四级基础语法讲义——菜鸟课程(2800字)

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大学英语四级语法——菜鸟课程

主讲老师:田静

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导学部分

误区:

●四六级不考语法

●语法=单选题

语法?

●语言的规矩和法则

●连词成句

语言 语法 句子

四六级语法学什么?

句子

句子的结构

一个句子 多个句子的连接

(一件事) (多件事)

简单句 并列句/复合句

第一章:简单句的核心

第一部分:简单句

第二章:简单句的补充

第二部分:并列句

基础语法

四六级语法 第三部分:复合句

强调

第四部分:特殊用途的句子 倒装

虚拟

真题应用 长难句分析(全真题讲解)

第一部分:简单句

第一章:简单句的核心

一、简单句的核心构成

简单句 一个句子(一件事)

世界是物质的,物质是运动的

n. + v.

主语+ 谓语

11

n. + 谓语v.

谓语v. 有实义 不及物动词 vi. 主谓

分类 及物动词 vt. 主谓宾

主谓双宾(人+物)

主谓宾补

无实义 (连)系动词 主系表

例子:

I swim.

I like English.

区分vt./vi.

1)意思

2)介词(prep.)

● I like English.

●The bride kissed the groom.

●Birds fly in the sky.

●We walked on the street yesterday.

●You look at me.

介宾结构

●They offered me a vacant post.

●They offered a vacant post to me.

I bought you a present.

I bought a present for you.

I find HongKong ???

I find HongKong very beautiful.

I find HongKong a place for shopping.

●我非常高兴。

●I very happy. ???

I am very happy.

主系表

系动词

1.be动词 (单独)

2.“变得” get become turn go grow

3.感官动词 look sound smell taste feel

“看 / 听 / 闻 / 尝 / 感觉起来??”

4.keep remain / seem appear

1. I ask you a question. 主谓双宾

2. You answer. 主谓

3. I love you. 主谓宾

4. You make my life complete.主谓宾补

5. I am happy. 主系表

主语 + 谓语 + ?

二、简单句的核心变化

n. + v.

动词的时态

动词的语态

动词的情态

谓语动词的变化 语态

被动语态

狗吃了那个蛋糕。

The dog ate the cake.

?吃了那个蛋糕。

蛋糕被吃了。

狗吃了那个蛋糕。

主语 宾语

蛋糕被狗吃了。

被动语态适用范围 1:及物动词。

2:不及物动词+介词。

被动语态

be + done

被动的时间 被动的动作

备注:

1.be表示被动的时间(把be变成对应的各种形态),还表达主语单复数

2. done表示被动的动作

教室每天都打扫。

Classrooms are cleaned (clean) every day.

一座新的大楼去年建造的。

A new building was built (build) last year.

与时态相结合

被动语态 be + done

他每天被打。 He is beaten every day.

他昨天被打了。 He was beaten yesterday.

他明天将要被打。 He will be beaten tomorrow.

他现在正在被打。 He is being beaten. (现在经行时的被动am/is/are + being done) 他现在已经被打了。 He has been beaten. (现在完成时的被动have/has + been done)

Our morning paper is read (read) by over 200,000 people every day.

Last night my favorite TV program was interrupted (interrupt) by a special news bulletin. His bike will be repaired (repair) by his grandfather tomorrow.

The new machine has been used (use) in our factory for two week.

与情态动词相结合

被动语态 be + done

Planes are heard.

Planes can be heard.

Planes could be heard.

Planes may be heard.

Planes must be heard.

这封信必须马上寄出。

The letter must be sent immediately.

天气不能被人们所控制。

Weather cannot be controlled by people.

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第二篇:四级考试语法重点——定语从句 3100字

四级考试语法重点——定语从句

5.1 关系词

1)注意关系词在从句中作什么成份,选择正确的关系词:

I have kept that portrait ______ I can see it every day, as it always reminds

me of my university days in London.

