When I Have Fears Of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues,- When I have fears that I may cease to be Before my pen has gleaned my teeming brain, Before high piled books, in charactery, Hold like rich garners the full-ripened grain; When I behold, upon the night’s starred face, Huge cloudy symbols of a high romance, And think that I may never live to trace Their shadows, with the magic hand of chance; And when I feel, fair creature of an hour! That I shall never look upon thee more, Never have relish in the faery power Of unreflecting love; —then on the shore Of the wide world I stand alone, and think Till Love and Fame to nothingness do sink.

Bent double, like old beggars under sacks, Knock-kneed, coughing like hags, we cursed through sludge,

Till on the haunting flares we turned out backs, And towards our distant rest began to trudge. Men marched asleep. Many had lost their boots, But limped on, blood-shod. All went lame, all blind;

Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots Of gas-shells dropping softly behind.

Gas! GAS! Quick, boys! - An ecstasy of fumbling Fitting the clumsy helmets just in time, But someone still was yelling out and stumbling And flound'ring like a man in fire or lime.- Dim through the misty panes and thick green light,

As under a green sea, I saw him drowning. In all my dreams before my helpless sight He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning. If in some smothering dreams, you too could pace

Behind the wagon that we flung him in, And watch the white eyes writhing in his face, His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin, If you could hear, at every jolt, the blood Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs Bitter as the cud

My friend, you would not tell with such high zest To children ardent for some desperate glory, The old Lie: Dulce et decorum est Pro patria mori. by Wilfred Owen

济慈有着肺结核病的困扰,在诗中诗人害怕自己不能够写下自己灵感喷涌而出的作品,before my pen has gleaned my teeming brain. Upon the night’s starred. 诗人的思绪开始蔓延,害怕自己向往的美好事物但却不能追逐。Of the wide world I stand alone and think till love and fame to nothingness do sink.最后诗人将自己置身于广袤的地球的边缘思考直到自己看淡爱和名声。诗人对自己不能完成向往的东西表现出了心中的害怕,把自己的向往描绘得尤为美好与奇妙,与自己不能追求的遗憾形成了对比。然而诗人最后也给了自己答案,思考直到爱与名声皆茫茫虚无,从害怕回到从容。

欧文自视为反战分子但入伍参战,诗中描绘许多战争中随处可见但却令人不寒而栗的战火纷飞,死者,伤者的可怕场景。 All went ,all blind , deaf even to the hoots, but someone still was yelling out and stumbling,the white eyes writhing in his face, blood. 诗人用将一切习以为常的平淡口吻叙述出了战争的景象。战争带给人们沉重的灾难和痛苦不仅承担生理上的痛苦还承受着心理上的苦痛,那种痛苦甚至渐渐麻痹人心。诗人犹如看到别人在自己的眼前溺死,可以想象是经历过怎样让人惧怕的场面。这两首描写有关fear and suffering 的诗歌,前一首有用到诗人的想象与现实的对比,表现被疾病困扰心中的害怕与痛苦。后一首,诗人直接描写灾难场景以及用诗人心中的产生的幻想来表现深入骨髓的那种惧怖。

第二篇:英诗的欣赏 15600字





1. 抑扬格(轻重格)Iambus:是最常见的一种格式,每个音步由一个非重读音节加一个重读音节构成。

As fair / art thou / my bon/nie lass,

So deep / in luve / am I :

And I / will luve / thee still,/ my dear, Till a` / the seas / gang dry:

Robert Burns(1759-1796): My Luve Is like a Red, Red Rose

注;art=are luve=love bonnie=beautiful a`=all gang=go


2.扬抑格(重轻格)Trochee:每个音步由一个重读音节加一个非重读音节构成。 下例中为四音步扬抑格(少一个轻音节),可标示为:-?/-?/-?/-

Tyger!/ Tyger!/ burning / bright

In the / forests / of the / night

William Blake: The Tyger

3. 抑抑扬格(轻轻重格)Anapaestic foot:每个音步由两个非重读音节加一个重读音节构成。如:三音步抑抑扬格??-/??-/??-

Like a child / from the womb,

Like a ghost / from the tomb,

I arise / and unbuild / it again.

