A: Good afternoon, teachers. I’m glad that you are here to listen to our discussion. Our topic today is tourism. I think traveling has become an ordinary thing for us common person. You can go traveling with a group, or just with yourself. You can go to a remote place, or just a place around your city. Now, we will talk about what tourism is and its advantage and disadvantage. So, what do you think about it?
B: I think tourism is the combination of tourist attractions, transportations and accommodations. First, there should be some tourist attractions that could attract people to go there. Second, the roads and transportation methods should be convenient for people. No people want to waste time on the roads. Third, if the number of spots is so large that people couldn’t look around at a single day, there should be accommodations that could provide food and sleep place. So, that’s what I think tourism is.
A:Mr B just talked about what tourism is, and it combines tourist attractions, transportations and accommodations. Could you list some advantages of tourism to us?
C: I think tourism can bring a huge boon to the local economy and provide a large number of job opportunities. When tourists come, they will consume by means of having meals, buying tickets and souvenir, and paying for the nights at the accommodations. At the same time the local people can get a job to serve as a guide to help the tourists.
D: I think it’s a means of promoting the local culture. Some tourist attractions may have a certain history or a particular meaning, so tourists come here to hit the bill. Then more and more people will know the place and be attracted by it.
A: Yeah, tourism can be good for the improvement of the local economy and the local culture. And do you know some disadvantages about tourism?
C: Let me think. Oh, I think the most serious problem caused by tourism may the great damages to the natural environment. More travelers will certainly lead to some environmental degradation—increased pollution from transportation, construction of more facilities to house and entertain these visitors, and sometimes overwhelm a destination’s carrying capacity.
B: Also tourism has influenced the traditional customs in some places. The exotic culture comes and mixes with the pristine culture, and makes it not as it used to be.
A: En…I think all you said are right. There are advantages and disadvantages of tourism, so we should make full use of the advantages and minimize the disadvantages. Nowadays, the eco-tourism is popular around the world, and do you know something about it?
D: The word “eco-tourism” was first mentioned by IUCN(International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) in 1983, and the TIES define it as the tourist activities that has the responsibility to protect the natural environment and maintain the local people’s life.
C: Yeah, we should strive to promote the development of eco-tourism, because it’s environment friendly.
A: That’s right. Traveling is a pleasant entertainment, and we can relax ourselves during the traveling. But we should not entertain ourselves by damaging the environment. So, let’s love tourism and be a man to promote the eco-tourism.
OK! That’s all. Thank you!
December 7th 2011
A travel agency is a retail business that sells travel related products and services to customers on behalf of suppliers，such as airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, hotels, railways, sightseeing tours and package holidays that combine several products.
The British company Cox & Kings is sometimes said to be the oldest travel agency in the world, but this rests upon the services that the original bank, established in 1758, supplied to its wealthy clients. The modern travel agency first appeared in the second half of the 19th century. Thomas Cook, in addition to developing the package tour, established a chain of agencies in the last quarter of the 19th century, in association with the Midland Railway. They not only sold their own tours to the public, but in addition, represented other tour companies. Other British pioneer travel agencies were Dean & Dawson, the Polytechnic Touring Association and the Co-operative Wholesale Society. The oldest travel agency in North America is Brownell Travel; on July 4, 1887, Walter T. Brownell led ten travelers on a European tour, setting sail from New York on the SS Devonia.
Travel agencies became more commonplace with the development
of commercial aviation, starting in the 1920s. Originally, travel agencies largely catered to middle and upper class customers, but the post-war boom in mass-market package holidays resulted in travel agencies on the main streets of most British towns, catering to a working-class clientele, looking for a convenient way to book overseas beach holidays.
As the name implies, a travel agency's main function is to act as an agent, that is to say, selling travel products and services on behalf of a supplier. Consequently, unlike other retail businesses, they do not keep a stock in hand. A package holiday or a ticket is not purchased from a supplier unless a customer requests that purchase. The holiday or ticket is supplied to them at a discount. The profit is therefore the difference between the advertised price which the customer pays and the discounted price at which it is supplied to the agent. This is known as the commission. In Australia, all individuals or companies that sell tickets are required to be licensed as a travel agent.
