No.2 I.1

1. When an oppressed group revolts against a society, one must look for the underlying forces that led to the group's alienation from that society.

2. Every novel invites us to enter a world that is initially strange; our gradual and selective orientation to its manners resembles infants' adjustment to their environment.

3. Superficial differences between the special problems and techniques of the physical sciences and those of the biological sciences are sometimes cited as evidence for the autonomy of biology and for the claim that the methods of physics are therefore not adequate to biological inquiry.

4. As the creation of new knowledge through science has become institutionalized resistance to innovation has become less aggressive taking the form of inertia rather than direct attack.

5. Lizzie was a brave woman who could dare to incur a great danger for an adequate object.

6. Rousseau's short discourse, a work that was generally consistent with the cautious, unadorned prose of the day, deviated from that prose style in its unrestrained discussion of the physical sciences.

7. Certainly Murray's preoccupation with the task of editing the Oxford English Dictionary begot a kind of monomania, but it must be regarded as a beneficent or at least an innocuous one.

No.2 I.2

1. Although there are weeks of negotiations ahead, and perhaps setbacks and new surprises, leaders of both parties are optimistic that their differences can be resolved.

2. The losing animal in a struggle saves itself from destruction by an act of submission, an act usually recognized and accepted by the winner.

3. He never demonstrated the wisdom I had claimed for him, and my friends quickly dismissed my estimate of his ability as hyperbole.

4. It would seem that absolute qualities in art elude us, that we cannot escape viewing works of art in a context of time and circumstance.

5. This new government is faced not only with managing its economy but also with implementing new rural development programs to stem the flow of farm workers to the city.

6. An analysis of the ideas in the novel compels an analysis of the form of the work, particularly when form and content are as integrated as they are in The House of the Seven Gables.

7. The blueprints for the new automobile were striking at first glance. But the designer had been basically too conservative to flout previous standards of beauty.

No.2 II.1

1. Because its average annual rainfall is only about four inches, one of the major tasks faced by the country has been to find supplementary sources of water.

2. Both television commercials and programs present unrealistic view of the material world, one which promotes a standard of living that most of us can probably not attain.

3. Although it is unusual to denounce museum-goers for not painting, it is quite common, even for those. who are unenthusiastic about sports, to criticize spectators for athletic inactivity.

4. Because the order in which the parts of speech appear in the sentences of a given language is decided merely by custom, it is unjustifiable to maintain that every departure from that order constitutes a violation of a natural law.

5. Most people are shameless voyeurs where the very rich are concerned, insatiably curious about how they get their money and how they spend it.

6. Some biologists argue that each specifically human trait must have arisen gradually and erratically, and that it is therefore difficult to isolate definite milestones in the evolution of the species.

7. Ultimately, the book's credibility is strained; the slender, though far from nonexistent, web of evidence presented on one salient point is expected to support a vast superstructure of implications.

No.2 II.2

1. Unlike a judge, who must act alone, a jury discusses a case and then reaches its decision as a group, thus minimizing the effect of individual bias.

2. One reason why pertinent fossils are uncommon is that crucial stages of evolution occurred in the tropics where it is difficult to explore for fossils, and so their discovery has lagged.

3. The harmonious accommodation reached by the warring factions exemplifies the axiom that compromise is possible among people of goodwill, even when they have previously held quite antagonistic perspectives.

4. The prime minister tried to act but the plans were frustrated by her cabinet.

5. Amid the collapsing or out-of-control mechanical devices, the belching volcano had a disturbingly anomalous quality, like a character who has stumbled onstage by mistake.

6. It is an error to regard the imagination as a mainly revolutionary force; if it destroys and alters, it also fuses hitherto isolated beliefs, insights, and mental habits into strongly unified systems.

7. The semantic opacity of ancient documents is not unique; even in our own time, many documents are difficult to decipher.

No.2 III.1

1. The political success of any government depends on its ability to implement both foreign and domestic policies.

2. Although Ms. Brown found some of her duties to be menial, her supervision of forty workers was a considerable responsibility.

3. Since the process of atherosclerosis cannot be reversed in humans, the best treatment known at this time is prevention of the disease.

4. Postmodern architecture is not concerned with the easy goal of returning to the past but with the more subtle and difficult aim of integrating historical forms into a new and complex whole.

5. In pollen dating, geologic happenings are dated in terms of each other, and one can get just so far by matching independent sequences; but in radiocarbon dating the scale of time is measured in absolute terms of centuries or years.

6. Many welfare reformers would substitute a single, federally financed income support system for the existing welter of overlapping programs.

7. Because the report contained much more information than the reviewers needed to see, the author was asked to submit a compendium instead.

No.2 III.2

1. Her lecture gave a sense of how empty the universe is, in spite of the enormous number of stars within it.

2. The wilderness is valuable in that it permits people to face an important reality - one that demands much of them as thinking, reacting, working individuals, not merely as human machines.

3. Ambrose Blerce's biographers agree that the Civil War was the central experience of his life, the event to which he constantly returned and the ordeal that brought some coherence to the hitherto random pattern of his youth.

4. The constitutional guarantee of free speech may have been aimed at protecting native speakers of English from censorship, but it is not a great extension to interpret it as protecting the right to express oneself in any natural language or dialect.

5. Although Darwinism was a profoundly repressive world view, it was essentially passive, since it prescribed no steps to be taken, no victories over nature to be celebrated, no program of triumphs to be successively gained.

6. Personnel experts say that attractive benefits alone will not always keep ambitious executives from changing jobs for better long-range opportunities, but they think the enticements may deter many executives from accepting routine offers from other companies.

7. The concept of timelessness is paradoxical from the start, for adult consciousness is permeated by the awareness of duration.

No.3 I.2

1. It is true that the seeds of some plants have germinated after two hundred years of dormancy, but reports that viable seeds have been found in ancient tombs such as the pyramids are entirely unfounded.

2. Even though many persons in the audience jeered the star throughout the play, she appeared for curtain calls.

3. The most technologically advanced societies have been responsible for the greatest atrocities; indeed, savagery seems to be in direct proportion to development.

4. The combination of elegance and earthiness in Edmund's speech can be starting, especially when he slyly slips in some juicy vulgarity amid the mellifluous circumlocutions of a gentleman of the old school.

5. For many young people during the Roaring Twenties, a disgust with the excesses of American culture combined with a wanderlust to provoke an exodus abroad.

6. Every new theory not only must accommodate the valid predictions of the old theory, but must also explain why those predictions succeeded within the range of that old theory.

7. Human reaction to the realm of thought is often as strong as that to sensible presences; our higher moral life is based on the fact that material sensations actually present may have a weaker influence on our action than do ideas of remote facts.

No.3 I.5

1. Even though six players had been injured, the coach announced to the assembled reporters that the team would win the championship.

2. Although Jungius detected Galileo's error in thinking that the curve assumed by a chain hanging freely between two supports was a parabola, he did not discover what the true form might be.

3. Perhaps predictably, since an ability to communicate effectively is an important trait of any great leader, it has been the exceptional Presidents who have delivered the most notable inaugural addresses.

4. Her remarkable speed, which first became apparent when she repeatedly defeated the older children at school, eventually earned for her some tangible rewards, including a full athletic scholarship and several first-place trophies.

5. An example of an illegitimate method of argument is to lump dissimilar cases together deliberately under the pretense that the same principles apply to each.

6. The paradox of her career was her achievement of her greatest intellectual authority at the very moment when she was bereft of a compelling subject.

7. Although ordinarily skeptical about the purity of Robinson's motives, in this instance Jenkins did not consider Robinson's generosity to be alloyed with consideration of personal gain.

No.3 II.1

1. There are simply no incentives for buying stock in certain industries since rapidly changing environmental restrictions will make a profitable return on any investment very unlikely.

2. He was widely regarded as a cynical man because he revealed daily his distrust of human nature and human motives.

3. Suspicious of too powerful a President, Americans nonetheless are uneasy when a President does not act decisively.

4. For those Puritans who believed that secular obligations were imposed by divine will, the correct course of action was not withdrawal from the world but conscientious discharge of the duties of business.

5. Many philosophers agree that the verbal aggression of profanity in certain radical newspapers is not trivial or childish, but an assault on decorum essential to the revolutionaries purpose.

6. Plants store a hoard of water in their leaves, stems, or understock to provide themselves with a form of insurance that will carry them through the inevitable drought they must suffer in the wild.

7. Although eclectic in her own responses to the plays she reviewed, the theatre critic was, paradoxically, suspicious of those who would deny that a reviewer must have a single method of interpretation.

No.3 II.4

1. Faraday does not endorse any particular theory; she believes that each theory increases our understanding of some dreams but that no single theory can explain them all.

2. Although his outnumbered troops fought bravely, the general felt he had no choice but to acknowledge defeat and order a retreat.

3. Despite some allowances for occupational mobility, the normal expectation of seventeenth-century English society was that the child's vocation would develop along familial lines; divergence from the career of one's parents was therefore limited.

4. The little-known but rapidly expanding use of computers in mapmaking is technologically similar to the more publicized uses in designing everything from bolts to satellites.

5. The impact of a recently published collection of essays, written during and about the last presidential campaign, is lessened by its timing; it comes too late to affect us with its immediacy and too soon for us to read it out of historical curiosity.

6. It would be misleading to use a published play to generalize about fifteenth-century drama: the very fact of publication should serve as a warning of the play's unrepresentative character.

7. The Neoplatonists' conception of a deity, in which perfection was measured by abundant fecundity, was contradicted by that of the Aristotelians, in which perfection was displayed in the economy of creation.

No.3 III.1

1. Stress is experienced when an individual feels that the demands of the environment exceed that individual's resources for handling them.

2. To compensate for the substantial decline in the availability of fossil fuels in future years, we will have to provide at least an equivalent alternative energy source.

3. Students of the Great Crash of 1929 have never understood why even the most informed observers did not recognize and heed the prior economic danger signals that in retrospect seem so apparent.

4. While admitting that the risks incurred by use of the insecticide were not inconsequential, the manufacturer's spokesperson argued that effective substitutes were simply not available.

5. Because time in India is conceived statically rather than dynamically, Indian languages emphasize nouns rather than verbs, since nouns express the more stable aspects of a thing.

6. The essence of belief is the establishment of practice-; different beliefs are distinguishable by the different modes of action to which they give rise.

7. The simplicity of the theory-its main attraction is also its undoing, for only by rejecting the

assumptions of the theory is it possible to explain the most recent observations made by researchers.

No.3 III.4

1. Our young people, whose keen sensitivities have not yet become calloused, have a purer and more immediate response than we do to our environment.

2. The repudiation of Puritanism in seventeenth-century England expressed itself not only in retaliatory laws to restrict Puritans, but also in a general attitude of contempt for Puritans.

