grammar(5200字)

来源:m.fanwen118.com时间:2021.3.4

Passive Voice

一. 何时使用被动语态

1. 不知道谁是动作的执行者或没有必要

如:Paper is made from wood.

The house is quite old. It was built in 1950.

He was wounded in the fight.

2. 需要强调动作的承受者时

如:Collator can't be used in the maths exam.

Books and newspapers in the reading room mustn't be taken away.

He was awarded first prize in that contest.

3为了使语气婉转,避免提及自己或对方而使用被动语态,或由于修饰的需要,使用被动语态,使句子得以更好的安排。

如:The construction of the new lab must be completed by the end of next month. Electricity is used to run machines.

二. 被动语态的构成

1. be+done 可以是被动语态,也可以是系表结构形式。被动语态中,done可以带by短语,而系表结构中done相当于adj. 不带 by短语。

如:The question is settled. (系表结构)

Such questions are settled by us. (被动语态)

The composition is well written. (系表结构)

The composition is written with great care . (被动语态)

The job was well done. (系表结构)

The job was well done by a skilled worker. (被动语态)

2. 许多verbs(broken, interested, shut, worried), 既可以用做adj.也可以在被动语态结构中做过去分词。句中如果有by,通常是被动语态。

如:I was worried about you all night. (表状态)

I was worried by mosquitoes all night. (表动作)

The glass was broken by Jack. (表动作)

The glass is broken. (表状态)

I was frightened by his ghost story.

She was frightened at the sight of a snake.

三. 不同形式的被动语态

1. 含有直宾和间宾的主动结构,变为被动时,可将其中一个宾语变为主语,另一个不动一般是主语结构的间接宾语变为被动的主语。

如:He showed me his pictures.

I was shown his pictures by him.

His pictures were shown to me by him.

Aunt made me a new dress.

I was made a new dress by aunt.

A new dress was made for me by aunt.

He sent me a birthday present.

I was sent a birthday present by him.

A birthday present was sent to me by him.

2含有复合宾语的主动句,宾补不变。

(1) 将宾语变为主语,宾补不变。

如:They call her XiaoLi. She is called XiaoLi.

He left the door open. The door war left open by him.

(2) make, let, have, hear, watch, see, feel, notice. help既动词后变做宾补的不定式一般不加to,变为被动,必须加to .

如:My brother often made me do this and that when I was young.

I was often made to do this and that by my brother when I young.

I heard her move about in her room upstairs last night.

She was heard to move about in her room upstairs last night.

Did you see Jack take away the magazine?

Was Jack seen to take away the magazine?

3. 情态动词的被动语态。是由情态V+be+p.p.构成

如:They can not find him.

He can not be found.

You must pay me for this.

I must be paid for this.

He can repair your watch.

Your watch can be repaired.

4. 短语V的被动语态

一般来讲,只有及物V才有被动语态,因为只有vt才能有动作的承受者; 但有许多由不及物动词+介词及其他词类构成的短语动词,相当与及物动词,可以有宾语。因而可以有被动语态,但应注意短语V是一个不可分割的整体。变被动时,不可丢掉构成短语的prep或adv.这样的短语有:

look after, listen to, look at, pay attention to, take care of, look forward to, make use of, etc.

如:They had put out the fire before the fire--brigade arrived.

The fire had been put out before the fire-brigade arrived.

They will set up a new public school here.

A new public school will be set up here.

5. 有些动词用主动形式表被动含义。.

如:The goods sells well. The door can't open.

6.有些词如want, need, require和 be worth后面,v-ing形式为主动,意义为被动。 如:The room needs/wants/requires cleaning.

The book is worth reading.

7.主动语态中的宾语是从句,变成被动时使用形式替代词it.

如:We know that Britain is an island country.

It's known that Britain is an island country.

The teacher said that this book has been translated into several languages

It's said that this book has been translated into several languages

8. 宾语为反身代词,相互代词及虚词it时,不用被动,只用主动。

如:I will do it myself. The man introduced himself as Mr. Wang.

9. 谓语动词是以下时,无被动。

happen, belong to, suit, fit(适合), have, let, join, fall, last(延长),cost(花费) break out(爆发)appear, burst out(迸发),hold(容纳),lack(缺乏),agree with

(同意).

10. 据说类动词:

say, consider, think, report, know, believe, suggest, understand, hope, etc. 如:It is said that… There is said to be… Sth./Sb. is said to…

11.主动形式表被动

① 感官动词:sound,taste,smell,fell,look,seem等主语是物时;

② 一些vi主动形式表被动含义

open, close, shut, read, write, translate, wash, clean, lock, sell, wear, cut, cook, eat, weigh, drink, pay, draw, etc.