In some countries, airlines have stopped giving commission to travel agencies. Therefore, travel agencies are now forced to charge a percentage premium or a standard flat fee, per sale. However,
some companies still give them a set percentage for selling their product. Major tour companies can afford to do this, because if they were to sell a thousand trips at a cheaper rate, they still come out better than if they sell a hundred trips at a higher rate. This process benefits both parties.
Other commercial operations are undertaken, especially by the larger chains. These can include the sale of in-house insurance, travel guide books and timetables, car rentals, and the services of an on-site Bureau de change, dealing in the most popular holiday currencies.
The majority of travel agents have felt the need to protect themselves and their clients against the possibilities of commercial failure, either their own or a supplier's. They will advertise the fact that they are surety bonded, meaning in the case of a failure, the customers are guaranteed either an equivalent holiday to that which they have lost or if they prefer, a refund. Many British and American agencies and tour operators are bonded with the International Air Transport Association (IATA), for those who issue air tickets, Air Travel Organisers' Licensing (ATOL) for those who order tickets in, the Association of British Travel Agents (ABTA) or the American Society of Travel Agents (ASTA), for those who sell package holidays on behalf of a tour company.
A travel agent is supposed to offer impartial travel advice to the customer. However, this function almost disappeared with the mass-market package holiday and some agency chains seemed to develop a 'holiday supermarket' concept, in which customers choose their holiday from brochures on racks and then book it from a counter. Again, a variety of social and economic changes have now contrived to bring this aspect to the fore once more, particularly with the advent of multiple, no-frills, low-cost airlines. Commissions
Most travel agencies operate on a commission-basis, meaning that the compensation from the airlines, car rentals, cruise lines, hotels, railways, sightseeing tours, tour operators, etc., is expected in the form of a commission from their bookings. Most often, the commission consists of a set percentage of the sale.
In the United States, most airlines pay no commission at all to travel agencies. In this case, an agency usually adds a service fee to the net price. Reduced commissions have taken place since 1995, when first commission reductions hit North America: a cap of US$50 on return trips and US$25 on one way.  In 1999 European airlines begin eliminating or reducing commissions, while Singapore Airlines goes to zero in parts of Asia. In 2002 Delta Airlines
announces a zero commission base for USA and Canada; after few months United Airlines, American Airlines, Continental Airlines, Northwest Airlines, US Airways and American Trans Air join Delta Airlines in zero commission base.
Types of agencies
There are three different types of agencies in the UK: multiples, miniples and independent agencies. The former comprises a number of national chains, often owned by international conglomerates, like Thomson Holidays, now a subsidiary of TUI AG, the German multinational. It is now quite common for the large mass-market tour companies to purchase a controlling interest in a chain of travel agencies, in order to control the distribution of their product. (This is an example of vertical integration.) The smaller chains are often based in particular regions or districts.
In the United States, there are four different types of agencies: mega, regional, consortium and independent agencies. American Express and the American Automobile Association (AAA) are examples of mega travel agencies.
Independent agencies usually cater to a special or niche market, such as the needs of residents in an upmarket commuter town or suburb or a particular group interested in a similar activity, such as
sporting events, like football, golf or tennis.
There are two approaches of travel agencies. One is the traditional, multi-destination, out-bound travel agency, based in the originating location of the traveler and the other is the destination focused, in-bound travel agency, that is based in the destination and delivers an expertise on that location. At present, the former is usually a larger operator like Thomas Cook, while the latter is often a smaller, independent operator.
