江 南 大 学


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班 级: 英语1205

姓 名: 王露露

学 号: 19

Geat Expatation

By Shakespeare




Great Expatation

"Great expectations" is the British writer Charles Dickens's novel,whose aim is to educate people. The story’s background is from the 1812 Christmas Eve to the winter of 1840. The story’s protagonist orphan is PIP and it uses the means which is called autobiographical. The storyis about the three stages of Pip’s life from the age of 7. The book is full of sympathy and meticulous brushwork to shape the Little Joe, PIP and Biti, the simple kind. But the difference is, at the time, the writer have a more profound experience of social life. Sarcastic humor style past throughout the works gradually fade out.This novel shows Dickens's more mature outlook on life.

In the novel "great expectations", there are many characters, main characters are prominent.Pip, Mrs. Joe,Joe Gregory Skilling, Biddy, Hao Weixian, Estella, Jagers, Herbert, Magwitch and so on main characters’ activities constitute the whole strip line. The development process of Pip;the mystery of Pip property;the love between pip and Estella;the mystery of Estella’s story; Miss Hao Weixian’s strange experiences;Pip and Herbert’s friendship; Magwitch’s bizarre experience; Jagers's activities; Pip, Jo Gchiri and Biddy’s relationship and so on,are Intertwined. As the plot unfolds, mysteries are exposed one by one. When all were displayed in front of us, We can deeply feel the novel’s layout

Elegant and rigorous structure.

In the novel, Dickens focuses on their feelings to life and their life,he can be called the feeling realist. He focuses on contemporary themes, not deliberately fabricate be struck with fright plot,not the hero of indomitable spirit, but the object of real social life. He tried to dig the connotation, which contains the beauty and charm.

In the novel "great expectations",Pip has been the Blacksmith apprentice in countryside and lives a common live.But oneday, he received a large sum of unknown property and begun to seek his own great expatation.This the life Pip choose. No matter what kind of life has its own existence and development law, one can try to change himself, to adapt to life, but he can not change the life itself. In the novel,later, Pip went to London and had money

Although he changed his image and tried to push in the upper circles of society, in terms of his own situation, he didn’t have the conditions to become a gentleman. Therefore, life has no pity on him, he still can not be a true gentleman.

Dickens's novel showed the social function of literature. He not only to reflect the life with their own works,but also evalute and intervene the life. From the point of view of humanism, the spirit of the artist's conscience,he not just expose but also criticize the darkness of society. It had a tremendous impact on the society.

Dickens's works have always maintained loyalty to the public and the capitalist

society pessimistic. He was a bourgeois writer, a humanitarian, is also a reformist. He doesn't approve of revolution.He thinks that revolutions are too cruel and are only a personal revenge. He advocated the use of means of reform,moral influence of the power of fantasy, especially sincere warmth of little people to improve the society. He advocated universal love and sincerity,hated hypocrisy and resentment. Positive images of women he portrayed are all gentle, beautiful and kind.They sticked to the family and all have a happy life.On the contrary,the violent, vengeful, snob snobbish women always get the punishment from the life, restoring human nature because of "good guy" moving and cruel reality.

"Great expectations" has always been permeated with the theme of love:Horse always persist firmly in love to Estella,Pip and Herbert’s brotherly love,Marg Vee Ci’s love deformity but making people have hidden side of the heart on Pip and so on. The most touched us is Joe the selfless simple love.Dickens describes the relationship between the PIP and joe with the most cordial attitude. Dickens devoted a minor figure in the bottom of society good feelings by describing Qiao Dunhou’s some awkward character. In "great expectations", Joe and Biddy's wife happy life and pip pursuit of "gentleman" of life, become a strong contrast. You can see the writer’s admiration for the common people’s valuable quality and sincere feelings on the bottom of society.

Dickens's literary achievement is very high and Great Expatation’s influence on the world literature is enormous.Dickens's work in the early twentieth Century was introduced to China,and they are popular with the majority of readers. The humanitarianism,the spirit of social criticism, and superb artistic skills in his works have influence on Chinese modern novels.It is meaningful for us to read his works, especially great expatation.