3. It is a great advantage to be able to transfer useful genes with as little extra gene material as possible, because the donor's genome may contain, in addition to desirable genes, many genes with deleterious effects.

4. Because it has no distinct and recognizable typographical form and few recurring narrative conventions, the novel is. of all literary genres, the least susceptible to definition.

5. The brittle fronds of the Boston fern break easily and become brown, so that the overall appearance of the plant is ruined unless the broken fronds are cut off.

6. There is no necessary intrinsic connection between a word and the thing it refers to; the relationship is purely conventional.

7. That the Third Battalion's fifty-percent casualty rate transformed its assault on Hill 306 from a brilliant stratagem into a debacle does not gainsay eyewitness reports of its commander's extraordinary cleverness in deploying his forces.

No.4 I.2

1. Hydrogen is the fundamental element of the universe in that it provides the building blocks from which the other elements are produced.

2. Few of us take the pains to study our cherished convictions; indeed, we almost have a natural repugnance to doing so.

3. It is his dubious distinction to have proved what nobody would think of denying, that Romero at the age of sixty-four writes with all the characteristics of maturity.

4. The primary criterion for judging a school is its recent performance: critics are reluctant to extend credit for earlier victories.

5. Number theory is rich in problems of an especially vexing sort: they are tantalizingly simple to state but notoriously difficult to solve.

6. In failing to see that the justice's pronouncement merely qualified previous decisions rather than actually establishing a precedent, the novice law clerk overemphasized the scope of the justice's judgment.

7. When theories formerly considered to be disinterested in their scientific objectivity are found instead to reflect a consistent observational and evaluative bias, then the presumed neutrality of science gives way to the recognition that categories of knowledge are human.

No.4 I.5

1. Although the minuet appeared simple, its intricate steps had to be studied very carefully before they could be gracefully executed in public.

2. The results of the experiments performed by Elizabeth Hazen and Rachel Brown were provocative not only because these results challenged old assumptions but also because they called the prevailing methodology into question.

3. Despite the skepticism of many of their colleagues, some scholars have begun to emphasize "pop culture" as a key for deciphering the myths, hopes, and fears of contemporary society.

4. In the seventeenth century, direct flouting of a generally accepted system of values was regarded as irrational, even as a sign of madness.

5. Queen Elizabeth I has quite correctly been called a friend of the arts, because many young artists received her patronage.

6. Because outlaws were denied protection under medieval law, anyone could raise a hand against them with legal impunity.

7. Rather than enhancing a country's security, the successful development of nuclear weapons could serve at first to increase that country's vulnerability.

No.4 II.1

1. Physicists rejected the innovative experimental technique because although it resolved some problems, it also produced new complications.

2. During a period of protracted illness, the sick can become infirm losing both the strength to work and many of the specific skills they once possessed.

3. The pressure of populating on available resources is the key to understanding history; consequently, any historical writing that takes no cognizance of demographic facts is intrinsically flawed.

4. It is puzzling to observe that Jone's novel has recently been criticized for its lack of structure, since commentators have traditionally argued that its most obvious flaw is its relentlessly rigid, indeed schematic, framework.

5. It comes as no surprise that societies have codes of behavior; the character of the codes, on the other hand, can often be unexpected.

6. The characterization of historical analysis as a form of fiction is not likely to be received sympathetically by either historians or literary critics, who agree that history and fiction deal with distinct orders of experience.

7. For some time now, disinterestedness has been presumed not to exist: the cynical conviction that everybody has an angle is considered wisdom.

No.4 II.4

1. The emergence of mass literacy coincided with the first industrial revolution; in turn, the new expansion in literacy, as well as cheaper printing, helped to nurture the rise of popular literature.

2. Although ancient tools were rarely preserved, enough have survived to allow us to demonstrate an occasionally interrupted but generally continual progress through prehistory.

3. In part of the Arctic, the land grades into the landfast ice so imperceptibly that you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the hidden sea.

4. Kagan maintains that an infant's reactions to its first stressful experiences are part of a natural process of development, not harbingers of childhood unhappiness or prophetic signs of adolescent anxiety.

5. An investigation that is unguided can occasionally yield new facts, even notable ones, but typically the appearance of such facts is the result of a search in a definite direction.

6. Like many eighteenth-century scholars who lived by cultivating those in power, Winckelmann neglected to neutralize, by some propitiatory gesture of comradeship, the resentment his peers were bound to feel because of his involvement with the high and mighty.

7. In a pragmatic society that worships efficiency, it is difficult for a sensitive and idealistic person to make the kinds of hardheaded decisions that alone spell success as it is defined by such a society.

No.4 III.1

1. Her frugality should not be confused with miserliness; as long as I have known her, she has always

been willing to assist those who are in need.

2. Natural selection tends to eliminate genes that cause inherited diseases, acting most strongly against the most severe diseases; consequently, hereditary diseases that are lethal would be expected to be very rare, but, surprisingly, they are not.

3. Unfortunately, his damaging attacks on the ramifications of the economic policy have been undermined by his wholehearted acceptance of that policy's underlying assumptions.

4. During the opera's most famous aria the tempo chosen by the orchestra's conductor seemed capricious, without necessary relation to what had gone before.

5. In the machinelike world of classical physics, the human intellect appears anomalous, since the mechanical nature of classical physics does not allow for creative reasoning, the very ability that had made the formulation of classical principles possible.

6. During the 1960's assessments of the family shifted remarkably, from general endorsement of it as a worthwhile, stable institution to widespread censure of it as an oppressive and bankrupt one whose dissolution was both imminent and welcome.

7. Documenting science's influence on philosophy would be superfluous, since it is almost axiomatic that many philosophers use scientific concepts as the foundations for their speculations.

No.4 III.2

1. The spellings of many Old English words have been preserved in the living language, although their pronunciations have changed.

2. The sheer diversity of tropical plants represents a seemingly inexhaustible source of raw materials, of which only a few have been utilized.

3. For centuries animals have been used as surrogates for people in experiments to assess the effects of therapeutic and other agents that might later be used in humans.

4. Social tensions among adult factions can be adjusted by politics, but adolescents and children have no such mechanism for resolving their conflict with the exclusive world of adults.

5. The state is a network of exchanged benefits and beliefs, a reciprocity between rulers and citizens based on those laws and procedures that are conducive to the maintenance of community.

6. Far from viewing Jefferson as a skeptical but enlightened intellectual, historians of the 1960's portrayed him as a doctrinaire thinker, eager to fill the young with his political orthodoxy while censoring ideas he did not like.

7. To have true disciples, a thinker must not be too idiosyncratic: any effective intellectual leader depends on the ability of other people to reenact thought processes that did not originate with them.

No.5 I.1

1. Clearly refuting skeptics, researchers have demonstrated not only that gravitational radiation exists but that it also does exactly what theory predicted it should do.

2. Sponsors of the bill were relieved because there was no opposition to it within the legislature until after the measure had been signed into law.

3. The paradoxical aspect of the myths about Demeter, when we consider the predominant image of her as a tranquil and serene goddess, is her agitated search for her daughter.

4. Yellow fever, the disease that killed 4,000 Philadelphians in 1793, and so decimated Memphis, Tennessee, that the city lost its charter, has reappeared after nearly two decades in abeyance in the Western Hemisphere.

5. Although retiring, almost self-effacing in his private life, he displays in his plays and essays a strong penchant for publicity and controversy.

6. Comparatively few rock musicians are willing to laugh at themselves, although a hint of

self-deprecation can boost sales of video clips very nicely.

7. Parts of seventeenth-century Chinese pleasure gardens were not necessarily intended to look cheerful; they were designed expressly to evoke the agreeable melancholy resulting from a sense of the transitoriness of natural beauty and human glory.

No.5 I.2

1. Since it is now routine to build the complex central processing unit of a computer on a single silicon chip using photolithography and chemical etching, it seems plausible that other miniature structures might be fabricated in similar ways.

2. Given the evidence of Egyptian and Babylonian influence on later Greek civilization, it would be incorrect to view the work of Greek scientists as an entirely independent creation.

3. Laws do not ensure social order since laws can always be violated, which makes them ineffective unless the authorities have the will and the power to detect and punish wrongdoing.

4. Since she believed him to be both candid and trustworthy, she refused to consider the possibility that his statement had been insincere.

5. Ironically, the party leaders encountered no greater obstacle to their efforts to build a progressive party than the resistance of the progressives already elected to the legislature.

6. It is strange how words shape our thoughts and trap us at the bottom of deeply incised canyons of thinking, their imprisoning sides carved out by the river of past usage.

7. That his intransigence in making decisions brooked no open disagreement from any quarter was well known; thus, clever subordinates learned the art of intimating their opinions in casual remarks.

No.5 II.1

1. Created to serve as perfectly as possible their workaday function, the wooden storage boxes made in America's Shaker communities are now valued for their beauty.

2. In order to support her theory that the reactions are different, the scientist conducted many experiments, all of which showed that the heat of the first reaction is more than twice that of the second.

3. The sheer bulk of data from the mass media seems to overpower us and drive us to synoptic accounts for an easily and readily digestible portion of news.

4. William James lacked the usual awe of death; writing to his dying father, he spoke without inhibition about the old man's impending death.

5. Current data suggest that, although transitional states between fear and aggression exist, fear and aggression are as distinct physiologically as they are psychologically.

6. It is ironic that a critic of such overwhelming vanity now suffers from a measure of the oblivion to which he was forever consigning others, in the end, all his self-adulation has only worked against him

7. Famous among job seekers for its largesse, the company, quite apart from generous salaries, bestowed on its executives annual bonuses and such perquisites as low-interest home mortgages and company cars.

No.5 II.2

1. There are no solitary, free-living creatures; every form of life is dependent on other forms.

2. The sale of Alaska was not so much an American coup as a matter of expediency for an imperial Russia that was short of cash and unable to defend its own continental coastline.

3. Despite assorted effusions to the contrary, there is no necessary link between scientific skill and humanism, and, quite possibly, there may be something of a dichotomy between them.

4. A common argument claims that in folk art, the artist's subordination of technical mastery to intense feeling facilitates the direct communication of emotion to the viewer.

5. While not completely nonplussed by the usually caustic responses from members of the audience, the speaker was nonetheless visibly discomfited by their lively criticism.

6. In eighth-century Japan, people who reclaimed wasteland were rewarded with official ranks as part of an effort to overcome the shortage of arable fields.

7. If duty is the natural outgrowth of one's control over the course of future events, then people who are powerful have duty placed on them whether they like it or not.

No.5 III.1

1. By divesting himself of all regalities, the former king forfeited the consideration that customarily protects monarchs.

2. A perennial goal in zoology is to infer function from structure, relating the behavior of an organism to its physical form and cellular organization.