Airline consolidators and other types of travel consolidators and wholesalers are high volume sales companies that specialize in selling to niche markets. They may or may not offer various types of services, at a single point of access. These can be hotel reservations, flights or car-rentals. Sometimes the services are combined into vacation packages, that include transfers to the location and lodging. These companies do not usually sell directly to the public, but act as wholesalers to retail travel agencies. Commonly, the sole purpose of consolidators is to sell to ethnic niches in the travel industry. Usually no consolidator offers everything; they may only have contracted rates to specific destinations. Today, there are no domestic consolidators, with some exceptions for business class
With general public access to the Internet, many airlines and other travel companies began to sell directly to passengers. As a consequence, airlines no longer needed to pay the commissions to travel agents on each ticket sold. Since 1997, travel agencies have gradually been disintermediated, by the reduction in costs caused by removing layers from the package holiday distribution network. However, travel agents remain dominant in some areas such as cruise vacations where they represent 77% of bookings and 73% of packaged travel. In 2009, the market size for travel agencies experienced a sharp decline, dropping from $17 billion the previous year to $14.5 billion. 
In response, travel agencies have developed an internet presence of their own by creating travel websites, with detailed information and online booking capabilities. Several major online travel agencies include: Expedia, Voyages-sncf.com, Travelocity, Orbitz, CheapTickets, Priceline, CheapOair, and Hotwire.com. Travel agencies also use the services of the major computer reservations systems companies, also known as Global Distribution Systems (GDS), including: SABRE, Amadeus CRS, Galileo CRS and Worldspan, which is a subsidiary of Travelport, allowing them to book and sell airline tickets, hotels, car rentals and other travel related services.
Some online travel websites allow visitors to compare hotel and flight rates with multiple companies for free. They often allow visitors to sort the travel packages by amenities, price, and proximity to a city or landmark.
Travel agents have applied dynamic packaging tools to provide fully bonded (full financial protection) travel at prices equal to or lower than a member of the public can book online. As such, the agencies' financial assets are protected in addition to professional travel agency advice.
All travel sites that sell hotels online work together with GDS, suppliers and hotels directly to search for room inventory. Once the travel site sells a hotel, the site will try to get a confirmation for this hotel. Once confirmed or not, the customer is contacted with the result. This means that booking a hotel on a travel website will not necessarily result in an instant answer. Only some hotels on a travel website can be confirmed instantly (which is normally marked as such on each site). As different travel websites work with different suppliers together, each site has different hotels that it can confirm instantly. Some examples of such online travel websites that sell hotel rooms are Expedia, Orbitz and WorldHotel-Link.
The comparison sites, such as Kayak.com, TripAdvisor and SideStep search the resellers site all at once to save time searching. None of
these sites actually sell hotel rooms.
Often tour operators have hotel contracts, allotments and free sell agreements which allow for the immediate confirmation of hotel rooms for vacation bookings.
Mainline service providers are those that actually produce the direct service, like various hotels chains or airlines that have a website for online bookings. Portals will serve a consolidator of various airlines and hotels on the internet. They work on a commission from these hotels and airlines. Often, they provide cheaper rates than the mainline service providers as these sites get bulk deals from the service providers. A meta search engine on the other hand, simply culls data from the internet on real time rates for various search queries and diverts traffic to the mainline service providers for an online booking. These websites usually do not have their own booking engine.
With the many people switching to self-service internet websites, the number of available jobs as travel agents is decreasing. Most jobs that become available are from older travel agents retiring. Counteracting the decrease in jobs due to internet services is the increase in the number of people travelling. Since 1995, many travel
agents have exited the industry, and relatively few young people have entered the field due to less competitive salaries. However, others have abandoned the 'brick and mortar' agency for a home-based business to reduce overheads and those who remain have managed to survive by promoting other travel products such as cruise lines and train excursions or by promoting their ability to aggressively research and assemble complex travel packages on a moment's notice, essentially acting as a very advanced concierge. In this regard, travel agents can remain competitive, if they become "travel consultants" with flawless knowledge of destination regions and specialize in topics like nautical tourism or cultural tourism.