4. 扬抑抑格(重轻轻格)Dactylic foot:每个音步由一个重读音节加两个非重读音节构成。如:两音步扬抑抑格-??/-??

?Touch her not / ?scornfully,

?Think of her / ?mournfully.

- Thomas Hood

5. 抑扬抑格(轻重轻格)Amphibrach:每个音步由一个非重读音节加一个重读音节再加一个非重读音节构成。如:三音步抑扬抑格?-?/?-?/?-?下例中最后一个音步为抑扬格。

O ?hush thee / my ?babie / thy ?sire was / a knight.




1. 尾韵:最常见,最重要的押韵方式。


I shot an arrow into the air, It fell to earth, I knew not where; For, so swiftly it flew, the sight Could not follow it in its flight. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: The Arrow and the Song 2)交叉韵:abab型。 Sunset and evening star, And one clear call for me! And may there be no moaning of the bar, When I put out to sea, Alfred Tennyson(1809-1892): Crossing the Bar 3)同韵:有的诗押韵,一韵到底,大多是在同一节诗中共用一个韵脚。 如下例就共用/i:p/为韵脚。 The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep.

Robert Frost (1874-1963): Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

2. 头韵:是指一行(节)诗中几个词开头的辅音相同,形成押韵。下例中运用/f/、/b/与/s/头韵生动写出了船在海上轻快航行的景象。

The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,

The furrow followed free,

We were the first that ever burst

Into that silent sea.

T.S. Coleridge: Rime of the Acient Mariner



Spring, the sweet spring, is the year‘s pleasant king;

Then blooms each thing, then maids dance in a ring,

Cold dath not sting, the pretty birds do sing:


Thomas Nashe(1567-1601): Spring, the Sweet Spring



1. 十四行诗(Sonnet),源于中世纪民间抒情短诗,十三、十四世纪流行于意大利,意大利彼特拉克(Petrarch)为代表人物,每行十一个音节,全诗一节八行,加一节六行,韵脚用abba,abba,cdcdcd(cdecde)。前八行提问,后六行回答。


2. 打油诗(Limericks):通常是小笑话甚至是胡诌,一般没有标题也无作者姓名,含有


1) There was a young lady of Nigger

Who smiled as she rode on a tiger;

They returned from the ride

With the lady inside,

And the smile on the face of the tiger.

2) A tutor who taught on the flute

Tried to teach two tooters to toot,

“Is it harder to toot, or

Said the two to the tutor,

To tutor two tooters to toot?“

3. 无韵体(Blank Verse):五音步抑扬格,不押韵诗体。

Across the watery bale , and shout again,

Responsive to his call, - with quivering peals,

And long halloos, and screams, and echoes loud.

Redoubled and redoubled:concourse wild

Of jocund din!?

William Wordsworth: There Was a Boy

4. 自由诗(FreeVerse):现代诗中常见的体式,长短不同的诗行存在于同一首诗中,不讲究押韵与格律,只注重诗歌所表达的意象和传递的情感。美国诗人WaltWhitman的>(Leaves of Grass)中,就采用此格式。例子见第四部分。




1. That Time of Year

That time of year thou may‘st in me behold

When yellow leaves,or none,or few, do hang

Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,

Bare ruined choirs where late the sweet birds sang,

In me thou see‘st the twilight of such day

As after sunset fadeth in the west,

When by and by black night doth take away,

Death‘s second self, that seals up all in rest.

In me thou see‘st the glowing of such fire,

That on the ashes of his youth doth lie.

As the deathbed whereon it must expire,

Consumed with that which it was nourished by.

This you perceivest, which makes thy love more strong,

To love that well which thou must leave ere long.