3. The sociologist responded to the charge that her new theory was heretical by pointing out that it did not in fact contradict accepted sociological principles.

4. Industrialists seized economic power only after industry had supplanted agriculture as the preeminent form of production; previously such power had resided in land ownership.

5. Rumors, embroidered with detail, live on for years, neither denied nor confirmed, until they become accepted as fact even among people not known for their credulity.

6. No longer sustained by the belief that the world around us was expressly designed for humanity, many people try to find intellectual substitutes for that lost certainty in astrology and in mysticism.

7. People should not be praised for their virtue if they lack the energy to be wicked; in such cases, goodness is merely the effect of indolence.

No.5 III.2

1. Animals that have tasted unpalatable plants tend to recognize them afterward on the basis of their most conspicuous features, such as their flowers.

2. As for the alleged value of expert opinion, one need only consult government records to see strong evidence of the failure of such opinions in many fields.

3. In scientific inquiry it becomes a matter of duty to expose a tentative hypothesis to every possible kind of examination.

4. Charlotte Salomon's biography is a reminder that the currents of private life, however diverted, dislodged, or twisted by overpowering public events, retain their hold on the individual recording them.

5. Philosophical problems arise when people ask questions that, though very diverse, have certain characteristics in common.

6. Although Johnson feigned great enthusiasm for his employees' project, in reality his interest in the project was so perfunctory as to be almost nonexistent.

7. Not all the indicators necessary to convey the effect of depth in a picture work simultaneously, the picture's illusion of uniform three-dimensional appearance must therefore result from the viewer's integration of various indicators perceived successively.

No.6 I.1

1. The natural balance between prey and predator has been increasingly disturbed, most frequently by human intervention.

2. There is some irony in the fact that the author of a book as sensitive and informed as Indian Artisans

did not develop her interest in Native American art until adulthood, for she grew up in a region rich in American Indian culture.

3. Ecology, like economics, concerns itself with the movement of valuable commodities through a complex network of producers and consumers.

4. Observable as a tendency of our culture is a withdrawal of belief in psychoanalysis: we no longer feel that it can solve our emotional problems.

5. The struggle of the generations is one of the obvious constants of human affairs; therefore, it may be presumptuous to suggest that the rivalry between young and old in Western society during the current decade is uniquely critical.

6. Rhetoric often seems to triumph over reason in a heated debate, with both sides engaging in hyperbole.

7. Melodramas, which presented stark oppositions between innocence and criminality, virtue and corruption, good and evil, were popular precisely because they offered the audience a world devoid of neutrality.

No.6 I.4

1. In the current research program, new varieties of apple trees are evaluated under different

agricultural conditions for tree size, bloom density, fruit size, adaptability to various soils, and resistance to pests and disease.

2. At first, I found her gravity rather intimidating; but, as I saw more of her, I found that laughter was very near the surface.

3. Even though in today's Soviet Union the leaders of the Muslim clergy have been accorded power and privileges, the Muslim laity and the rank-and-file clergy still have little latitude to practice their religion.

4. The proponents of recombinant DNA research have decided to encourage federal regulation of their work; they hope that by making this compromise they can forestall proposed state and local controls that might be even stiffer.

5. It is to the novelist's credit that all of the episodes in her novel are presented realistically, without any whimsy or playful supernatural tricks.

6. Our new tools of systems analysis, powerful though they may be, lead to simplistic theories, especially, and predictably, in economics and political science, where productive approaches have long been highly elusive.

7. Nineteenth-century scholars, by examining earlier geometric Greek art, found that classical Greek art was not a magical apparition or a brilliant amalgam blending Egyptian and Assyrian art, but was independently evolved by Greeks in Greece.

No.6 II.1

1. Dreams are uninformative in and of themselves, but, when combined with other data, they can tell us much about the dreamer.

2. The Muses are vindictive deities: they avenge themselves without mercy on those who weary of their charms.

3. Without the psychiatrist's promise of confidentiality, trust is impaired and the patient's

communication limited; even though confidentiality can thus be seen to be precious in therapy, moral responsibility sometimes requires a willingness to sacrifice it.

4. Having fully embraced the belief that government by persuasion is preferable to government by coercion, the leaders of the movement have recently repudiated most of their previous statements supporting totalitarianism.

5. The powers and satisfactions of primeval people, though few and meager, were commensurate with their

few and simple desires.

6. Some scientists argue that carbon compounds play such a central role in life on Earth because of the possibility of variety resulting from the carbon atom's ability to form an unending series of different molecules.

7. Whereas the art critic Vasari saw the painting entitled the Mona Lisa as an original and wonderful technical feat, the reproduction of a natural object, the aesthetes saw it as a hieroglyph that required deciphering.

No.6 II.5

1. As late as 1891 a speaker assured his audience that since profitable farming was the result of natural ability rather than learning, an education in agriculture was useless.

2. In spite of the mountainous nature of Scotland's terrain, its main roads are surprisingly free from severe grades.

3. Walpole's art collection was huge and fascinating, and his novel The Castle of Otranto was never out of print; none of this mattered to the Victorians, who dismissed him as, at best, insignificant.

4. Since the author frequently attacks other scholars, his objection to disputes is not only irrelevant but also surprising.

5. Longdale and Stern discovered that mitochondria and chloroplasts share a long, identifiable sequence of DNA; such a coincidence could be explained only by the transfer of DNA between the two systems.

6. Until the current warming trend exceeds the range of normal climatic fluctuations, there will be, among scientists, considerable uncertainty about the possibility that increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 can cause long-term warming effects.

7. Without seeming unworldly, William James appeared wholly removed from the commonplaces of society, the conventionality of academe.

No.6 III.1

1. Heavily perfumed white flowers, such as gardenias, were favorites with collectors in the eighteenth century, when scent was valued much more highly than it is today.

2. In a most impressive demonstration, Pavarotti sailed through Verdi's "Celeste Aida," normally a tenor's nightmare, with the casual enthusiasm of a folk singer performing one of his favorite ballads.

3. Dependence on foreign sources of heavy metals, though diminishing, remains a problem for United States foreign policy.

4. Cynics believe that people who shrug off compliments do so in order to be praised twice.

5. Although nothing could be further from the truth, freight railroads have been accused of impeding the nation's shift from oil to coal by charging exorbitant fees to transport coal.

6. Although the revelation that one of the contestants was a friend left the judge open to charges of lack of disinterestedness, the judge remained adamant in her assertion that acquaintance did not necessarily imply partiality.

7. Within the next decade, sophisticated telescopes now orbiting the Earth will determine whether the continents really are moving, forestalling the incipient rift among geologists about the validity of the theory of continental drift.

No.6 III.4

1. The commissions criticized the legislature for making college attendance dependent on the ability to pay, charging that, as a result, hundreds of qualified young people would be striving for further education.

2. In most Native American cultures, an article used in prayer or ritual is made with extraordinary attention to and richness of detail: it is decorated more lavishly than a similar article intended for everyday use.

3. Having no sense of moral obligation, Shipler was as little subject to the reproaches of conscience after he acted as he was motivated by its prompting before he acted.

4. Freud derived psychoanalytic knowledge of childhood indirectly: he reconstructed childhood processes from adult memory.

5. While she initially suffered the fate of many pioneers-the incomprehension of her

colleagues-octogenarian Nobel laureate Barbara McClintock has lived to savor the triumph of her once heterodox scientific theories.

6. Broadway audiences have become inured to mediocrity and so desperate to be pleased as to make their ready ovations meaningless as an indicator of the quality of the production before them.

7. Any language is a conspiracy against experience in the sense that it is a collective attempt to manage experience by reducing it into discrete parcels.

No.7 I.1

1. There is perhaps some truth in that waggish old definition of a scholar-a siren that calls attention to a fog without doing anything to thicken it.

2. Cryogenic energy storage has the advantage of being suitable in any location, regardless of geography or geology, factors that may limit both underground gas storage and pumped hydroelectric storage.

3. The newborn human infant is not a passive figure, nor an active one, but what might be called an actively receptive one, eagerly attentive as it is to sights and sounds.

4. Opponents of the expansion of the market economy, although in retreat, continued to constitute a powerful political force throughout the century.

5. Nature's energy efficiency often outstrips human technology: despite the intensity of the light fireflies produce, the amount of heat is negligible; only recently have humans developed chemical light-producing systems whose efficiency rivals the firefly's system.

6. Scholars' sense of the uniqueness of the central concept of "the state" at the time when political science became an academic field quite naturally led to striving for a correspondingly distinctive mode of study.

7. Just as astrology was for centuries an underground faith, countering the strength of established churches, so today believing in astrology is an act of defiance against the professional sciences.

No.7 I.5

1. Despite the fact that the two council members belonged to different political parties, they agree to the issue of how to finance the town debt.

2. The breathing spell provided by the moratorium on arms shipments should give all the combatants a chance to reevaluate their positions.

3. The notion that cultural and biological influences equally determine cross-cultural diversity is discredited by the fact that, in countless aspects of human existence, it is cultural programming that overwhelmingly accounts for cross-population variance.

4. Because medieval women's public participation in spiritual life was not welcomed by the male

establishment, a compensating involvement with religious writings, inoffensive to the members of the establishment because of its privacy, became important for many women.

5. This final essay, its prevailing kindliness marred by occasional flashes of savage irony, bespeaks the dichotomous character of the author.

6. Although his attempts to appear psychotic were so clumsy as to be almost ludicrous, there is evidence that Ezra Pound was able to avoid standing trial for treason merely by faking symptoms of mental illness.

7. The perennial questions that consistently structure the study of history must be distinguished from merely ephemeral questions, which have their day and then pass into oblivion.

No.7 II.2

1. Despite the apparently bewildering complexity of this procedure, the underlying principle is quite elementary.

2. In television programming, a later viewing time often implies a more mature audience and, therefore, more challenging subjects and themes.

3. The cultivation of the emotion of natsukashii, interpretable as "pleasant sorrow," brings Japanese to Kyoto in the spring, not to savor the cherry blossoms in full bloom but to grieve over the fading, falling flowers.

4. Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations (1776) is still worth reading, more to appreciate the current relevance of Smith's valid contributions to economics than to see those contributions as the precursors of present-day economics.

5. At several points in his discussion, Graves, in effect, alters evidence when it does not support his argument, tailoring it to his needs.

6. Regardless of what tidy theories of politics may propound, there is nothing that requires daily politics to be clear, thorough, and consistent-nothing, that is, that requires reality to conform to theory.

7. Exposure to sustained noise has been claimed to impair blood pressure regulation in human beings and, particularly, to increase hypertension, even though some researchers have obtained inconclusive results that obscure the relationship.

