(英国夏山学校)freedom individual interests and needs

Summerhill, a school founded in 1921 by A.S. Neill who is a famed educator of England, holds the education idea of freedom. In this school, students are not enforced to attend classes; children make rules by themselves and no one will restrict them; the tests are not compulsory and students have never been worried about their marks. Each teacher teaches only one student, so when students graduate at their 16, they will be confident, tolerant and more talented.


Ours is a time of problems, of gigantic problems. Everything is being transformed under the magic influence of science and technology. And every day, if we want to live with open eyes, we have a problem to study, to resolve. ----Pope Pius VI, May 18,1969


Oceanographer Jacques Cousteau has warned:” Mankind has probably done more damage to the Earth in the twenties century than in all previous human history.” Likewise the environmental organization Worldwatch Institute concluded in 1989. By the end of the next decade the die will pretty well be cast. As the world enters the twenty-first century, the community of nations either will have relied and turned back the threatening trends, or environmental deterioration and social disintegration will be feeding on each other.

Homo sapiens, by contrast, being endowed with superior intelligence, was able to adapt environment to its needs by mastering fire, fashioning clothes, constructing shelters, and so forth.


Responsibility lies with the institutions of society, not in the virtues of the individual.

Norway’s former prime minister Gro Harlen Brundtland notes, however, the Western Europeans who initiated the industrial revolution and the ensuing atmospheric pollution, cannot now condemn “have-nots” to the status of “never-will-haves”.

Francis Bacon confronted his head-on when he urged that the newly emerging discipline of science be employed for the “benefit and use of life” and not for “inferior things” such as “profit, or fame, or power.”


Geologic time is measured in billions of years, and human prehistory in thousands, but since the advent of civilization, the time unit has shrunk progressively to centuries and to decades, until fateful events now daily crowd us, uncreasingly and inexorable.


Thucydides, the most objective of Greek historians, began his study of the Peloponnesian War by

stating that nothing of great importance had happened before his time. His ignorance of history prevented his from recognizing the unique glory and contribution of Athens.


A spectacular recent example of technology enabling us to recover lost chapters of our human past is the discovery of the Great Wall of China.

Segments of the Great Wall have been lost for centuries under layers of shifting desert sand, …Thus long segments deteriorated and disappeared from view until the recent uncovering by the wizardry of modern technology.


After observing the daily life of food gatherers in various parts of the world, anthropologist R.B. Lee concludes:” A truly communal life is often dismissed as a utopian ideal, to be endorsed in theory but unattainable in practice. But the evidence for foraging peoples tells us otherwise. A sharing way of life is not only possible but has actually existed in many parts of the world and over long periods long periods of time.”


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司法公正Juristic Justice

客观公正Objective Justice

Agnewism要求社会每个公民极力维护法律的尊严,he requires that everyone should maintenance the juristic dignity of that society.

Law Commission 英国立法委员会—an England independent, government-founded organization that reviews laws which need updating, reforming or developing.


社会大恐慌great social panic

分配机制distribution mechanism、经济制度economic system、政治制度political system、外交政策foreign policy


W. Artheer Lewis, an America most famous economist who receives Nobel Prize in 1979, had once said:" I have never dreamed to be an economist, but it is my mother"s effects that lead me the way to be economist."


在社会中立足establish oneself firmly in the society

如果没有社会整体价值观的影响,我们就像生活在孤岛之上;同样,如果没有其他个人、家庭、小团体的影响,我们就像漂泊在大海之中。Without the effects of the value of that society as a whole, we will truly be isolated from the rest; similarly, without the effect of other individuals, our own family members and small groups, we will just likely to drift in the sea.


自由女神像Statue of liberty

雅典庙Athenian Temple

建筑是刻在石头上的历史书Architecture is a history textbook recorded in stone;是一段或化了的历史证据one of the most cogent living testimonies of history;他揭示了我们本土文化的精华they convey the essence of our native culture;是一个国家或城市的路标they serves as landmarks for a city or nation.


瓦特watt发明蒸汽机steam engine、第一次工业革命The First Industrial Revolution、Pasteur对消毒法antisepsis的研究发明Pasteurization

阿波罗计划Apollo Project、人类基因组测试工程Human Genome Project、外太空探索exploration of outer space、核研究nuclear research会导致atomic weapon、生物化学研究biochemical research、人类克隆human clone、Star Wars、

哥白尼Copernicus、布鲁诺Bruno、麦克。乔丹Mike Jordan NBA 6次总冠军、伽利略

Galileo、双刃剑double-edged sword、流水线技术assembly line manufacturing、臭氧空洞the depletion of Ozone layer


Max Welch马克思。韦尔奇, Bill Gates比尔。盖茨都是商业界的成功人物。

Newton and Einstein 从宏观角度Macroscopical和微观角度Microcosmic

Attack On September the 11th, 2001 九一一事件

电视与19xx年发明的人类日常生活用品。Television, a masterpiece of human wisdom, has been an indispensable part of our everyday life since 1925.

书籍包含了人类集体生活经验、知识和智慧。Books contain the collective human experiences, knowledge and wisdom.

扩大了我们的视野broad our eyereach或者extending our horizon,如国家地理National Geography和Discovery

Albert Einstein had once said:" Imagination is more important than knowledge."

相对论和量子力学Relative Theory and Quantum Theory

哥白尼Copernicus 的日心说理论The heliocentric Theory


不仅失去市场还失去消费者的自信心lose not only the market share but also the confidence of consumers.