论文名称: 找到自我 ,收获人生——析《远大前程》主人公匹普的成长历程

论文名称: Find ourselves, reap life——The analysis of Great expectations heroine Pip at growth course


Great Expectations is one of the representative works of Charles Dickens’, Dickens is the greatest novelist in 19th century, critical realism outstanding delegates. His novels not only a true reflection of the whole generation of life experience, but vividly reveals the mid 19th century Britain's entire social reality, the depth and breadth far beyond the contemporary most other works.

Great Expectations is an excellent of late Dickens critical realism novel which describes Pip’s great expectations of disillusion process, through the facts of the education he finally realized his buckish world pursuit of all is of no value. In order to make people better understand this works, and the more clearly see dickens' works critical realism, this paper aims at the formidable strength to his later works the great expectations, the protagonist's personality development and its influencing factors were analyzed.

Key Words: Great expectations, Dickens, Critical realism, Character development, Social reality, Charity recovery



1. Charles Dickens and His Times

2 The Plot of Great Expectations

3. The analysis of Pip at growth course

4 The Factors that Influence the Revival of Pip’s Benevolence

4.1 The Influence from Joe

4.2The Influence from Magwitch

5. Conclusion



Dickens engineers emotional effects in this book by shifting writing styles. He alternates broad effects with subtle touches. Comic exaggeration, satiric understatement, the brooding tones of melodrama, and the stern notes of tragedy all slip in and out. Although he must work through his narrator, Pip, Dickens fine-tunes the tone of Pip's voice to steer our sympathies in certain directions.

Pip's usual voice is quiet and thoughtful; he's even a little stiff and tends toward formal turns of phrase. But he also uses deadpan humor (read the opening two paragraphs); he lashes out at himself (read the end of chapter 8); every once in a while he steps aside and comments wisely on life (read the end of chapter 9). At other times (as in chapter 14) he bursts forth to describe his feelings, with long, rhythmic sentences, urgent questions, and echoing phrases.Sometimes Pip fades into the background and simply observes, so that Dickens can write scenes ready-made for the stage. Look at some of Estella and Miss Havisham's confrontations, for example; Pip records what is said, adding the actors' gestures and tones of voice, but he doesn't analyze. He doesn't need to, because the dialogue itself, like the dialogue in a TV soap opera, effectively conveys so much passion. Pip interjects comments during some scenes, such as those with the convict, where the drama lies in the twists and turns of Pip's own reactions. He treats other scenes in a vivid overview; describing Wopsle's Hamlet (chapter 31), for instance, he paraphrases what is said and tosses out jumbled details, to make it look as absurd as possible.

In some descriptive passages, Pip works slowly and carefully, anxious to get every

detail exact and then to interpret them, as when he first sees Miss Havisham's house (chapter 8). He dashes off other scenes with exaggerated, surreal comic vision, as when he's at the cheap hotel (chapter 45); or he paints a vast landscape in confident, rhythmic prose, as when he sketches the river traffic (chapter 54). These various descriptions are almost like movie shots: the slow close up, the quick take, or the majestic panoramic sweep. Dickens, of course, never saw a movie, but he instinctively used the same techniques to maximum effect.

1. Charles Dickens and His Times

Dickens is one of the world's best-loved writers, and Great Expectations may be Dickens' most autobiographical work. Although an earlier novel, David Copperfield, followed the facts of Dickens' life more closely, the narrator David seems a little too good to be true. The narrator of Great Expectations, Pip, is, in contrast, a man of many faults, who hides none of them from the reader. If Pip is a self-portrait, Dickens must have been a reservoir of inferiority complexes, guilt, and shame.

The beginning of the novel is set shortly after Dickens' birthdate (1812) in the country of his childhood--the Kentish countryside by the sea (the nearest large town is Rochester, where Miss Havisham lives). Dickens wasn't an orphan, as Pip is, but he may well have felt like one. His parents were sociable, pleasant people, but when Charles, who was the eldest boy, was nine, the Dickenses pulled up roots and moved to London to try to live more cheaply. Charles was appalled by the cramped, grubby house they lived in there, and even more ashamed when his father was arrested and taken to debtors' prison. The rest of the Dickenses were allowed to move into prison with their father, but twelve-year-old Charles had to live on his own outside.