No.7 II.5

1. After a slow sales start early in the year, mobile homes have been gaining favor as an alternative to increasingly expensive conventional housing.

2. Just as such apparently basic things as rocks, clouds, and clams are, in fact, intricately structured entities, so the self, too, is not an "elementary particle," but is a complicated construction.

3. Considering how long she had yearned to see Italy, her first reaction was curiously tepid.

4. The successful reconstruction of an archaeological site requires scientific knowledge as well as cultural sensitivity.

5. As painted by Constable, the scene is not one of bucolic serenity; rather it shows a striking emotional and intellectual tension.

6. Our times seem especially hospitable to bad ideas, probably because in throwing off the shackles of tradition, we have ended up being quite vulnerable to untested theories and untried remedies.

7. Although he attempted repeatedly to disabuse her of her conviction of his insincerity, he was not successful; she remained adamant in her judgment.

No.7 III.1

1. Although adolescent maturational and developmental states occur in an orderly sequence, their timing varies with regard to onset and duration.

2. Many of the earliest colonial houses that are still standing have been so modified and enlarged that the initial design is no longer discernible.

3. While the delegate clearly sought to dampen the optimism that has emerged recently, she stopped short of suggesting that the conference was near collapse and might produce nothing of significance.

4. The old man could not have been accused of stinting his affection; his conduct toward the child betrayed his adoration of her.

5. A leading chemist believes that many scientists have difficulty with stereochemistry because much of the relevant nomenclature is imprecise, in that it combines concepts that should be kept discrete.

6. Among the many defects of the project, expense cannot be numbered; the goals of the project's promoters can be achieved with impressive economy.

7. Though science is often imagined as a disinterested exploration of external reality, scientists are no different from anyone else: they are passionate human beings enmeshed in a web of personal and social circumstances.

No.7 III.4

1. Social scientists have established fairly clear-cut norms that describe the appropriate behavior of children and adults, but there seems to be confusion about what constitutes appropriate behavior for adolescents.

2. As long as nations cannot themselves accumulate enough physical power to dominate all others, they must depend on allies.

3. We realized that John was still young and impressionable, but were nevertheless surprised at his naivet¨|.

4. Although Mount Saint Helens has been more explosive during the last 4,500 years than any other volcano in the coterminous United States, its long dormancy before its recent eruption belied its violent nature.

5. Changes of fashion and public taste are often ephemeral and resistant to analysis, and yet they are among the most sensitive gauges of the state of the public's collective consciousness.

6. The poet W. H. Auden believed that the greatest poets of his age were almost necessarily irresponsible, that the possession of great gifts engenders the propensity to abuse them.

7. The self-important cant of musicologists on record jackets often suggests that true appreciation of the music is an arcane process closed to the uninitiated listener, however enthusiastic.

No.8 I.3

1. Many artists believe that successful imitation, far from being symptomatic of a lack of originality, is the first step in learning to be creative.

2. As serious as she is about the bullfight, she does not allow respect to suppress her sense of whimsy when painting it.

3. No one is neutral about Stephens; he inspires either uncritical adulation or profound antipathy in those who work for him.

4. Before about 1960, virtually all accounts of evolution assumed most adaptation to be a product of selection at the level of populations; recent studies of evolution, however, have found no basis for this pervasive view of selection.

5. The new biological psychiatry does not deny the contributing role of psychological factors in mental illnesses, but posits that these factors may act as a catalyst on existing physiological conditions and precipitate such illnesses.

6. During periods of social and cultural stability, many art academies are so firmly controlled by dogmatists that all real creative work must be done by the disenfranchised.

7. The First World War began in a context of jargon and verbal delicacy and continued in a cloud of euphemism as impenetrable as language and literature, skillfully used, could make it.

No.8 I.6

1. Because no comprehensive records exist regarding personal reading practices, we do not know, for example, the greatest number of books read in an individual lifetime.

2. In our corporation there is a difference between male and female perceptions because 73 percent of the men and 34 percent of the women polled believe that our company provides equal compensation to men and women.

3. The wonder of De Quincey is that although opium dominated his life, it never conquered him; indeed, he turned its use to gain when he published the story of its influence in the London Magazine.

4. The reduction of noise has been approached in terms of eliminating its sources, but the alternative of canceling noise out by adding sound with the opposite wave pattern may be more useful in practice.

5. While Parker is very outspoken on issues she cares about, she is not fanatical; she concedes the strength of opposing arguments when they expose weaknesses inherent in her own.

6. Hampshire's assertions, far from showing that we can dismiss the ancient puzzles about objectivity, reveal the issue to be even more relevant than we had thought.

7. Usually the first to spot data that were inconsistent with other findings, in this particular experiments she let a number of anomalous results slip by.

No.8 II.1

1. Psychology has slowly evolved into an independent scientific discipline that now functions autonomously with the same privileges and responsibilities as other sciences.

2. A major goal of law, to deter potential criminals by punishing wrongdoers, is not served when the penalty is so seldom invoked that it ceases to be a credible threat.

3. When people are happy, they tend to give charitable interpretations of events they witness: the eye of the beholder is colored by the emotions of the beholder.

4. Even those who disagreed with Carmen's views rarely faulted her for expressing them, for the positions she took were as thoughtful as they were controversial.

5. New research on technology and public policy focuses on how seemingly insignificant design features, generally overlooked in most analyses of public works projects or industrial machinery, actually mask social choices of profound significance.

6. Paradoxically, Robinson's excessive denials of the worth of early works of science fiction suggest that she has become quite enamored of them.

7. Cezanne's delicate watercolor sketches often served as a reconnaissance of a subject, a way of gathering fuller knowledge before the artist's final engagement of the subject in an oil painting.

No.8 II.6

1. Though it would be unrealistic to expect Barnard to have worked out all of the limitations of his experiment, he must be criticized for his neglect of quantitative analysis.

2. The hierarchy of medical occupations is in many ways a caste system; its strata remain intact and the practitioners in them have very little vertical mobility.

3. Noting the murder victim's flaccid musculature and pearlike figure, she deduced that the unfortunate fellow had earned his living in some sedentary occupation.

4. In Germany her startling powers as a novelist are widely admired, but she is almost unknown in the English-speaking world because of the difficulties of translating her eccentric prose.

5. Liberty is not easy, but far better to be an unfettered fox, hungry and threatened on its hill, than a well-fed canary, safe and secure in its cage.

6. Remelting old metal cans rather than making primary aluminum from bauxite ore shipped from overseas saves producers millions of dollars in procurement and production costs.

7. Johnson never scrupled to ignore the standards of decent conduct mandated by company policy if literal compliance with instructions from his superiors enabled him to do so, whatever the effects on his subordinates.

No.8 III.3

1. Although the feeding activities of whales and walruses give the seafloor of the Bering Shelf a devastated appearance, these activities seem to be actually beneficial to the area, enhancing its productivity.

2. In an age without radio or recordings, an age dominated by print, fiction gained its greatest ascendancy.

3. Scientists' pristine reputation as devotees of the disinterested pursuit of truth has been compromised by recent evidence that some scientists have deliberately fabricated experimental results to further their own careers.

4. Although Johnson's and Smith's initial fascination with the fortunes of those jockeying for power in the law firm flagged after a few months, the two paid sufficient attention to determine who their lunch partners should be.

5. A war, even if fought for individual liberty and democratic rights, usually requires that these principles be suspended, for they are incompatible with the regimentation and discipline necessary for military efficiency.

6. To test the efficacy of borrowing from one field of study to enrich another, simply investigate the extent to which terms from the one may, without forcing, be utilized by the other.

7. The English novelist William Thackeray considered the cult of the criminal so dangerous that he criticized Dickens' Oliver Twist for making the characters in the thieves' kitchen so riveting.

No.8 III.5

1. The discovery that, friction excluded, all bodies fall at the same rate is so simple to state and to grasp that there is a tendency to underrate its significance.

2. Their mutual teasing seemed friendly, but in fact it mask a long-standing hostility.

3. Nothing that few employees showed any enthusiasm for complying with the corporation's new safety regulations, Peterson was forced to conclude that acceptance of the regulations would be grudging, at best.

4. It has been argued that politics as a practice, whatever its transcendental claims, has always been the systematic organization of common hatreds.

5. In many science fiction films, the opposition of good and evil is portrayed as a conflict between technology, which is beneficent, and the errant will of a depraved intellectual.

6. Although scientists claim that the seemingly literal language of their reports is more precise than??the figurative language of fiction, the language of science, like all language, is inherently allusive.

7. In recent decades the idea that Cezanne influenced Cubism has been caught in the crossfire between art historians who credit Braque with its invention and those who tout Picasso.

No.9 I.1

1. Agronomists are increasingly worried about "desertification," the phenomenon that is turning many of the world's fertile fields and pastures into barren wastelands, unable to support the people living on them.

2. Old beliefs die hard: even when jobs became plentiful, the long-standing fear that unemployment could

return at a moment's notice persisted.

3. Intellectual restlessness and flight from boredom have caused him to rush pell-mell into situations that less adventurous spirits might hesitate to approach.

4. Science advances in a widening spiral in that each new conceptual scheme embraces that phenomena explained by its predecessors and adds to those explanations.

5. Politeness is not a superficial attribute of human behavior, but rather a central virtue, one whose very existence is increasingly being threatened by the faddish requirement to "speak one's mind."

6. The painting was larger than it appeared to be, for, hanging in a darkened recess of the chapel, it was diminished by the perspective.

7. Because folk art is neither completely rejected nor accepted as an art form by art historians, their final evaluations of it necessarily remain equivocal.

No.9 I.5

1. Because it is difficult to measure all the business costs related to employee discontent, an accurate estimate of the magnitude of these costs is not easily calculated.

2. Consider the universal cannibalism of the sea, all of whose creatures prey on one another.

3. How could words, confined as they individually are to certain precise meanings specified in a dictionary, eventually come, when combined in groups, to create obscurity and actually to prevent thought from being communicable?

4. Even though they tended to be hostile to strangers, fifteenth-century Europeans did not automatically associate foreignness and danger.

5. The modern age is a permissive one in which things can be said explicitly, but the old tradition of euphemism dies hard.

6. Although many findings of the Soviet and United States probes of Venus were complementary, the two sets of atmospheric results clearly could not be reconciled without a major change of data or interpretation.

7. While it is assumed that the mechanization of work has a revolutionary effect on the lives of workers, there is evidence available to suggest that, on the contrary, mechanization has served to reinforce some of the traditional roles of women.

No.9 II.3

1. Although economists have traditionally considered the district to be solely an agricultural one, the diversity of the inhabitants' occupations makes such a classification obsolete.

2. The author of this book purposely overlooks or minimizes some of the problems and shortcomings in otherwise highly successful foreign industries in order to emphasize the points on which they excel and on which we might try to emulate them.