③不定式to blame, to let(出租)作表语时,主动形式表被动含义

④表(sth)需要的need ,want, require等后的动名词用主动形式表被动含义 ⑤be worth后的动名词主动形式表被动含义

四. Make these sentences passive.

1. About a million tourists visit Florence each year.

2. Ten million people visited London last year.

3. Leonardo da Vinci painted the Mona Lisa.

4. Picasso didn’t paint the Mona Lisa.

5. Thousands of workers built the Great Wall of China.

The key:

1. Florence is visited by about a million tourists each year.

2. London was visited by ten million people last year.

3. The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci.

4. The Moon Lisa wasn’t painted by Picasso.

5. The Great Wall of China was built by thousands of workers.

五. Correct the wrong statements.

Example: ---- The Sagrada Fimilia was designed by an English architect (Spanish)

------ No, it wasn’t. It was designed by a Spanish architect.

1. The Louvre Art Gallery is located in Athen.( Paris)

2. Paris is situated on the coast. ( the River Seine)

3. Florence is visited by eight million tourists every year.

4. Barcelona is known as the birthplace of western civilization.

5. The Parthenon was built a hundred years ago. (2.400 years ago. ) The key:

1. No. it isn’t. It’s located in Paris.

2. No, it isn’t. It is situated on the River Seine.

3. No. it isn’t. It was visited by one million tourists every year.

4. No. it isn’t. Athens in known as the birthplace of western civilization.

5. No. it isn’t. The Parthenon was built 2, 400 years ago.


第二篇:geoframe小结 3800字

如果是liunix系统直接输入ksnapshot可以启动抓图工具

file里直接有snapshot 可以抓图 scale plot 可以导出cgm格式

GeoFrame4使用手册

第一部分 油气勘探开发整体解决方案概述.... 2

一、GeoQuest油气勘探开发整体解决方案概述.... 2

二、GeoFrame 油藏描述系统.... 3

1、建议的油藏描述工作流程.... 3

2、建议的油藏描述研究流程的技术基础及新功能.... 5

第二部分GeoFrame中常用的部分专业术语图解.... 11

第三部分 GeoFrame4.0新功能,新特征.... 12

一、GeoFrame 4项目数据管理新特征.... 12

(一)GeoFrame 4 项目管理新特征.... 12

1.数据共享(Data Sharing).... 12

3.备份与恢复.... 14

4.数据加载与卸载.... 14

5.数据文本格式的加载(ASCll Load).... 14

(二)GeoFrame 4 数据管理特征.... 15

1.通用数据管理器.... 15

2.井数据管理器.... 15

3.井数据管理器.... 16

4.完井井段数据管理器.... 16

5.钻柱测试数据管理器.... 17

6.Layer数据管理器.... 17

7. Surface数据管理器.... 17

8.Marker数据管理器.... 17

9.岩性数据管理器.... 17

10.测井曲线编辑器.... 18

11.网格数据管理器.... 18

12.项目层位“Patch” 数据管理器.... 18

13.解释数据管理器.... 19

14.解释模型管理器.... 20

15.GF4与 Finderg9集成更密切.... 21

二 、GeoFrame 4岩石物理软件新特征.... 22

1.测井曲线命名规则.... 22

2.GeoFrame4 BoreView.. 22

3.GeoFrame 4.0 CoreVlew Analysis. 23

4.GeoFrame 4 Elan地层精细评价.... 23

5.WellComposite Plus单井综合图显示.... 24

6.GeoPlot多井多窗口交会图显示分析.... 25

7.SCAL特殊岩芯分析.... 26

8.WellEdjt井数据编辑(见地质软件新功能介绍).... 26

9.ResSum储层参数统计(见地质软件新功能介绍).... 26

三、GeoFrame4对地址软件-地质办公室新特征.... 26

1.Geoloy Office(地质办公室).... 26

2.BaseMap. 27

4.Composite. 29

5.LithoQuickLook. 29

6.Cross-section. 30

7.WellPix. 31

8.ResSum.. 31

9.Well Composite Plus. 32

四、GeoFrame4地球物理软件新特征.... 33

1.GeoFrame 4.0 IESX.. 33

2.GeoFrame 4.0 GeoViz. 34

3.GeoFrame 4.0 Synthetice. 36

4.GeoFrame 4.0 Indepth. 37

五、GeoFrame4成图、储层预测及储层随机建模软件新特征.... 38

1.GeoFrame CPS-3. 38

2. GeoFrame4 LPM更加顺畅的储层预测工作流程.... 38

3.GeoFrame Modeling Office储层随机建模办公室.... 38

4.储层随机建模办公室内 Indepth的特点.... 39

5.储层随机建模办公室内FloGrid的特点.... 39

Project是GeoFrame中的最高数据单位,翻译成汉语叫"工区"吧.一个Project里存放了您所有的数据.