In spite of his depression, Dickens managed to include in Great Expectations the irrepressible comedy he was known and loved for.His driving need to please his public kept him on balance. The novel's themes, however, are very serious. He writes about human nature itself, a mixture of misery, joy, hope, and despair. Dickens did not write such a profound novel because his public demanded something heavy; he wrote it because his vision of life was growing complex, and he was too great a genius to simplify it. Luckily, he was also a great enough genius to write a book that people could enjoy. Though Dickens bared his psychological problems in this novel, he was still trying to reach out to his readers, to make them see their own lives more clearly. Perhaps this is why people love Dickens--because he is so human, so honest, and so much like all of us.

2.The Plot of Great Expectations

In a village cemetery, a small boy, Pip, is accosted by a runaway convict Magwitch who demands food and a file to saw off his leg iron. Pip helped him. Not long after this, Pip is invited to the gloomy home of rich, eccentric Miss Havisham, who wants a boy to

"play" for her amusement.But Pip's real role at Miss Havisham's turns out to be as a toy for Miss Havisham's adopted daughter, Estella, who has been raised with one purpose--to break men's hearts, Pip falls in love with Estella and becomes self-conscious about his low social class and unpolished manners. From then on, his abiding dream is to be a gentleman.

Then a London lawyer, Jaggers, comes to the village to tell Pip thathe has come into a fortune from an anonymous source.Finally, he came to know that it was Magwitch who helped him. Back in London, Pip learns that Magwitch once had a baby girl, but she was abandoned by her mother. Piecing together evidence, Pip realizes with shock that Estella was that baby girl. Later, he accepting a job in an overseas branch of Herbert's office. Returning to England many years later, Pip visits Miss Havisham's house, which has been pulled down. Estella is there, too. As they walk away hand in hand, it looks as though they will finally get together.

3. The analysis of Pip at growth course

Pip is the narrator and the main character of Great Expectations and possibly also the voice of the author. If Dickens intended Pip as an autobiographical figure, it's interesting--as a sidelight on Dickens' personality--that he tried to make Pip so full of flawed qualities. And yet, despite those flaws, Pip emerges as a character we care about very much.

In a way, we feel close to Pip because he isn't trying to impress us or build up his own image; instead he confesses all his shames and fears to us. It's as though, through Pip, Dickens is working out all his worst feelings about himself. Look back over Dickens' life story and compare it to Pip's. When Dickens was working in the blacking warehouse he felt "above it," just as Pip feels above his job, as an apprentice to a blacksmith. When the other boys resented Dickens, he learned to keep to himself--just as little Pip seems to do in Mrs Wopsle's school. Dickens had one friend, Bob Fagin, whom he ungratefully looked down on, in much the same way that Pip takes for granted his village friends Biddy and Joe. Pip is also a hopeless romantic, beneath all his shyness; he remains obsessed for years with an idealized image of his beloved Estella--who's really proud and cold. In writing this, Dickens may have been chastising himself for his own infatuations with Maria Beadnell or Ellen Ternan. When Pip first receives his mysterious "expectations" and becomes a gentleman, his shyness and ambition combine to make him a snob; Dickens may be critically reliving his own reaction when he was suddenly hit with fame and fortune at a young age. Dickens sometimes seems so close to Pip, it's hard for him to give Pip his own identity. Pip is highly impressionable and sensitive to criticism, and so he changes easily--more than other characters in the book. (Some other characters seem to change, but read them carefully--it could just be Pip's attitude to them that's changing.) Throughout the book, Pip struggles to form his identity; he doesn't even seem to have a real name. The first thing we learn about him is that he himself shortened his name, Philip Pirrip, to the insignificant nickname Pip. Philip Pirrip was also his father's name, but the name feels alien to Pip because he never knew his father (some readers have seen the whole book as being Pip's search for a father--which is, after all, another way of searching for identity). When Pip receives his mysterious fortune, one of the terms is that he will always be called

"Mr. Pip"--a title that seems vain and ridiculous, as though mocking the idea that a "pip" should ever become important. Even Pip's best friend Herbert Pocket immediately changes Pip's name to "Handel," as though by giving Pip a new name he'll help him change into the gentleman he wants to be.