3. Crosby's colleagues have never learned, at least not in time to avoid embarrassing themselves, that her occasional bogus air of befuddlement presages a display of her formidable intelligence.

4. To ensure the development and exploitation of a new technology, there must be a constant interplay of several nevertheless distinct activities.

5. Some customs travel well; often, however, behavior that is considered the epitome of urbanity at home is perceived as impossibly rude or, at the least, harmlessly bizarre abroad.

6. The failures of the early Greek philosophers' attempts to explain the operations of the cosmos led certain later thinkers to inquire into the efficacy of human reason.

7. Ever prey to vagrant impulses that impelled him to squander his talents on a host of unworthy projects, his very dissipation nonetheless enhanced his reputation, for the sheer energy of his extravagance dazzled


No.9 II.7

1. Given the existence of so many factions in the field, it was unrealistic of Anna Freud to expect any uniformity of opinion.

2. Although specific concerns may determine the intent of a research project, its results are often unanticipated.

3. To list Reilly's achievements in a fragmentary way is misleading, for it distracts our attention from the integrating themes of her work.

4. People frequently denigrate books about recent catastrophes as morally despicable attempts to profit, from misfortune, but in my view our desire for such books, together with the venerable tradition to which they belong, legitimizes them.

5. That many of the important laws of science were discovered during experiments designed to illuminate other phenomena suggests that experimental results are the consequence of inevitable natural forces rather than of planning.

6. Although in eighteenth-century England an active cultural life accompanied the beginnings of

middle-class consumerism, the degree of literacy was uncorrelated with the rise of such consumerism in the different areas of the country.

7. The trainees were given copies of a finished manual to see whether they could themselves begin to derive the inflexible, though tacit, rules for composing more of such instructional materials.

No.9 III.1

1. The availability of oxygen is an essential condition for animal life, while carbon dioxide is equally necessary for plant life.

2. Prudery actually draws attention to the vice it is supposed to repress; the very act that forbids speech or prohibits sight dramatizes what is hidden.

3. After thirty years of television, people have become "speed watchers"; consequently, if the camera lingers, the interest of the audience flags.

4. Compared mathematically to smoking and driving, almost everything else seems relatively risk-free, so almost nothing seems worth regulating.

5. Ironically, Carver's precision in sketching lives on the edge of despair ensures that his stories will sometimes be read too narrowly, much as Dickens' social-reformer role once caused his broader concerns to be ignored.

6. The demise of the rigorous academic curriculum in high school resulted, in part, from the progressive rhetoric that sanctioned the study of subjects previously thought inappropriate as part of school learning.

7. While some see in practical jokes a wish for mastery in miniature over a world that seems very unruly, others believe that the jokes' purpose is to disrupt, by reducing all transactions to chaos.

No.9 III.4

1. Aspartame, a new artificial sugar substitute, is only a partial replacement for saccharin because, unlike saccharin, it breaks down and loses its sweetening characteristics at high temperatures, making it unsuitable for baking.

2. Trapped thousands of years ago in Antarctic ice, recently discovered air bubbles are veritable time capsules filled with information for scientists who chart the history of the atmosphere.

3. In the days before the mass marketing of books, censorship was a prime source of publicity, which

helped the sale of the book and inspired Ralph Waldo Emerson to remark: "Every burned book enlightens the world".

4. It was not only the conservatism of geologists that hindered earlier development of the revolutionary idea that the Earth's continents were moving plates; classical physicists, who could not then explain the mechanism, had declared continental movement impossible.

5. Although often extremely critical of the medical profession as a whole, people are rarely willing to treat their personal doctors with equal contempt.

6. Aalto, like other modernists, believed that form follows function; consequently, his furniture designs asserted the primacy of human needs, and the furniture's form was determined by human use.

7. A complacent acceptance of contemporary forms of social behavior has misled a few into believing that values in conflict with the present age are for all practical purposes superseded.

No.9 IV.3

1. With its maverick approach to the subject, Shere Hite's book has been more widely debated than most; the media throughout the country have brought the author's controversial opinions to the public's attention.

2. Though many medieval women possessed devotional books that had belonged to their mothers, formal written evidence of women bequeathing books to their daughters is scarce, which suggests that such bequests were customary and required no documentation.

3. Although their initial anger had abated somewhat, they continued to berate the careless worker who had broken the machine.

4. Borrowing a copyrighted book from a library amounts to a form of theft sanctioned by entrenched custom: the copyright owner's property, the book, is used repeatedly without compensation for such use.

5. The notion that a parasite can alter the behavior of a host organism is not mere fiction; indeed, the phenomenon is not even rare.

6. Although Shakespeare received little formal education, scholarship has in recent years undermined the view that he was unfamiliar with the work of classical authors.

7. Darwin's method did not really require the idea of race as an important conceptual category; even the much more central idea of species was little more than a theoretical convenience.

No.9 IV.6

1. The functions of the hands, eyes, and brain are so intertwined that using the hands during early childhood helps to promote the child's entire perceptual development.

2. Before 1500 North America was inhabited by more than 300 cultural groups, each with different customs, social structures, world views, and languages; such diversity argues against the existence of a single Native American culture.

3. That dealers patient enough to nurture a young modern painter's career rather than plunder it exist is not impossible, but the public's insatiable appetite for modern art makes such dealers less and less likely.

4. In the absence of any stimulation caused by danger, hardship, or even cultural difference, most utopian communities deteriorate into placid but enervating backwaters.

5. As Juanita argued, this new code of conduct is laughable; its principles are either platitudinous, offering no wisdom but the obvious, or are so devoid of specific advice as to make almost any action justifiable.

6. Histocompatibility antigens that attack foreign tissue in the body cannot have been conserved through evolution expressly to foil organ transplantation; on the contrary, they have been found to facilitate

many essential biological functions.

7. Their air of cheerful self-sacrifice and endless complaisance won them undeserved praise, for their seeming gallantry was wholly motivated by a craven wish to avoid conflict of any sort.

No.9 V.2

1. Though some of the information the author reveals about Russian life might surprise Americans, her major themes are familiar enough.

2. In the early twentieth century, the discovery of radium enflamed the popular imagination; not only was its discoverer, Marie Curie, idolized, but its market value exceeded that of the rarest gemstone.

3. The president's secretary and his chief aide adored him, and both wrote obsessively devoted personal memoirs about him; unfortunately, however, idolatry does not make for true intimacy.

4. Despite claims that his philosophy can be traced to a single source, the philosophy in fact draws liberally on several traditions and methodologies and so could justifiably be termed eclectic.

5. Du Bois' foreign trips were the highlight, not the totality, of his travels; he was habitually on the go across and around the United States.

6. Business forecasts usually prove reasonably accurate when the assumption that the future will be much like the past is satisfied; in times of major shifts in the business environment, however, forecasts can be dangerously wrong.

7. It is almost always desirable to increase the yield of a crop if commensurate increases are not also necessary in energy, labor, and other inputs of crop production.

No.9 V.4

1. Job failure means being fired from a job, being asked to resign, or leaving voluntarily to protect yourself because you had very strong evidence that one of the first two was impending.

2. The tone of Jane Carlyle's letter is guarded, and her feelings are always masked by the wit and pride that made a direct plea for sympathy impossible for her.

3. French folktales almost always take place within the basic frameworks that correspond to the dual setting of peasant life: on the one hand, the household and village on the other, the open road.

4. Nurturing the Royal Ballet's artistic growth while preserving its institutional stability has been difficult, because the claims of the latter seem inescapably to inhibit development; apparently, attaining artistic success is simpler than perpetuating it.

5. Inspired interim responses to hitherto unknown problems, New Deal economic stratagems became ossified as a result of bureaucratization, their flexibility and adaptability destroyed by their transformation into rigid policies.

6. Biologists prize isolated oceanic islands like the Galapagos, because, in such small, laboratory-like settings, the rich hurly-burly of continental plant and animal communities is reduced to a scientifically tractable complexity.

7. The startling finding that variations in the rate of the Earth's rotation depend to an unexpected degree on the weather has necessitated a complete overhaul of the world's time-keeping methods.

No.9 VI.1

1. In the British theater young people under thirty-five have not had much trouble getting recognition onstage, but offstage-in the ranks of playwrights, directors, designers, administrators-they have mostly been relegated to relative obscurity.

2. An institution concerned about its reputation is at the mercy of the actions of its members; because the misdeeds of individuals are often used to discredit the institutions of which they are a part.

3. Since many casual smokers develop lung cancer and many heavy smokers do not, scientists believe that individuals differ in their susceptibility to the cancer-causing agents known to be present in cigarette smoke.

4. We accepted the theory that as people become more independent of one another, they begin to feel so isolated and lonely that freedom becomes a negative condition that most will seek to escape.

5. If animal parents were judged by human standards, the cuckoo would be one of nature's more feckless creatures, blithely laying its eggs in the nests of other birds, and leaving the incubating and nurturing to them.

6. The current penchant for touting a product by denigrating a rival, named in the advertisement by brand name, seems somewhat foolhardy: suppose the consumer remembers only the rival's name?

7. His imperturbability in the face of evidence indicating his deliberate fraud failed to reassure supporters of his essential probity; instead, it suggested a talent for guile that they had never suspected.

No.9 VI.4

1. Although providing wild chimpanzees with food makes them less shy and easier to study, it is also known to disrupt their normal social patterns.

2. There is something incongruous about the way the building of monasteries proliferated in

eighteenth-century Bavaria, while in the rest of the Western world religious ardor was diminishing and church building was consequently declining.

3. Because they had various meanings in nineteenth-century biological thought, "mechanism" and "vitalism" ought not to be considered univocal terms; thus, I find the recent insistence that the terms had single definitions to be entirely erroneous.

4. Many Americans believe that individual initiative epitomized the 1890's and see the entrepreneur as the personification of that age.

5. Neither the ideas of philosophers nor the practices of ordinary people can, by themselves, transform reality; what in fact changes reality and kindles revolution is the interplay of the two.

6. There has been a tendency among art historians not so much to revise as to eliminate the concept of the Renaissance - to contest not only its uniqueness, but its very existence.

7. Employees had become so inured to the caprices of top management's personnel policies that they greeted the announcement of a company-wide dress code with impassivity.

90.04 I

1. Even though formidable winters are the norm in the Dakotas, many people were unprepared for the ferocity of the blizzard of 1888.

2. As the first streamlined car, the Airflow represented a milestone in automotive development, and although its sales were disappointing, it had an immense influence on automobile design.

3. While nurturing parents can compensate for adversity, cold or inconsistent parents may exacerbate it.

4. The architects of New York's early skyscrapers, hinting here at a twelfth-century cathedral, there at a fifteenth-century palace, sought to legitimize the city's social strivings by evoking a history the city did not truly possess.