Notes:may‘st:may behold:see late:no long ago thou:you see’st:see

fadeth:fades doth:does seals up all at rest:彻底埋葬

thy:your perceivest: perceive ere long:before long

此诗是莎士比亚(William Shakespeare, 1564-1616)的一首十四行诗。作为英国文学巨匠,他以37部剧作和154首十四行诗屹立于世界文坛。



2. The Daffodils

I wandered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o‘er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze. Continuous as the stars that shine And twinkle on the Milky Way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay: Ten thousand saw I at a glance, Tossing their heads in sprightly dance. The waves beside them danced;but they Outdid the sparkling waves in glee: A poet could not but be gay, In such a jocund company: I gazed - and gazed - but little thought What wealth the show to me had brought: For oft, when on my couch I lie In vacant or in pensive mood, They flash upon that inward eye

Which is the bliss of solitude;

Ans then my heart with pleasure fills,

And dances with the daffodils.

Notes: a crowd, a host of: many sprightly:happy glee:joy

jocund:happy bliss:complete happiness pensive:sadly thoughtful

华兹华斯(WilliamWordsworth,1770-1850),十九世纪初英格兰北部湖区三大“湖畔派诗人”(浪漫主义)之一。此诗向我们描绘了一幅美好的自然景象,同时抒发作者对自然美景的喜欢。黄水仙据说是威尔士国花(1282年,威尔士归顺英格兰,被封公国),在英国广泛栽种,春季开花,花期不长。有许多关于黄水仙的诗歌,这首诗无疑是脱颖而出的。 全诗语言精炼,通俗易懂,四音步抑扬格,分四节(stanza),每节6行,每节押韵均为ababcc.第一节写诗人孤寂时外出散步,偶遇水仙;第二节写水仙争相开放,千姿百态;



3. Song of Myself

I celebrate myself, and sing myself,

And what I assume you shall assume,

For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.

I loafe and invite my soul,

I learn and loafe at my ease observing a spear of summer grass.

My tongue, every atom of my blood, form‘d from this soil, this air,

Born ere of parents born here from parents the same, and their parents the same, I, now thirty seven years old in perfect health begin,

Hoping to cease not till death.

Creeds and schools in abeyance,

Retiring back a while sufficed at what they are, but never forgotten.

I harbor for good or bad, I permit to speak at every hazard.

Nature without check with original energy.

Notes: a spear of: a piece of school:学说,流派 hazard:chance

abeyance:the condition of not being in use for a certain time

惠特曼(Walt Whitman,1819-1892),美国诗人。此诗选自其巨著。本文是Song of Myself 一诗的第一部分,采用自由诗体,语言接近当时的美国口语。




1.一首诗(a poem)往往包含有若干诗节(stanze),每节又分为若干行(line 或verse),每个诗行由若干音步(foot)组成,音步则是由一定数目的重读音节(arsis或ictus)和非重读音节(thesis)按照一定规律排列而成。音步的排列方式构成英诗的格律(meter 或 measure)。



a)抑扬格(Iambus; the Iambic Foot):一个音步由一个非重读音节加上一个重读音节构成。 b)扬抑格(Trochee; the Trochaic Foot):一个音步由一个重读音节加上一个非重读音节构成。 c)扬抑抑格(Dactyl):一个音步由一个重读音节加上两个非重读音节构成。

d)抑抑扬格(Anapaest; the Anapaestic Foot):一个音步由两个非重读音节加上一个重读音节构成。


e)抑扬抑格(Amphibrach; the Amphibrachy Foot):一个音步由三个音节组成,其中第一、三个音节为非重读音节,第二个音节为重读音节。



3.音步也有完整和不完整之分。诗行中每个音步的格律都相同,则为完整音步(actalectic foot);如果诗行最末一个音步缺少一个音节,则为不完整音步(cactalectic)。