While we're trying to figure out who Pip really is, we have to remember that he's the narrator--so we can't always trust what he says about himself. (If you wrote a description of yourself, do you really think it would show the whole picture?) Pip is intelligent, intuitive, and, even as a child, unusually observant of the adult world around him. But he has certain blind spots when it comes to himself. He's always telling us how bad he was, how guilty he felt, how everything was his fault, and how sure he was that he was going to be caught and punished. As you read the book, try from time to time to look at Pip as another character might. Set up a moral scale of all the characters, and see how Pip fits in. Look especially at his good qualities--tact, sensitivity, imagination, modesty. You'll have to keep reminding yourself of them, because Pip never mentions them.

Why is Pip so hard on himself? Some readers say it stems from his early upbringing, surrounded by unloving adults like his sister Mrs. Joe, whose philosophy is "spare the rod and spoil the child." Others point out that Pip is telling us all this years later--long after the events in the book--from the perspective of a middle-aged man, who is being critical of his own past mistakes.

Other readers think Pip isn't being harsh on himself at all—just honest, owning up to faults we all have. Though he seems like a nasty little kid and an unpleasant adolescent, these readers point out, Dickens is just giving us a realistic portrait of child psychology. Most small children, like Pip, are likely to lie, cheat, and steal to get around adults; they don't automatically love their elders and they may hate going to school or to church. (If you've ever been a babysitter, you know that all little kids aren't sweet angels.) And adolescents are often like Pip is: painfully self-conscious, critical of their parents and their parents' friends, unsatisfied with their own daily lives, easily taken in by glamorous but undependable friends. This is all just part of growing up. Watching Pip go through these various stages, we may remember the way we acted at the same age--and wince at the memory.

Pip does seem to view the universe in pretty simple moral terms. Things are either good or bad, noble or common, beautiful or ugly. This is in part a result of his romantic nature, which wants everything in the world to be lovely and perfect and feels frustrated when things fall short of this ideal. It's a product of his upbringing, too--he has no real moral training as a child, only strict threats of punishment, so he forms childishly harsh, absolute ideas of right and wrong for himself. This is also a fairly typical way of viewing the world when you're young, and still trying to judge the people around you. But as he grows older, Pip learns that other qualities--sympathy and forgiveness, for example--need to be used to temper moral judgments. Life isn't as simple as he wants to make it.

Pip doesn't act as if he enjoys life very much. He's a loner as a child, surrounded mostly by adults. Our first view of him is in a graveyard, musing over the tombstones, and

the fact that he seems so much at home there tells us something about the morbid streak in his personality. When he is later brought to "play" to amuse rich Miss Havisham, the idea is ironic, and yet fitting because she's a grotesque old bird herself. But Pip does seem to have fun sometimes: as a boy out on Sunday afternoons with his brother-in-law Joe; in London, with his friends Herbert Pocket or Wemmick, even with his disreputable dining society, the Finches of the Grove. Underneath his shy manner, he longs for friends, and he learns in the course of the book just how important friendship can be.

Since Pip is the narrator, his personality affects the tone of the book. We follow Pip from a solemn, solitary little boy to a melancholy middle-aged man; as he grows up, we see the events and characters of the novel through his changing eyes. When Pip is very young, he has a child's vivid imagination that visualizes the world around him as a horror story, a fairy tale, or a cartoon comedy. When Pip becomes an adolescent, he becomes more wrapped up in himself and his own self-image. After he receives his "expectations" and moves to London to become a gentleman, he carefully notes and describes how people around him act, because he's trying to learn how to behave in polite society.