5. Actual events in the history of life on Earth are accidental in that any outcome embodies just one possibility among millions; yet each outcome can be rationally interpreted.

6. Although some of her fellow scientists decried the unorthodox laboratory methodology that others found innovative, unanimous praise greeted her experimental results: at once pioneering and unexceptionable.

7. Early critics of Emily Dickinson's poetry mistook for simplemindedness the surface of artlessness that in fact she constructed with such cunning.

90.04 V

1. This project is the first step in a long-range plan of research whose ultimate goal, still many years off, is the creation of a new prototype.

2. Eric was frustrated because, although he was adept at making lies sound plausible, when telling the truth, he lacked the power to make himself believed.

3. In certain forms of discourse such as the parable, the central point of a message can be effectively communicated even though this point is not explicit.

4. Always circumspect, she was reluctant to make judgments, but once arriving at a conclusion, she was intransigent in its defense.

5. The techniques now available to livestock breeders will continue to be used, but will probably be supplemented by new ones under development.

6. Any population increase beyond a certain level necessitates greater recourse to vegetable foods; thus, the ability of a society to choose meat over cereals always arises, in part, from limiting the number of people.

7. Ethnologists are convinced that many animals survive through learning-but learning that is dictated by their genetic programming, learning as thoroughly stereotyped as the most instinctive of behavioral responses.

90.10 I

1. Nonviolent demonstrations often create such tensions that a community that has constantly refused to acknowledge its injustices is forced to correct them: the injustices can no longer be ignored.

2. Since 1813 reaction to Jane Austen's novels has oscillated between adoration and condescension; but in general later writers have esteemed her works more highly than did most of her literary admirers.

3. There are, as yet, no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has been exhausted to the extent that they no longer interest ecologists.

4. Under ethical guidelines recently adopted by the National Institutes of Health, human genes are to be manipulated only to correct diseases for which alternative treatments are unsatisfactory.

5. It was her view that the country's problems had been exacerbated by foreign technocrats, so that to invite them to come back would be counterproductive.

6. Winsor McCay, the cartoonist, could draw with incredible virtuosity: his comic strip about Little Nemo was characterized by marvelous draftsmanship and sequencing.

7. The actual rigidity of Wilson's position was always betrayed by his refusal to compromise after having initially agreed to negotiate a settlement.

90.10 IV

1. The senator's reputation, though shaken by false allegations of misconduct, emerged from the ordeal unscathed.

2. This poetry is not provincial; it is more likely to appeal to an international audience than is poetry with strictly regional themes.

3. Experienced employers recognize that business students who can assimilate different points of view are ultimately more effective as managers than are the brilliant and original students who adhere dogmatically to their own formulations.

4. Poe's insightful reviews of contemporary fiction, which often find great merit in otherwise

unappreciated literary gems, must make us respect his critical judgment in addition to his well-known literary talent.

5. The significance of the Magna Carta lies not in its specific provisions. but in its broader impact: it made the king subject to the law.

6. The theory of cosmic evolution states that the universe, having begun in a state of simplicity and homogeneity, has differentiated into great variety.

7. Not wishing to appear, presumptuous the junior member of the research group refrained from venturing any criticism of the senior members' plan for dividing up responsibility for the entire project.

91.02 II

1. The Chinese, who began systematic astronomical and weather observations shortly after the ancient Egyptians, were assiduous record-keepers, and because of this, can claim humanity's longest continuous documentation of natural events.

2. Because many of the minerals found on the ocean floor are still plentiful on land, where mining is relatively inexpensive, mining the ocean floor has yet to become a profitable enterprise.

3. The valedictory address, as it has developed in American colleges and universities over the years, has become a very strict form, a literary genre that permits very little deviation.

4. A human being is quite a frail creature, for the gloss of rationality that covers his or her fears and insecurity is thin and often easily breached.

5. Although the passage of years has softened the initially hostile reaction to his poetry, even now only a few independent observers praise his works.

6. Unlike philosophers who constructed theoretically ideal states, she built a theory based on experience; thus, although her constructs may have been inelegant, they were empirically sound.

7. Once a duckling has identified a parent, the instinctive bond becomes a powerful channel for additional learning since, by mimicking the parent, the duckling can acquire further information that is not genetically transmitted.

91.02 V

1. Nearly two-thirds of the country's mushroom crop is produced by 160 growers in a single county, the greatest concentration of growers anywhere.

2. The disjunction between educational objectives that stress independence and individuality and those that emphasize obedience to rules and cooperation with others reflects a conflict that arises from the values on which these objectives are based.

3. It is irresponsible for a government to fail to do whatever it can to eliminate a totally preventable disease.

4. Dramatic literature often recapitulates the history of a culture in that it takes as its subject matter the important events that have shaped and guided the culture.

5. The legislators of 1563 realized the futility of trying to regulate the flow of labor without securing its reasonable remuneration, and so the second part of the statute dealt with establishing wages.

6. Scientists who are on the cutting edge of research must often violate common sense and make seemingly absurd assumptions because existing theories simply do not explain newly observed phenomena.

7. The deference with which the French aristocracy greeted the middle-class Rousseau was all the more remarkable because he showed so little respect for them.

91.04 I

1. Because they had expected the spacecraft Voyager 2 to be able to gather data only about the planets

Jupiter and Saturn, scientists were elated by the wealth of information it sent back from Neptune twelve years after leaving Earth.

2. Wearing the latest fashions was exclusively the prerogative of the wealthy until the 1850's, when mass production, aggressive entrepreneurs, and the availability of the sewing machine made them accessible to the middle class.

3. Linguists have now confirmed what experienced users of ASL-American Sign Language-have always implicitly known: ASL is a grammatically complete language in that it is capable of expressing every possible syntactic relation.

4. He was regarded by his followers, as something of a martinet, not only because of his insistence on strict discipline, but also because of his rigid adherence to formal details.

5. The influence of the Titnaeus among early philosophical thinkers was pervasive, if only because it was the sole dialogue available in Europe for almost 1,000 years.

6. The Gibsons were little given to conformism in any form; not one of them was afraid of singularity, of being and seeming unlike their neighbors.

7. Even after safeguards against the excesses of popular sovereignty were included, major figures in the humanistic disciplines remained skeptical about the proposal to extend suffrage to the masses.

91.04 IV

1. A recent survey shows that, while ninety-four percent of companies conducting management-training programs open them to women, women are participating in only seventy-four percent of those programs.

2. Thomas Paine, whose political writing was often flamboyant, was in private life a surprisingly simple man: he lived in rented rooms, ate little, and wore drab clothes.

3. Their hierarchy of loyalties is first to oneself, next to kin, then to fellow tribe members, and finally to compatriots.

4. The belief that science destroys the arts appears to be supported by historical evidence that the arts have flourished only when the sciences have been neglected.

5. The action and charades in a melodrama can be so immediately classified that all observers can hiss the villain with an air of smug but enjoyable condescension.

6. In the design of medical experiments, the need for random assignment of treatments to patients must be reconciled with the difficulty of persuading patients to participate in an experiment in which their treatment is decided by chance.

7. Though dealers insist that professional art dealers can make money in the art market, even an insider's knowledge is not enough: the art world is so fickle that stock-market prices are predictable by comparison.

91.10 I

1. Contrary to the popular conception that it is powered by conscious objectivity, science often operates through error, happy accidents, hunches and persistence in spite of mistakes.

2. The transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic era is viewed by most art historians as a regression, because, instead of an increasingly sophisticated pictorial art, we find degeneration.

3. Salazar's presence in the group was so reassuring to the others that they lost most of their earlier trepidation; failure, for them, became all but unthinkable.

4. The eradication of pollution is not merely a matter of aesthetics, though the majestic beauty of nature is indeed an important consideration.

5. Despite an agreement between labor and management to keep the print and electronic media apprised of developments, the details of the negotiations were withheld from all but a few journalists from the major metropolitan newspapers.

6. Word order in a sentence was much freer in Old French than it is in French today, this license disappeared as the French language gradually lost its case distinctions.

7. Whereas biologists must maintain a disinterested attitude toward the subjects of their research, social scientists must, paradoxically, combine personal involvement and scholarly detachment.

91.10 II

1. Read's apology to Heflin was not exactly abject and did little to resolve their decades-long quarrel, which had been as acrimonious as the academic etiquette of scholarly journals permitted.

2. Certain weeds that flourish among rice crops resist detection until maturity by imitating the seedling stage in the rice plant's life cycle, thereby remaining indistinguishable from the rice crop until the flowering stage.

3. Although the architect's concept at first sounded too visionary to be practicable, his careful analysis of every aspect of the project convinced the panel that the proposed building was indeed, structurally feasible.

4. Gould claimed no technical knowledge of linguistics, but only a hobbyist's interest in language.

5. An obvious style, easily identified by some superficial quirk, is properly decried as a mere mannerism, whereas a complex and subtle style resists reduction to a formula.

6. If efficacious new medicines have side effects that are commonly observed and unremarkable, such medicines are too often considered safe, even when laboratory tests suggest caution.

7. Although a few delegates gave the opposition's suggestions a vitriolic response, most greeted the statement of a counterposition with civility.

92.02 III

1. By idiosyncratically refusing to dismiss an insubordinate member of his staff, the manager not only contravened established policy, but he also jeopardized his heretofore good chances for promotion.

2. Congress is having great difficulty developing a consensus on energy policy, primarily because the policy objectives of various members of Congress rest on such divergent assumptions.

3. The widespread public shock at the news of the guilty verdict was caused partly by biased news stories that had predicted acquittal

4. The idealized paintings of nature produced in the eighteenth century are evidence that the medieval fear of natural settings had been exorcised and that the outdoors now could be enjoyed without trepidation.

5. Some paleontologists debate whether the diversity of species has increased since the Cambrian period, or whether imperfections in the fossil record only suggest greater diversity today, while in actuality there has been either stasis or decreased diversity.

6. Manipulating laboratory tissue cultures with hormones is one thing; using hormones to treat human beings, however, is contingent on whether hormones that work in the laboratory can affect whole organisms, and in predictable ways.

7. The astronomer and feminist Maria Mitchell's own prodigious activity and the vigor of the Association for the Advancement of Women during the 1870's belie any assertion that feminism was quiescent in that period.

92.02 VI

1. Only by ignoring decades of mismanagement and inefficiency could investors conclude that a fresh infusion of cash would provide anything more than a temporary solution to the company's financial woes.

2. Although the discovery of antibiotics led to great advances in clinical practice, it did not represent a panacea for bacterial illness, for there are some bacteria that cannot be effectively treated with


3. A misconception frequently held by novice writers is that sentence structure mirrors thought: the more convoluted the structure, the more complicated the ideas.