一音步(monometer)、二音步(dimeter)、三音步(trimeter)、四音步(tetrameter)、五音步(pentameter)、六音步(hexameter)、七音步(heptameter)、八音步(octameter) 超过八音步的诗行在英语诗歌中较为少见。

5.音步的数目与格律结合起来,又可进一步细分为许多小类,如抑扬格一音步(iambic monometer),扬抑格一音步(trochaic monometer),抑抑扬格三音步(anapaestictrimeter),扬抑格四音步(trochaic tetrameter),抑扬格五音步(iambic pentameter),扬抑格六音步(trochaic hexameter)等。

从音步数目上看,三音步、四音步和五音步最为常见,尤其是抑扬格五抑,如十四行诗体(sonnet)、英雄双行体(heroic couplet)、素体诗或无韵诗(blank verse)等均以抑扬格五音步的诗行写成。





声音反映、服务、深化意义的原理不仅特指语音范畴,同样适用于格律变化,即节奏。诗歌除了音韵美,还有节奏美。“诗人取得音乐美的方式有二:借助于字音的选择与安排;借助于重音的安排。”前者是指通过拟声选择与意义相联系的、对应的元音与辅音;后者即诗人通过对格律的掌握,来控制思维流动的速度与进程,从而追求与意境相吻合的节奏美。 英诗的节奏是有规律性的。在英诗中,重读音节(stressed syllable)和非重读音节(unstressed syllable)按规律交替出现。重读音节和它相邻的非重读音节构成一个音步(foot)音步的交替出现,产生跌宕起伏,曲折绵延的艺术效果和美感。一个双音节以上的词有重读音节(可标记为-)和非重读音节(可标记为︶)。在句子中,不同的单词也有重轻读之分。一般来说,实义词通常重读。它包括名词,部份代词尤其是疑问代词和指示代词,形容词、数词、副词和动词。虚词通常非重读。它包括助动词、大多数的代词、连接词、冠词和前置词。分析英诗格律的第一步就是将每一诗行划分成音步,这种方法称为(scansion)。如:

I wan/dered lone/ly as/ a cloud (William Wordsworth)

这个诗行就可划分成4个音步。每行诗所包含的音步各异。含有一个音步的称为“单音步”(monometer);含有二个音步的称为“双音步”(diameter)含有三个音步的称为“三音步"(trimeter) ;四音步称为(tetrameter);五音步称为(pentameter );六音步称为(hexameter);七音步称为(heptameter)及八音步(octometer )。由于一个音步中重读音节所处的位置不同,音步有不同的类型。传统英诗的音步有七种类型。

1. 抑扬格(Iambus):是最常见的一种格式,每个音步由一个非重读音节加一个重读音节构成。

As fair / art thou / my bon/nie lass,

So deep / in luve / am I :

And I / will luve / thee still,/ my dear,

Till a` / the seas / gang dry:

Robert Burns(1759-1796): My Luve Is like a Red, Red Rose[4]



下例中为四音步扬抑格(少一个轻音节),可标示为:-︶/-︶/-︶/- Tyger!/ Tyger!/ burning / bright

In the / forests / of the / night (William Blake: The Tyger)

3. 抑抑扬格(Anapaestic foot):每个音步由两个非重读音节加一个重读音节构成。如:三音步抑抑扬格︶︶-/︶︶-/︶︶-

Like a child / from the womb,

Like a ghost / from the tomb,

I arise / and unbuild / it again.

4. 扬抑抑格(Dactylic foot):每个音步由一个重读音节加两个非重读音节构成。如:两音步扬抑抑格-︶︶/-︶︶

ˊTouch her not / ˊscornfully,

ˊThink of her / ˊmournfully. ( Thomas Hood )

5. 抑扬抑格(Amphibrach):每个音步由一个非重读音节加一个重读音节再加一个非重读音节构成。如:三音步抑扬抑格︶-︶/︶-︶/︶-︶下例中最后一个音步为抑扬格。 O ˊhush thee / my ˊbabie / thy ˊsire was / a knight.