Throughout these stages, Pip remains passive; things happen to him, and he reacts to them, but he doesn't do much on his own. This isn't because he's weak, however, it's mostly because he's shy. Though he tells us how strongly he feels about various people or events, we must remember that he presents a silent, noncommittal face to the world at large. Once he has learned who brought him that fortune, however, Pip finally has to break out of his shell, to take on adult responsibility, to lay plans and carry them out. He begins to ask questions instead of just observing what goes on; he also has to fight back against the forces that have molded him. As you read the novel, note these stages of Pip's development both as a person and as a narrator.

The different elements of Pip's personality seem to be constantly in conflict. For example, when he first learns that he has "expectations" of a great fortune, his mind goes off in a dozen different directions: selfishness, joy, guilt, suspicion, embarrassment, and fear of his own new future. Take special note whenever Pip describes such emotional turmoil. Because Dickens isn't trying to make Pip look good, he can show the whole range of selfish, resentful, kind, and guilty sensations we all experience. Dickens is so brutally honest that we may be tempted to say Pip's a bad person--until we search our own minds and discover that they work the same way.

4. The Factors that Influence the Revival of Pip’s Benevolence

4.1 The Influence from Joe

Joe's good-heartedness remains as a standard while Pip goes through

a rainbow of changes. But Joe is not a perfect hero. He often

appears weak, letting himself be cowed by Mrs. Joe, Pumblechook, and

even Miss Havisham--so that we're surprised when we recall he's a

brawny blacksmith. In certain scenes he seems stupid; at the

beginning of the book, he's like another child, whom young Pip feels

he's already outgrowing. Joe can be clumsy, shy, and ignorant.

Though we may squirm at the way Pip looks down on him, we too are

embarrassed by Joe's social blunders. But Joe has moments of dignity,

when his instincts make him act nobly. Because he's common and

uneducated, he proves that you don't have to be rich and well-bred

to be a true gentleman.

Perhaps Pip should follow Joe's example of goodness. But Joe can't

teach Pip how to be good, because he isn't consciously virtuous. The

few times he tries to tell Pip how to behave, his advice is so mixed

up with rambling nonsense that it's hard for Pip--or us--to take him


While Pip the narrator recognizes Joe's goodness, Pip the character

goes on treating him badly. Joe forgives Pip for this; we can admire

that, or wish he had more gumption. As you read, think: how would

you behave towards Joe Gargery? It's one thing to criticize Pip for

being a snob, and another thing to have to live with someone like


4.2The Influence from Magwitch

In the first vivid scene in the graveyard, the convict appears as a threatening, violent figure to Pip. At the same time, Dickens shows us what Pip does not recognize: the man is cold, hungry, and desolate. Throughout the book, we're unsettled by mingled fear of, and sympathy for, this man.

Notice how the convict seems like a creature from a primitive world of struggle and survival. Some readers have even seen the convict as a psychological symbol of man's evil nature, which Pip is trying to repress in himself. The convict appears on dark, stormy nights. He is often compared to an animal, especially a dog; he also seems like a cannibal, threatening to eat Pip, wolfing down his food. His greed for revenge, his lust to make money, even his gratitude to Pip, are simple savage emotions that seem out of place in Pip's social setting. (It's fitting that he makes his money on the raw frontiers of Australia--the opposite side of the world.)

At the same time, look for the convict's moments of grace. When heis recaptured, he lies to protect Pip. He is inherently noble (from what we learn of his upbringing, it seems he had no choice but to become a criminal). He swiftly stops himself from being "low," (like Joe, his morals are instinctive, not taught). He also shows great courage and

loyalty--traits Pip lacks.

The convict, like Pip, is constantly changing his name: Magwitch, Provis, Campbell. He is searching for a son, just as Pip is searching for a father. But he's a risky blend of decency and evil. Should we expect Pip to accept the convict with open arms when he walks back into Pip's life? If Pip's snobbery to Joe is the ultimate test of his weakness, Pip's ability to love the convict becomes the ultimate test of his strength.