4. Jones was unable to recognize, the contradictions in his attitudes that were obvious to everyone else; even the hint of an untruth was repugnant to him, but he courted serious trouble by always cheating on his taxes.

5. Even though the general's carefully qualified public statement could hardly be faulted, some people took exception to it.

6. Though feminist in its implications, Yvonne Rainer's 1974 film antedated the filmmaker's active involvement in feminist politics.

7. The chances that a species will persist are reduced if any vital function is restricted to a single kind of organ; redundancy by itself possesses an enormous survival advantage.

92.04 I

1. It was a war the queen and her more prudent counselors wished to avoid if they could and were determined in any event to postpone as long as possible.

2. Despite many decades of research on the gasification of coal, the data accumulated are not directly applicable to environmental questions; thus a new program of research specifically addressing such questions is warranted.

3. Unlike other creatures, who are shaped largely by their immediate environment, human beings are products of a culture accumulated over centuries, yet one that is constantly being transformed by massive infusions of new information from everywhere.

4. Edith Wharton sought in her memoir to present herself as having achieved a harmonious wholeness by having reconciled the conflicting elements of her life.

5. In their preface, the collection's editors plead that certain of the important articles they omitted were published too recently for inclusion, but in the case of many such articles, this excuse is not valid.

6. The labor union and the company's management, despite their long history of unfailingly acerbic disagreement on nearly every issue, have nevertheless reached an unexpectedly swift, albeit still tentative, agreement on next year's contract.

7. In response to the follies of today's commercial and political worlds, the author does not express inflamed indignation, but rather affects the detachment and smooth aphoristic prose of an

eighteenth-century wit.

92.04 IV

1. Vaillant, who has been Particularly interested in the means by which people attain mental health, seems to be looking for definitive answers: a way to close the book on at least a few questions about human nature.

2. The well-trained engineer must understand fields as diverse as physics, economics, geology, and sociology; thus, an overly narrow engineering curriculum should be avoided.

3. Although supernovas are among the most luminous of cosmic events, these stellar explosions are often hard to detect, either because they are enormously far away or because they are dimmed by intervening dust and gas clouds.

4. During the widespread fuel shortage, the price of gasoline was so excessive that suppliers were generally thought to be gouging the consumer.

5. Art incorporates science, but that does not mean that the artist must also be a scientist; an artist

uses the fruits of science but need not understand the theories from which they derive.

6. Imposing steep fines on employers for on-the-job injuries to workers could be an effective incentive to creating a safer workplace, especially in the case of employers with poor safety records.

7. Literature is inevitably a distorting rather than a neutral medium for the simple reason that writers interpose their own vision between the reader and reality.

92.10 II

1. A good doctor knows that knowledge about medicine will continue to change and that, therefore, formal professional training can never be an absolute guide to good practice.

2. Foucault's rejection of the concept of continuity in Western thought, though radical, was not unique; he had counterparts in the United States who, without knowledge of his work, developed parallel ideas.

3. In retrospect. Gordon's students appreciated her enigmatic assignments, realizing that such

assignments were specifically designed to stimulate original thought rather than to review the content of her course.

4. In sharp contrast to the intense idealism of the young republic, with its utopian faith in democracy and hopes for eternal human progress, recent developments suggest a mood of almost unrelieved cynicism.

5. Old age, even in cultures where it is venerated, is often viewed with ambivalence.

6. Unlike the easily studied neutral and ionized materials that compose the primary disk of the Milky Way itself, the components of the region surrounding our galaxy have proved more resistant to study.

7. Although normally diffident, Alison felt so strongly about the issue that she put aside her reserve and spoke up at the committee meeting.

92.10 V

1. Contrary to the antiquated idea that the eighteenth century was a tranquil island of elegant assurance, evidence reveals that life for most people was filled with uncertainty and insecurity.

2. The insecticide proved counterproductive, by killing the weak adults of a species, it assured that the strong ones would mate among themselves and produce offspring still more resistant to its effects.

3. Many industries are so beleaguered by the impact of government sanctions, equipment failure, and foreign competition that they are beginning to rely on industrial psychologists to salvage what remains of employee morale.

4. Fashion is partly a search for a new language to discredit the old, a way in which each generation can repudiate its immediate predecessor and distinguish itself.

5. Although remorse is usually thought to spring from regret for having done something wrong, it may be that its origin is the realization that one's own nature is irremediably flawed.

6. Numerous historical examples illustrate both the overriding influence that scientists' prejudices have on their interpretation of data and the consequent impairment of their intellectual objectivity.

7. From the outset, the concept of freedom of the seas from the proprietary claims of nations was challenged by a contrary notion-that of the enclosure of the oceans for reasons of national security and profit.

93.02 III

1. The corporation expects only modest increases in sales next year despite a yearlong effort to revive its retailing business.

2. No computer system is immune to a virus, a particularly malicious program that is designed to infect and electronically damage the disks on which data are stored.

3. Recent research indicates that a system of particles which has apparently decayed to randomness from an ordered state can be returned to that state; thus the system exhibits a kind of memory of its earlier


4. A number of writers who once greatly disparaged the literary critic have recently recanted, substituting approbation for their former criticism.

5. She writes across generational lines, making the past so vivid that our belief that the present is the true locus of experience is undermined.

6. Individual freedom of thought should be protected more absolutely than individual freedom of action, given that the latter, though also desirable, must be subject to the limits imposed by the rights and freedom of others.

7. Their piety was expressed in quotidian behavior: they worshipped regularly, according all the regenerative processes of nature respect, and even awe.

93.02 VI

1. My family often found others laughable, but I learned quite early to be polite while people were present, laughing only later at what was funny and mocking what to us seemed bizarre.

2. The technical know-how, if not the political commitment appears already at hand to feed the world's exploding population and so to eradicate at last the ancient scourges of malnutrition and famine.

3. In small farming communities, accident victims rarely sue or demand compensation: transforming a personal injury into a claim against someone else is viewed as an attempt to elude responsibility for one's own actions.

4. Dominant interests often benefit most from elimination of governmental interference in business, since they are able to take care of themselves if left alone.

5. The "impostor syndrome" often afflicts those who fear that true self-disclosure will lower them in others' esteem; rightly handled, however, candor may actually enhance one's standing.

6. The pungent verbal give-and-take among the characters makes the novel lively reading, and this very spiritedness suggests to me that some of the opinions voiced may be the author's.

7. The fortresslike facade of the Museum of Cartoon Art seems calculated to remind visitors that the comic strip is an art form that has often been assailed by critics.

93.04 III

1. The fact that a theory is plausible does not necessarily ensure its scientific truth, which must be established by unbiased controlled studies.

2. It is difficult to distinguish between the things that charismatic figures do spontaneously and those that are carefully contrived for effect.

3. The development of containers, possibly made from bark or the skins of animals, although this is a matter of conjecture, allowed the extensive sharing of forage foods in prehistoric human societies.

4. Although the young violinist's steady performance, with the orchestra demonstrated his technical competence. his uninspired style and lack of interpretive maturity labeled him as a novice musician rather than as a truly accomplished performer.

5. Even though political editorializing was not forbidden under the new regime, journalists still experienced discreet, though perceptible, governmental pressure to limit dissent.

6. The trick for Michael was to conjure for his son an illusory orderliness; only alone at night, when the boy was asleep, could Michael acknowledge the chaos he kept hidden from his son.

7. The sumptuous costumes of Renaissance Italy, with their gold and silver embroidery and figured brocades, were the antithesis of Spanish sobriety, with its dark muted colors, plain short capes, and high collars edged with small ruffs.

93.04 IV

1. According to the newspaper critic, the performances at the talent contest last night varied from acceptable to excellent.

2. For more than a century, geologists have felt comfortable with the idea that geological processes, although very slow, are also steady and so are capable of shaping he Earth, given enough dine.

3. While not teeming with the colorfully obvious forms of life that are found in a tropical rain forest, the desert is host to a surprisingly large number of species.

4. Speakers and listeners arc often at odds: language that is easy for the receiver to understand is often difficult to produce, and that which is easily formulated can be hard to comprehend.

5. The current demand for quality in the schools seems to ask not for the development of informed and active citizens, but for disciplined and productive workers with abilities that contribute to civic life only indirectly, if at all.

6. Because of its lack of theaters, the city came, ironically, to be viewed as an unimpressed theater town, and that reputation led entrepreneurs to believe that it would be shrewd to build new theaters there.

7. He felt it would be unrealistic, in view of the intense turmoil that would likely follow, to make the sacrifice required in order to gain such little advantage.

93.04 VI

1. The academic education offered to university students is essential and must not be compromised, but that does not mean universities should neglect the extracurricular, yet still important, aspects of university life.

2. To understand fully the impact of global warming on the environment, one must recognize that the components of the problem are linked and, therefore, a change in any one component will affect the others.

3. Although the Impressionist painters appeared to earlier art historians to be unstudied in their methods, recent analyses of their brushwork suggest the contrary that, in fact, their technique was quite sophisticated.

4. Increased governmental alarm about global warming reflects the concerti among scientists that such warming is occurring, though when to expect major effects is still in dispute.

5. For someone as laconic as she, who preferred to speak only when absolutely necessary, his relentless chatter was completely maddening.

6. Future generations will probably consider current speculations about humanity's place in the universe to be marred by omissions and errors; even rigorous scientific views change, sometimes overnight.

7. Marshal Philippe Pertain, unlike any other French citizen of this century, has been, paradoxically, the object of both great veneration and great contempt.

93.10 III

1. In some cultures the essence of magic is its traditional integrity; it can be efficient only if it has been transmitted without loss from primeval times to the present practitioner.

2. Although skeptics say financial problems will probably prevent our establishing a base on the Moon. Supporters of the project remain enthusiastic, saying that human curiosity should overcome such pragmatic constraints.

3. Before the Second World War, academics still questioned whether the body of literature produced in the United States truly constituted a national literature, or whether such literature was only a provincial branch of English literature.

4. Many more eighteenth-century novels were written by women than by men, but this dominance has, until

very recently, been regarded merely as a statistical fact, a bit of arcane knowledge noted only by bibliographers.

5. All beneficial biological traits fall into one of two categories: those giving their possessors greater control over the environment and those rendering them more independent of it.

6. One of archaeology's central dilemmas is how to reconstruct the intricacies of complex ancient societies from meager and often equivocal physical evidence.

7. Just as the authors' book on eels is often a key text for courses in marine vertebrate zoology, their ideas on animal development and phylogeny inform teaching in this area.

93.10 V

1. What is most important to the monkeys in the sanctuary is that they are a group; this is so because primates are inveterately social and build their lives around each other.