I, saw thee weep—the big bright tear came o'er that eye of blue. (Byron) 这行诗主要以抑扬格为主。在第六,第七音节发生变格,为扬扬格。

⒎抑抑格(pyrrhic ):由两个非重读音节构成。这种类型较为罕见。

ˊOne for the/ ˊmaster, and/ˊone for the/ˊdame.


The Span of Life

The old dog barks backward without getting up

I can remember when he was a pup.




这首诗是抑抑扬格,每行有四个音节,双行押脚韵。诗歌对比了一条老狗的衰老与幼小时的活跃诗人本身选用三个音节的格律,本是快速的格律,但在第一行中却以很不一般的方式阻碍了格律的速度。在第二个音部上使用了扬扬扬格,并且还紧跟在第一个音部的重音节后面,造成了四个重音节排在一起的局面,并且所有的重音都是以辅音开始和结尾,这样读者读起来势必会感到很困难,因为口型在发出下一个音节时必须改变。其结果是这行诗不得不十分缓慢地前进,甚至于丢失了节奏,很不上口。真的,这行凋敝的诗正如那条老狗,它在欢迎主人时只空吠了两声,连头也不转回,躺着不动。但我们在读第二行时,却感到惊人的对比。其格律是正规的抑抑扬格。这里包含的辅音都很光华而柔和,其节奏很轻快、正规,每个音节都落在元音或辅音中的流音上。这样,这两行诗的进程都与字句所含的视觉意象相一致。还有一点,诗人在第一行诗里用 back 的首韵来加强前面的象声词bark,这声音突出了听觉形象,就象回声一样。如果说这一首两个诗行的诗具有强大的表现力,其主要原因就是声与意的美妙结合。


英语诗歌的押韵可以根据单词的内音素重复的部位不同而分成不同种类,最常见的有头韵(Alliteration) 、谐元韵(Assonance) 、腹韵(Consonance)、尾韵( End Rhyme)。

⒈头韵 (alliteration) 是英语语音修辞中很重要的一部分,也是英诗中常见的以音表意的手法之一,是指词首或重音节的第一个辅音字母相同。作为一种语音修辞格,头韵不仅能增强语言的节奏性、生动性,体现一种韵律美和音乐美,还能起到渲染气氛,烘托感情,加强语言表现力等效果。

⑴. I slip, I slide, I gloom, I glance,

Among my skimming swallows;

I make the netted sunbeam dance

Against my sandy shallows. (Alfred Tennyson)

这是英国诗人丁尼生的诗《小溪》(The Brook)中的一节,这首诗仅第一行就用了两对头韵“slip, slide”和“gloom, glance”来描写小溪(诗中的“我”)的一连串动作:“我滑动,我流淌,我暗淡,我闪光,”该诗还大量地运用鼻辅音(如/m/、/n/和/ /共出现13次)送气音(如/s/和/z/共出现11次)和流音(如/Ι/共出现6次),有效地烘托出小溪的静谧与安宁。第一行中的两对头韵及其清脆柔和的音节与小溪的轻快流淌、潺潺远去构成了巧妙的吻合。软辅音的交替出现,头韵的使用与ABAB式的韵脚形式相配合,使这节诗具有极强的乐感和令人耳目一新的音韵美。

⑵. The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,

The furrow followed free;

We were the first that ever burst

Into that silent sea. (Samuel Taylor Coleridge)

这是英国诗人柯尔律治的名诗《古舟子咏》(The Rime of the Ancient Mariner)中的一节,/f/、/b/与/s/头韵生动地写出了船在海上轻快航行的景象。诗人把音韵和意境巧妙地结合起来的高超技艺精妙绝伦,令人在阅读时产生无限的联想。使读者似乎感到清风拂面,看到渔船破浪前进,听到紧随船尾的波浪的声音。在上面前三行诗中,押头韵的/f/重复了7次,/f/这个摩擦送气的清辅音,模仿柔风轻涛的声响,创造了一种宁静的意境;最后两个/s/音,宛如和风吹过沉寂海面发出的咝咝声。另外blew 和 flew, first 和 burst,free 和sea 等分别押尾韵, 造成诗行悦耳动听的韵味和节奏感。