A) which B)where C)whether D)when

我把那幅画像放在每天都看得到的地方,因为它总是让我想起在伦敦读大学的日子。(96.1 -49, B对。where在定语从句中作状语。)

2)当引导词指一种情况时,要用which而不用that:

Helen was much kinder to her youngest child than she was to the others, ____ ,

of course, made the others jealous.

A) who B) who C) that D) which

海沦对她最小的孩子比对其他的孩子要好得多,这当然引起其他孩子的妒忌。(93.6-59,D 对)

5.2 as 引导的定语从句

as 可以作关系代词用,引导一个非限制性定语从句;常常以as is known, as might be expected, as can be seen 类似的形式出现,as 指一种情况,这时as从句可以置于句首句中或句末:

______ might be expected, the response to the question was very mixed.

A)As B)That C)It D)What

对这个问题的反应很复杂,这是意料中的事。(96.6-27, A 对)

As ______ announced in today's papers, the Shanghai Export Commodities Fair

is also open on Sunday.

A)being B)is C)to be D)been

正如今天的报纸所宣布的那样:上海出口商品展览会也在星期天开幕。(97.1-37, B对) The British are not so familiar with different cultures and other ways of

doing things, ______ is often the case in other countries.

A)as B)what C)so D)that

英国人对不同文化和做事的不同方式不太熟悉,这种情况在其它国家也存在。(98.6-58, A对)

5.3 “介词+关系词”引导的定语从句

介词的选择取决于which所指,或定语从句中的动词搭配、形容词搭配、名词搭配: We were struck by the extent ______ which teachers' decisions served the

interests of the school rather than those of the students.

A)to B)for C)in D)with

教师的决定是维护学校的利益而不是学生的利益,其程度令我们吃惊。(96.6-35,A对。Cf. to the extend )

It is useful to be able to predict the extent ______ which a price change

will affect supply and demand.

A)from B)with C)to D)for

能够预测价格变化在多大程度上影响供求关系是很有用的。(97.1-29,C对)

Living in the central Australian desert has its problems,____ obtaining water

is not the least.

A)for which B)to which C)of which D)in which

生活在澳大利亚中部沙漠有许多问题,其中获取水是最重要的问题。

(98.1-42,C对。Cf. the least of its problems)

The course normally attracts 20 students per year, ______ up to half will be

from overseas.

A)in B)for whom C)with which D) of which

这门科正常情况下吸引20名学生,其中多达半数来自海外。(98.6-70, D对。Cf。up to half of the students)

We need a chairman _______.

A)for whom everyone has confidence

B)in whom everyone has confidence

C)who everyone has confidence of

D)whom everyone has confidence on

我们需要一个大家都有信心的主席。(98.6-62,B对。Cf. have confidence in sb.对某人 有信心)

在“介词+关系词”之前还可能出现名词、数词、形容词的最高级等。请看xx年大学英语 四级考题:

The residents, ____ had been damaged by the flood, were given help by the Red

Cross.

A) all their homes B) all whose home C) all of whose homes D) all of their

homes

那些房子遭到洪水淹没的居民,得到红十字会的帮助。(答案是C)

A survey was carried out on the death rate of new-born babies in that region,

______ were surprising.

A)as results B)which results C)the results of it D)the results of which

对那个地区的新生婴儿的死亡率进行了调查,其结果令人吃惊。(99.1-42,D对) 在“名词+介词+关系词”之前还可能出现介词:

Language is a city, to the building of ______ every human being brought a

stone.

A)which B)that C)it D)this

语言是一座城,每一个人都带来了石块,参与了它的建设。(94.1-51,A对)

5.4 区别同位语从句与定语从句

注意区别同位语从句与定语从句。在同位语从句中,引导词不作句子成份; 同位语从句的 先行词通常是fact, idea , news, hope, suggestion或probability, evidence,

certainty等:

The mere fact ______ most people believe nuclear war would be madness does

not mean that it will not occur.

A)what B)which C)that D)why (97.6-53,C 对)

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