In retrospect回顾历史

阿达。拜伦和冯诺。依曼Ada Byron and Von Neumann

Enrich, inspire, or just break monotony单调

…are somewhat like skeleton and flesh of a body. Whether or not the bones are strong decides the strength and puissance of the organic body. …flesh encompasses and fills the body, enriching it and endowing life to the otherwise numb frame. …某种程度上像是骨与肉的关系。骨头是否坚硬决定了机体的强度和耐力,…肌肉充实了身体使得集体不再枯燥。

比较解剖学Comparative Anatomy、


水门事件Watergate scandal、尼克逊总统President Nixon

比尔。克林顿的丑闻Bill. Clinton sexual scandal

印度于19xx年8月15日独立India attained independence on 15th August 1947,

甘地Mahatma Gandhi被称为国父was bestowed the title of Father of the Nation,非暴力不合作运动principles of satyagraha and non-violence

Winston Churchill 温斯顿。丘吉尔的演讲给与整个国家勇气speech gave courage to an entire nation.


戴安娜Diana英国王妃British Princess,一生没有放弃过对社会责任感的追求和对公共事业的关注concerning of public utilities (or affairs),为她获得的乐极好的声誉reputation。

领导人总是得到大众的注目Leaders always get a huge share of the limelight.


专制主义absolutism,独裁主义Autocracy,独裁者dictator,西班牙Spain的Franco于1939至19xx年独裁,严重制约了西班牙经济、政治的发展;意大利Italy的Mussolini独裁时间1922至1945;前苏联的Soviet Union的Stalin独裁时间1922至1953工人取得了胜利又亲自破坏胜利;美国国父华盛顿George Washington19xx年12月23日举行的交权仪式开

创了美国总统主动让权的先河,同时留给了美国一个民主、共和、自由的体制保障leaving a guarantee to the United States institutional with democracy, republic and liberty。Kmart说明频繁的更换当权者会引起不稳定。美国商业评论家Collins指出这种过渡的更换当权者再经济领域中叫做Doomloop。


是哲学家和画家导致了文艺复兴。It was the philosopher and painters that caused the renaissance.

艾米莉。勃朗特Emily Bronte and her works were despised by her contemporary critics、

梵。高Van Gogh suffered from non-recognition of his art and the subsequent poverty and mental derangement、

米开朗琪罗Michelangelo、达。芬奇Leonardo Da Vinci

Beethoven's unseemly, sometimes even rude, appearance and manner impaired his contemporaries’ and acceptance of his music and himself。贝多芬的不体面的、有时甚至是粗暴的外表和行为极大地削弱了他的同代人对他本人以及他的作品赞同。




雨果奖Hugo Award,美国世界文学大奖,极大地带动了美国科幻电影的发展。

Because anybody want to be recognized according to the Maslow's analysis of five human basic demands.


看似矛盾的属性seemingly contradictory attributes

双重属性dual attributes

相对独立的个人单元relative independent individual

在某些情况下,社会的确应该对一些偶尔的责任心的丢失给予例外,但是过渡的原谅将会置社会秩序于危险之中。Admittedly, under certain circumstance a society should give exceptions toward some occasionally absence of individual responsibility. However, over extensive forgiveness would endanger the whole society order.

社会责任是由外部条件赋予的而不是主观设计的。Responsibility is imposed by external forces rather than subjective designed.

这是一个极其简单又以东的例子。Here is a simple but easy to understand example.

这与我们的常识和社会经验相抵触。It contradicts with our common sense and human everyday experiences.

在政治领域,社会责任感是一种对于大众的、透明的、合理的体制和制度的规划。In political realm, social responsibility refers to the planning of a transparent, reasonable structure and system toward public.

商业领域,Merk公司放弃巨额利润,免费发放药物给非洲以及第三世界国家。Merk gives up huge profits and distributes free drugs to Africa and The Third Would Countries.


19xx年的金融危机the Financial Crash 以及19xx年的亚洲金融危机the Asia Economic Crisis都说明世界资本市场比以前任何时候都一体化,发生在一个角落的世界一瞬间就会很快波及世界其它地方。The Financial Crash in 1987 and the Asia Economic Crisis in 1998 demonstrate that the world’s capital markets are more closely integrated than ever before and that invents in one part of global village may be transmitted to the rest of the village—almost instantaneously.


哈维Harvey的新学运动论”De Moto Cord”极大地挑战了古罗马神医Galen, Ancient Rome doctor,的学说。具体过程如下:在比利时医生Veslius发现了血液小循环系统small blood circulatory,半个世纪后Servetus在其着作”Christiaism Restitutes”中再次挑战了Galen的学说,又过了半个世纪Harvey通过对80多种动物的解剖anatomies终于发现了血液运动的规律the law of blood motivation,无可辩驳的事实再次证明了Galen理论的荒谬absurdity,使人类对生理的认识从感性上升到理性,一个里程碑式的转折rise people’s understanding of human physiology from a perceptual cognition to rational cognition—a landmark turning point。

质疑精神是一种内在的否定因素innate denying factor通过否定而变成肯定,让事情从低级走向高级(from inferior to superior)。

质疑精神不等于排除异己,它实际上是一种思想上的交流,而非思想上的排斥,但是过分的质疑所导致的排除异己的现象的确会阻碍认知的进行以及进一步的发展。Skepticism does not mean to exclude dissidents, it is in fact an ideological exchange, rather than ideology of exclusion, but excessive skepticism without any doubt may result in the exclusion of dissidents, which indeed hinder the process of cognition and its further development

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