II. Related Terms
十三陵The Ming Tombs
中华世纪坦China Century Altar
秦始皇陵The Emperor Qin Shihuang's Tomb 天安门广场Tian'anmen Square
人民英雄纪念碑The Monument to the People's Heroes 毛主席纪念堂Chairman Mao Memorial Hall 人民大会堂The Great Hall of the People
故宫The Forbidden City
乾清宫The Palace of Heavenly Purity
坤宁宫The Palace of Earthly Tranquility
御花园The Imperial Garden
九龙壁The Nine Dragon Screen
天坛The Temple of Heaven
祈年殿The Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest
颐和园The Summer Palace
佛香阁The Tower of Buddhist Incense
石舫The Marble Boat
十七孔桥The 17-Arch Bridge
谐趣园The Garden of Harmonious Interests
长城The Great Wall
北海公园: Beihai Park
故宫博物院: the Palace Museum
革命历史博物馆: The Museum of Revolutionary History 天安门广场: Tian’anmen Square
毛主席纪念堂:Chairman Mao Zedong Memorial Hall 保和殿: the Hall of Preserving Harmony
中和殿: the Hall of Central Harmony
长城: the Great Wall
午门: the Meridian Gate
紫金山天文台: Purple and Gold Hills Observation 紫禁城: the Forbidden City
御花园: Imperial Garden
颐花园: Summer Palace
天 坛: Temple of Heaven
周口店遗址: Zhoukoudian Ancient Site
太和殿: the Hall of Supreme Harmony
祈年殿: the Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest. 少年宫: the Children’s Palace
烽火台: the Beacon Tower
人民大会堂: the Great Hall of the People
清东陵: Easten Royal Toms of the Qing Dynasty 乾清宫: Palace of Heavenly Purity
民族文化宫: the Cultural Palace for Nationalitie 劳动人民文化宫:Worker People’s Cultural Palace 北京工人体育馆:Beijing Workers’ Stadium 护城河: the Moat
仙人洞: Fairy Cave
西山晴雪: the Sunny Western Hills after Snow 避暑山庄:the Imperial Mountain Summer Resort 龙门石窟: Longmen Cave
庐山 :Lushan Mountain
天池: Heaven Poll
蓬莱水城: Penglai Water City
大雁塔: Big Wild Goose Pagoda
华山: Huashan Mountain
石林: Stone Forest
西湖: West Lake
白马寺: White Horse Temple
白云山: White Cloud Mountain.
布达拉宫 :Potala Palace
大运河: Grand Canal
滇池: Dianchi Lake
杜甫草堂: Du Fu Cottage
都江堰: Dujiang Dam
鼓浪屿: Gulangyu Islet
观音阁: Goddess of Mercy Pavilion
归元寺: Guiyuan Buddhist Temple
甘露寺: Sweet Dew Temple
黄花岗七十二烈士墓:Mausoleum of the 72 Martyrs 华清池: Huaqing Hot Spring
昭君墓: Zhaojun’s Tomb
毛泽东故居:Mao Zedong’s Former Residence 周恩来故居:Zhou Enlai’s Former Residence 越秀公园: Yuexiu Park
岳阳楼: Yueyang Tower
南湖公园: South Lake Park
中山公园: Zhongshan Park
漓江: Lijiang River
寒山寺: Hanshan Temple
静心斋: Heart-East Study
黄鹤楼: Yellow Crane Tower
黄山 : Huangshan Mountain
天下第一关:the First Pass Under Heaven
桂林山水:Guilin Scenery with Hills and Waters
秦始皇兵马俑: Qin Terra-Cotta Warriors and Horses Figurines 华清池HuaQING hot spring
大雁塔Great GOOSE pagoda
西湖the West Lake
庐山：Mt. Lu 天安门及广场 Tian'anmen and Tian'anmen Square 故宫 The Palace Museum
天坛 The Temple of Heaven
颐和园 The Summer Palace
长城 The Great Wall
(八达岭长城 The Great Wall at Badaling
居庸关长城 The Great Wall at Juyongguan Pass
慕田峪长城 The Great Wall at Mutianyu
司马台长城 The Great Wall at Simatai)
明十三陵 The Ming Tombs
北海公园 Beihai Park
雍和宫 Yonghegong Larmasery
