, we started looking for work.

A. has been spent B. have been spent

C. being spent D. having been spent 答案D 分词

31. China and America are separated by.

A. Pacific Ocean B. a Pacific Ocean 答案C 冠词用法

C. the Pacific Ocean D. Pacific Oceans

32. The ancient Egyptians believed all illnesses were related to __ was eaten.

A. which B. it C. what D. that 答案C,名词性从句

33. __ to completely cut off its oil supply, it would badly damage its own economy.

A. If Iran is B. If Iran was C. Was Iran D. Were Iran 答案D,虚拟语气及倒装

34. One main branch of sea science, __, holds enormous unanswered questions.

A. physical oceanography B. is physical oceanography

C. called physical oceanography D. what is physical oceanography 答案A,同位语

35. He __ his office for there was no one to answer the phone.

A. must have left B. must leave

C. may have left D. can have left 答案A 情态动词

36. If all the continents and mountains were bulldozed fiat, the earth __ by water more than 12,000 feet deep.

A. is covered B. would be covered 答案B虚拟语气

C. could have been covered D. might had been covered

37. Jane's family couldn't agree on where to spend __ vacation.

A. its B. their C. his D. her 答案B代词

38. I will leave him a note __ he will know where we are.

A. so that B. that C. in order D. in case 答案A连词

39. An __ crowd is awaiting the arrival of the famed statesman.

A. excited B. exciting C. excite D. excitedly答案A 过去分词

40. The teacher thinks that Tom for the accident and instead we should try to comfort him.

A. doesn't blame B. is to blame

C. isn't to blame D. isn't blamed 答案C 被动语态

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