Survey是管理地震数据体(在GeoFrame中一般是segy格式)的一个概念/单位.一个Survey定义了在地表一次地震采集地表分布的位置,范围等信息.

Class也是管理地震数据体的一个概念/单位.一般定义了segy数据体的格式,比如位数,纵向上的时间范围等等.从某种意义上说也可以对应某种属性体.

一个工区里可以有多个Survey,不能重名.一个survey里可以有多个class,一个class名字也可以被多个survey使用.同一个survey里的class不能同名.比如一个Survey叫3D_survey1,里边可以有多个class:mig, variance

etc.另一个Survey叫2D_survey2,里边也可以有多个class:mig,variance.每个Survey,class只是一个名字,存放的具体数据可以是不一样的.

Well叫井,确切的说是井口(井在地表的位置/名称).Borehore叫井眼,真正刻画井在地下走过的轨迹.之所以有这两个概念是针对实际工作中"多分支井"的情况.为了节省费用,实际工作中经常会有一个井口,到了一定深度分出多个井眼,所以,一个well下可以有多个borehole.

Marker翻译成汉语大概叫"地质分层".是地质人员根据测井曲线对比,结合其他数据以及对地下情况的理解解释出来的重要层位的位置标志,所以叫"marker".也就是一个borehole与某一个层位的交点.是一个点的概念.

Surface就是一个面,表示空间某一位置存在一个平/曲面,没有厚度概念.一个Surface与borehole的交点就是上面说的marker.

Layer是一个地质层段,一般具有相同/近的岩性和岩石物理属性,它是一段,所以有厚度的概念.两个Surface之间可以定义一个Layer.

Layer与borehole的交线叫Lithozone,注意,由于Layer有厚度,所以是交线.

Logcurve就是测井曲线.每个code的意义在线手册上可能有吧,我不懂测井,不好乱说.不过我想GeoFrame是符合业界标准的,不会太古怪,应该能找到您需要的code.

对上面的几个概念感兴趣的话,看看数据加载和Geology office的帮助,会有解释的.

Lithozone的解释是在Geology-Office>>WellPix里做的.最简单的方法是用两个marker定住lithozone的顶底,那么这样的Lithozone也就等于Layer与Borehole轨迹的交线了.解释时一般会让选择岩性和充填颜色等,就是您说的二维柱状岩性段.您做一下看看,和预期的一样不.

其实Horizon,Surface只是一个名词上的差别,是为了让软件区别不同类型的数据,从而对不同数据设计不同的处理流程(应用于某一类数据的操作不一定可以应用于另外一类数据).Horizon是指地震解释人员在segy数据体上拾取的层位,可以是手工解释的,也可以是自动追踪的;Surface一般是个抽象的概念,指空间某处有一个面.在GeoFrame中常可以看到某一个marker和一个horizon同指向一个surface.也就是说不同类型的数据但是都是表示该处有一个面.Horizon进行时深转换后是深度域的Horizon.

此外还有一个概念叫grid(网格).是对一些数据(散点的,地震解释horizon等)进行网格化的结果.它也常对应一个surface名字.意思是它也表征在空间该处有一个surface.Fault也会指向某一个surface.Horizon从某种程度上讲也是一种grid,或者叫"伪网格".它所使用的网格就是Seismic survey的网格.为了数据管理方便,GeoFrame里有grid library的概念,就象做蛋糕的模子,可以用一个grid library对不同数据实施网格化,产生网格密度相同但是属性不同的网格.

Checkshot是时深关系对.VSP是垂直地震剖面(vertical seismic profile).个人认为VSP比checkshot应用范围更广.VSP的用途之一是提供checkshot,也就是定义时深关系(或者说是速度信息).

InDepth中创建速度模型的方法简单说可以分为两类:

1,使用井上的速度信息.当井上数据比较丰富,比如井比较密集,checkshot或者DT曲线每口井都有,品质也比较好,那么可以使用它们来创建速度模型;

2,使用地震上的速度信息.在地震数据处理的过程中一般都会产生一些速度数据,可以使用这些数据创建速度模型.可以是叠加速度,也可以是segy格式的velocity cube.具体是怎么处理得到的,问问处理人员吧.一般认为地震上的速度不准确,但是它覆盖面大,便宜.如果井比较少的时候也只能利用地震上的速度.可以使用井数据做为校正.

时深转换是公认的难点,结果好坏和许多因素有关.有什么好的想法可以大家分享一下.

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