Make ready, make ready, my merry men

ourgucle ship sails the morn’-

Now ever dark, my master dear

I fear a deadly storm' (Sir Walter Scott)


⒊辅韵(Consonance)是指辅音重复(尤指位于词尾的),但前面无相同或相似的元音。同头韵一样,辅韵亦是英文诗歌中常用的一种文学手法(literary technique),试看下面的一段,体会辅韵在诗歌中的运用:

And the afternoon, the evenings, sleeps so peacefully!

Smoothed by long fingers,

Asleep…tired…or it malingers,

Stretched on the floor, here you and me.

(T.S Eliot: The Love Song of J.AlfredPrufrok)


⒋英语诗歌的行与行之间的押韵格式称韵法( Rhyming Scheme ) 。常见的有两行转韵(AABB) 、

隔行交互押韵(ABAB)、隔行押韵(ABCB) 、交错押韵(ABBA)和同韵(AAAA)。

尾韵(End Rhyme)是最重要的,也称韵脚,指的是词尾音素重复。在诗行的末尾押韵。尾韵又有不同的表现形式。


I shot an arrow into the air,

It fell to earth, I knew not where;

For, so swiftly it flew, the sight

Could not follow it in its flight.

(Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: The Arrow and the Song)

⑵交叉韵: ABAB型。

Sunset and evening star,

And one clear call for me!

And may there be no moaning of the bar,

When I put out to sea, ( Alfred Tennyson: Crossing the Bar)

⑶隔行压韵: ABCB型。这种形式在英语歌谣(Ballad)中经常见到。

O, my luve’s like a red, red rose.

That’s newly sprung in June;

O, my luve’s like a melodie

That’s sweetly played in tune. (Robert Burns: A Red, Red Rose) ⑷交错压韵:ABBA型。

Eternal Spirit of the chainless Mind!

Brightest in dungeons, Liberty! thou art:

For there thy habitation is the heart-

The heart which love of thee alone can bind; ( G.G.Byron: Sonnet on Chillon)


The woods are lovely, dark and deep,

But I have promises to keep,

And miles to go before I sleep,

And miles to go before I sleep. (Robert Frost:Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening)



1.英雄双韵体(Heroic Couplet)

英国诗歌之父乔叟(Geoffrey Chaucer)在其著作《坎特伯雷故事集》( The Canterbury Tales)中采取的诗体形式。诗行以五步抑扬格为基本节奏,每两行压韵,铿锵有力,被称为“英雄双韵体”。从乔叟后,它取代了古英语中的头韵,为后来的诗人所沿用。

2. 十四行诗(Sonnet)

源于中世纪民间抒情短诗,十三、十四世纪流行于意大利,意大利彼特拉克(Petrarch)为代表人物,每行十一个音节,全诗一节八行,加一节六行,韵脚用abba,abba,cdcdcd /cdecde。

前八行提问,后六行回答。后来,怀亚特(Thomas Wyatt,1503-1542)将十四行诗引人英国,五音步抑扬格,全诗三个四行一个二行,前三节提问,后二句结论。斯宾塞(Edmund Spenser,1552-1599)用韵脚abab,bcbc,cdcd,ee.莎士比亚(William Shakespeare,1564-1616)用韵脚abab,cdcd,dfdf,gg,称英国式或莎士比亚式。

3. 打油诗(Limericks)


4. 无韵体(Blank Verse):五音步抑扬格,不押韵诗体。

5. 自由诗(Free Verse)

现代诗中常见的体式,长短不同的诗行存在于同一首诗中,不讲究押韵与格律,只注重诗歌所表达的意象和传递的情感。美国诗人Walt Whitman的Leaves of Grass中,就采用此格式。





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