白云观 The White Cloud Taoist Temple
北京孔庙 Beijing Confucius Temple
国子监 The Imperial College
潭柘寺 Tanzhe Temple
圆明园 The Ruins of Yuanmingyuan
周口店北京猿人遗址 Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian 中华民族园 Chinese Ethnic Culture Park
世界公园 Beijing World Park
中华世纪坛 China Century Altar
桂林山水 the Landscape of Guilin
杭州西湖 the West Lake of Hangzhou
故宫 the Imperial Palace
苏州园林 the Gardens of Suzhou
安徽黄山 Mount Huang of Anhui
长江三峡 the Three Gorges on the Yangtze River
台湾日月潭 the Sun and Moon Lake of Taiwan
河北承德避暑山庄 the Summer Mountain Resort in Chengde, Hebei
陕西秦始皇陵兵马俑 Terra Cotta Warriors
半坡遗址 Ban Po Villige Remains
Mount Fuji, Japan日本富士山
Taj Mahal, India印度泰姬陵
Angkor Wat, Cambodia柬埔寨吴哥窟
Borobudur, Indonesia印度尼西亚波罗浮屠 Sentosa, Singapore新加坡圣淘沙
Suez Canal, Egypt埃及苏伊士运河
Aswan High Dam, Egypt埃及阿斯旺水坝 Pyramids, Egypt埃及金字塔
The Nile, Egypt埃及尼罗河
Nairobi National Park, Kenya肯尼亚内罗毕国家公园 Cape of Good Hope, South Africa南非好望角 Sahara Desert撒哈拉大沙漠
Great Barrier Reef, Australia澳大利亚大堡礁
Sydney Opera House, Australia澳大利亚悉尼歌剧院 Ayers Rock, Australia澳大利亚艾尔斯巨石 Mount Cook, New Zealand新西兰库克山 Europe欧洲
Mosque of St, Sophia in Istanbul (Constantinople) Turkey土耳其圣索非亚教堂
Notre Dame de Paris, France法国巴黎圣母院 Effiel Tower, France法国艾菲尔铁塔
Arch of Triumph, France法国凯旋门
Elysee Palace, France法国爱丽舍宫
Kolner Dom, Koln, Germany德国科隆大教堂 Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy意大利比萨斜塔
Colosseum in Rome, Italy意大利古罗马圆形剧场 Parthenon, Greece希腊巴台农神庙
Red Square in Moscow, Russia俄罗斯莫斯科红场 Big Ben in London, England英国伦敦大本钟 Buckingham Palace, England英国白金汉宫 Hyde Park, England英国海德公园
London Tower Bridge, England英国伦敦塔桥
Westminster Abbey, England英国威斯敏斯特大教堂 The Mediterranean地中海
Niagara Falls, USA美国尼亚加拉大瀑布
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA美国夏威夷檀香山 Panama Canal巴拿马运河
Yellowstone National Park, USA美国黄石国家公园
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, USA美国纽约大都会
Statue of Liberty, New York City, USA美国纽约自由女神像 Times Square, New York City, USA美国纽约时代广场
The White House, Washington DC., USA美国华盛顿白宫
World Trade Center, New York City, USA美国纽约世界贸易中心 Central Park, New York City, USA美国纽约中央公园
Hollywood, California, USA美国加利佛尼亚好莱坞
Disneyland, California, USA加利佛尼亚迪斯尼乐园
Las Vegas, Nevada, USA美国内华达拉斯威加斯
Travel Agent: Freedom Travel. How may I help you?
Caller: Yes, I'd like to make a flight reservation for the twenty-third of this month.
Travel Agent: Okay. What is your destination?
Caller: Well. I'm flying to Helsinki, Finland.
Travel Agent: Okay. Let me check what flights are available?. [Okay] And when will you be returning?
Caller: Uh, well, I'd like to catch a return flight on the twenty-ninth. Oh, and I'd like the cheapest flight available.
Travel Agent: Okay. Let me see. Um, hmm . . .
Travel Agent: Well, the price for the flight is almost double the price you would pay if you leave the day before.