2. Often the difficulties of growing up in the public eye cause child prodigies to retire from the world of achievement before reaching adulthood: happily, they sometimes later return to competition and succeed brilliantly.

3. In scientific studies, supporting evidence is much more satisfying to report than are discredited hypotheses, but, in fact, the detection of errors is more likely to be useful than is the establishment of probable truth.

4. Professional photographers generally regard inadvertent surrealism in a photograph as a curse rather than a blessing; magazine photographers, in particular, consider themselves fortunate to the extent that they can minimize its presence in their photographs.

5. Marison was a scientist of unusual insight and imagination who had startling success in discerning new and fundamental principles well in advance of their general recognition.

6. Unenlightened authoritarian manage rarely recognize a crucial reason for the low levels of serious conflict among members of democratically run work groups: a modicum of tolerance for dissent often prevents schism.

7. Carruthers' latest literary criticism belies her reputation for trenchant commentary; despite its intriguing title and the fulsome praise on its dust jacket, it is nothing more than a collection of platitudes.

94.02 II

1. If those large publishers that respond solely to popular literary trends continue to dominate the publishing market, the initial publication of new writers will depend on the writers' willingness to cater to popular tastes.

2. Candidates who oppose the present state income tax must be able to propose alternate ways to continue the financing of state operations.

3. Although strong legal remedies for nonpayment of child support are available, the delay and expense associated with these remedies make it imperative to develop other options.

4. Calculus, though still indispensable to science and technology, is no longer preeminent; it has an equal partner called discrete mathematics.

5. Demonstrating a mastery of innuendo, he issued several veiled insults in the course of the evening's conversation.

6. The maintenance of gamblers' unsuccessful decision strategies is one function of the illusions built into games of chance in order to misguide players and take their money.

7. The natures of social history and lyric poetry are antithetical, social history always recounting the evanescent and lyric poetry speaking for unchanging human nature, that timeless essence beyond fashion

and economics.

94.02 VI

1. Exposure to low-intensity gamma radiation slows the rate of growth of the spoilage microorganisms in food in much the same way that the low heat used in pasteurization inhibits the spoilage action of the microorganisms in milk.

2. In today's world, manufacturers' innovations are easily copied and thus differences between products are usually slight; advertisers, therefore, are forced to exaggerate these differences in order to suggest the uniqueness of their clients' products.

3. To avoid annihilation by parasites, some caterpillars are able to curtail periods of active growth by prematurely entering a dormant state, which is characterized by the suspension of feeding.

4. Prior to the work of Heckel, illustrations of fish were often beautiful but rarely precise; this fact, combined with the inexact nature of most nineteenth-century taxonomic descriptions, often kept scientists from recognizing differences between species.

5. Experienced and proficient, Susan is a good, reliable trumpeter her music is often more satisfying than Carol's brilliant but erratic playing.

6. In the midst of so many evasive comments, this forthright statement, whatever its intrinsic merit, plainly stands out as an anomaly.

7. Marshall's confrontational style could alienate almost anyone: he even antagonized a board of directors that included a number of his supporters and that had a reputation for not being easily provoked.

94.04 I

1. Paradoxically, England's colonization of North America was undermined by its success: the increasing prosperity of the colonies diminished their dependence upon, and hence their loyalty to, their home country.

2. Although Harry, Stack Sullivan is one of the most influential social scientists of this century, his ideas are now so commonplace in our society that they seem almost banal.

3. Her first concert appearance was disappointingly perfunctory and derivative, rather than the inspired performance in the innovative style we had anticipated.

4. As is often the case with collections of lectures by different authors, the book as a whole is disconnected, although the individual contributions are outstanding in themselves.

5. Although some consider forcefulness and persistence to be two traits desirable to the same degree, I think that making a violent effort is much less useful than maintaining a steady one.

6. The popularity of pseudoscience and quack medicines in the nineteenth century suggests that people were very credulous but the gullibility of the public today makes citizens of yesterday look like hard-nosed skeptics.

7. Though extremely reticent about his own plans, the man allowed his associates no such privacy and was constantly soliciting information about what they intended to do next.

94.04 IV

1. Having sufficient income of her own constituted for Alice a material independence that made possible a degree of security in her emotional life as well.

2. Copyright and patent laws attempt to encourage innovation by ensuring that inventors are paid for creative, so it would be ironic if expanded protection under these laws discouraged entrepreneurial innovation by increasing fears of lawsuits.

3. Unfortunately, since courses in nutrition are often neglected in medical school curriculums. a family

physician is unlikely to be an enlightening source of general information about diet.

4. The success of science is due in great part to its emphasis on objectivity: the reliance on evidence rather than preconceptions and the willingness to draw conclusions even when they conflict with traditional beliefs.

5. James had idolized the professor so much for so long that even after lunching with her several times he remained quite inhibited in her presence, and as a result, he could not really be himself.

6. However original they might be, Roman poets were bound to have some favorite earlier author whom they would emulate.

7. Human nature and long distances have made exceeding the speed limit a cherished tradition in the state, so the legislators surprised no one when, acceding to public practice, they rejected increased penalties for speeding.

94.10 II

1. Though environmentalists have targeted some herbicides as potentially dangerous, the manufacturers, to the environmentalists' dismay, defend the use of these herbicides on lawns.

2. To believe that a culture's achievement can be measured by the volume of its written material requires one to accept that a page of junk mail is as valuable as a page of great literature.

3. Given the failure of independent laboratories to replicate the results of Dr. Johnson's experiment, only the most partisan supporters of her hypothesis would be foolish enough to claim that it had been adequately verified.

4. Roman historians who study the period 30 B.C. to A.D. 180 can applaud the "Augustan peace" only by failing to recognize that this peace in many respects resembled that of death.

5. Although Tom was aware that it would be impolitic to display annoyance publicly at the sales conference, he could not hide his irritation with the client's unreasonable demands.

6. It is no accident that most people find Davis' book disturbing, for it is calculated to undermine a number beliefs they have long cherished.

7. One virus strain that may help gene therapists cure genetic brain diseases can enter the peripheral nervous system and travel to the brain, obviating the need to inject the therapeutic virus directly into the brain.

94.10 VI

1. Artificial light enhances the respiratory activity of some microorganisms in the winter but not in the summer, in part because in the summer their respiration is already at its peak and thus cannot be increased.

2. Doreen justifiably felt she deserved recognition for the fact that the research institute had been returned to a position of preeminence, since it was she who had directed the transformation.

3. The prospects of discovering new aspects of the life of a painter as thoroughly studied as Vermeer are not, on the surface encouraging.

4. Even those siblings whose childhood was dominated by familial feuding and intense rivalry for their parents' affection can nevertheless develop congenial and even intimate relationships with each other in their adult lives.

5. Because they have been so dazzled by the calendars and the knowledge of astronomy possessed by the Mayan civilization, some anthropologists have overlooked achievements like the sophisticated carved calendar sticks of the Winnebago people.

6. Aptly enough, this work so imbued with the notion of changing times and styles has been constantly revised over the years, thereby reflecting its own mutability.

7. The sea was not an obstacle to the diffusion of the windmill; on the contrary, while the concept of the new invention passed quickly from seaport to seaport, it made little headway inland.

95.04 I

1. A computer program can provide information in ways that force students to participate in learning instead of being merely recipients of knowledge.

2. The form and physiology of leaves vary according to the environment in which they develop: for example, leaves display a wide range of adaptations to different degrees of light and moisture.

3. One theory about intelligence sees language as the logical structure underlying thinking and insists that since animals are mute, they must be mindless as well.

4. Though impulsive in her personal life, Edna St. Vincent Millay was nonetheless disciplined about her work, usually producing several pages of complicated rhyme in a day.

5. The children's mercurial natures were in sharp contrast to the even-tempered dispositions of their parents.

6. By identifying scientific rigor with a quantitative approach, researchers in the social sciences may often have limited their scope to those narrowly circumscribed topics that are well suited to quantitative methods.

7. As early as the seventeenth century, philosophers called attention to the problematic character of the issue, and their twentieth-century counterparts still approach it with uneasiness.

95.04 IV

1. Since most if not all learning occurs through comparisons, relating one observation to another, it would be strange indeed if the study of other cultures did not also illuminate the study of our own.

2. The new specialization of knowledge has created barriers between people: everyone believes that his or her subject cannot and possibly should not be understood by others.

3. If a species of parasite is to survive, the host organisms must live long enough for the parasite to reproduce; if the host species becomes extinct, so do its parasites.

4. The author argues for serious treatment of such arts as crochet and needlework, finding in too many art historians a cultural blindness traceable to their prejudice against textiles as a medium in which women artists predominate.

5. Those who fear the influence of television deliberately underplay its persuasive power, hoping that they might keep knowledge of its potential to effect social change from being widely disseminated.

6. Because the high seriousness of their narratives resulted in part from their metaphysics, Southern writers were praised for their philosophical bent.

7. Far from being unctuous, Pat was always loath to appear acquiescent.

95.10 II

1. Though regrettable to some degree, telling a small lie sometimes enables one to avoid harming another's feelings.

2. Perhaps because scientists have been so intrigued by dogs' superior senses of smell and hearing, researchers have long underestimated their eyesight, assuming that they inhabit a drab, black-and-white world, devoid of color.

3. Despite a string of dismal earnings reports, the two-year-old strategy to return the company to profitability is beginning to work.

4. The President reached a decision only after lengthy deliberation, painstakingly weighing the divergent opinions expressed by cabinet members.

5. Although just barely adequate as a writer of lucid prose, Jones was an extremely capable editor who worked superbly with other writers in helping them improve the clarity of their writing.

6. The accusations we bring against others should be warnings to ourselves; they should not justify complacency and easy judgments on our part concerning our own moral conduct.

7. Although the meanings of words may necessarily be liable to change, it does not follow that the lexicographer is therefore unable to render spelling, in a great measure, constant.

95.10 VI

1. Some activists believe that because the healthcare system has become increasingly unresponsive to those it serves, individuals must circumvent bureaucratic impediments in order to develop and promote new therapies.

2. The acts of vandalism that these pranksters had actually perpetrated were insignificant compared with those they had contemplated but has not attempted.

3. Though one cannot say that Michelangelo was an impractical designer, he was, of all nonprofessional architects known, the most adventurous in that he was the least constrained by tradition or precedent.

4. Before adapting to changes in values, many prefer to resist, to defend the universally agreed-on principles that have been upheld for centuries.

5. Although the records of colonial New England are sketchy in comparison with those available in France or England, the records of other English colonies in America are even more fragmentary.

6. High software prices are frequently said to result from widespread illegal copying, although the opposite -- that high prices are the cause of the copying -- is equally plausible.

7. Because early United States writers thought that the mark of great literature was grandiosity and elegance not to be found in common speech, they avoided the vernacular.

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