Caller: Whoo. Let's go with the cheaper flight. By the way, how much is it?
Travel Agent: It's only $980.
Caller: Alright. Well, let's go with that.
Travel Agent: Okay. That's flight 1070 from Salt Lake City to New York, Kennedy Airport, transferring to flight 90 from Kennedy to Helsinki.
Caller: And what are the departure and arrival times for each of those flights?
Travel Agent: It leaves Salt Lake City at 10:00 AM, arriving in New York at 4:35 PM, then transferring to flight 90 at 5:55 PM, and arriving in Helsinki at 8:30 AM the next day.
Caller: Alright. And, uh, I'd like to request a vegetarian meal. Travel Agent: Sure, no problem. And could I have you name please?
2 Mr Khan goes to Asia Travels to Make reservation for his flight to Mumbai.
TRAVEL AGENT : Good morning, sir. What can I do for you? CLIENT: I have to go to Mumbai in about a fortnight. I want to make a reservation.
TRAVEL AGENT: Would you like to Travel by air, sir?
CLIENT: I’d prefer to.
TRAVEL AGENT: If you could tell me the exact date of your journey, I’ll let you know the position straightaway, sir.
CLIENT: I’m afraid I’m not too sure about the date. It could be some day in the first week of March.
Travel Agent: In that case, I can give you an open-ended ticket only. But there’s a little snag is this kind of booking.
CLIENT: What kind of snag?
Travel Agent: When you finally decide on the date of your journey, it might be difficult for me to get you a seat exactly for that date, sir. You may have to accept the booking for one of the dates on which seats are available during that week.
CLIENT: (After talking to somebody on his cell phone) the date problem is solved now. I’ll leave on the 6th.
Travel Agent: Let me see, sir…I’m very sorry, sir. There’s no seat available on the Spice Jet Airlines flight for that evening. Could I book you for the morning flight?
CLIENT: Yes, you may.
Travel Agent: Sorry, sir, even that fight is full! Could I try for a booking on one of the Northline flights for that day?
CLIENT: No, not at all. I’d rather leave a day later than travel on Northline.
Travel Agent: Suppose I didn't find a seat on the Spicejet Airlines flight even for the 7th, could I book you on Northline or some other airline?
CLIENT: No way. I might as well travel by train or cancel my journey altogether.
Travel Agent: Very sorry, sir, for my inability to help you. I hope you’ll give me another chance to serve you, sir.
CLIENT: Thank you.
Travel Agent: Thank you for calling at this travel agency, sir. Do call again, sir. Goodbye.
A: I need help planning my vacation.
B: Sure, where would you like to go?
A: I haven't decided where to go yet.
B: Do you enjoy warm or cold climates?
A: I am thinking that I might enjoy a tropical climate.
B: I have some brochures here that you might like to look at. A: These look great!
B: Do you know how much you want to spend on this vacation? A: I have about a thousand dollars to spend on this trip.
B: Well, take these brochures, and get back to me when you want to make your reservations.
A: Could you help me with vacation plans?
B: Do you know where you will be traveling?
A: I am open to suggestions at this point.
B: Are you wanting to travel to a tropical climate, or would you like to go somewhere with a cooler climate?
A: I would like to travel to a cooler destination.
B: I can give you some brochures that could give you some ideas. A: I will look at them right now.
B: How much money is in your budget for this trip?
A: I think that I can spend about two hundred dollars a day. B: Take your time choosing a destination and, when you've
narrowed it down, I'll be happy to help you make a reservation.
A: I was wondering if you would be able to help me with vacation plans.
B: Have you chosen your destination?
A: I don't know where I want to go yet.
B: Do you enjoy warm weather, or are you looking forward to a cooler vacation?
A: A nice temperate climate would be best for me.
B: Why don't you take a look at these brochures that might help you make up your mind?
A: This place looks nice.
B: Have you thought about what you would like to spend on this vacation?
A: I just got a bonus and can spend about three thousand dollars total.
B: I'll be happy to help you make a reservation whenever you decide upon a destination.＋ 更多类似范文