托福综合写作备考话题背景:生物学(3800字)

来源:m.fanwen118.com时间:2021.9.9

托福综合写作备考话题背景:生物学

朗阁托福考试研究中心

自从新托福考试改革之后,是在某些方面增加了难度,特别是写作中,在这部分的测试中,还融汇了听力以及口语部分的考查,给一些基础比较差的学生增加了一定的难度,但是只要找到好的方法技巧,这部分的考查相对来说也是比较好拿分的部分,那么我们就要从这部分的内容所涉及的话题入手,相信同学们在了解了相关主流话题的词汇和考点之后,对于一些考查的主题会有所帮助的,因为这其中我们也是不可避免的会遇到对于听力的考查,而这些听力原文中会出现关键的写作的主题信息,所以学生们一定要重点把握,不能造成信息的不准确或者是遗漏。

? 生物话题考点:

在TPO的题目中,最具有代表性的生物类话题分布在TPO 4, TPO 10, TPO 15, TPO 17, TPO18和TPO 26, 它们分别研究的是恒温动物,海獭,蟾蜍,鸟类,某种常青树的濒危灭绝和某类淡水鱼的入侵。从研究的内容来看,考生们觉得它们之间绝无内容的相似性,更无从谈及什么相关性,但事实上并非如此。

——TPO 4: 阅读和听力争论的焦点是恐龙是不是恒温动物,基于三个方面:climate change, leg position and movement and Haversian canals

从单词的层面上来说:

? 表示物种数量的下降:Decline / shrink / extinct/ endangered

——TPO10: 这篇谈及的是:whether does the number of sea otters decline attributes to the pollution, their predators and survival location

从单词的层面上来说:

?

? 增加:Increase 农田:Farmland / cropland / cultivated land

——TPO15: 讨论的是来自北美的cane toads本来到了澳洲是消灭那里的害虫的,但是入侵之后带来了许多害处,人们想了诸多方法减少它们:包括设置篱笆,志愿者参与和病毒侵害。

从单词的层面上来说:

? 科学技术层面的单词:Genetic modification / genetic technology

——TPO 17: 辩驳了某种鸟数量下降的原因(人类的增长,频繁的农业活动和大量杀虫剂的使用)。

从单词的层面上来说:

? 科技与农业的进步:Grain output / grain yield / food production / genetic

crossing / interbreed

——TPO 18: 为了挽救某种常青树,人们实施了很多措施:选择适合它生活的环境;迁移到别处(其实这里就有物种入侵的意思了)或在研究中心这个所谓的“温室”环境里成长。 从单词的层面上来说:

? 科技如何治理污染:introduce pest / resistant species

——TPO 26: 介绍某种淡水鱼是否难以阻挡其入侵到别处,及其将会带来的潜在威胁。 从单词的层面上来说:

? 关于物种入侵:wipe out / crowd out / be aggressive / invade/ invasion /

colonize / kill off

从上面的考察点结合阅读与听力的内容,朗阁托福考试研究中心的专家给考生们总结了这类话题的考点设置:

常出现在综合写作听力部分的考点:

? objective causes: environment / global warming or climate changes… ? advanced technologies: pest / resistant species

? man-made approaches: natural fire / eliminate / volunteers / poisonous

virus…..

? potential impact: never protest against disease / poor genetic diversity,……..

备考误区:

大多数参加新托福考试的考生在备考的时候仅仅是把TPO套题做个几遍,不做任何总结和归类就进了考场,但最终成绩往往并不令人满意。从写作科目来说,综合写作听力的得分会直接影响分数的变化,除了词汇资源和语法多样性这些要求外,学生对于听力细节的把握也是至关重要的。今天朗阁托福考试研究中心的专家将分析一下新托福综合写作中的两个主流话题-生物话题和考古话题,相信能够帮助考生们在有效的时间内去科学地突破它们。

考题应对:

朗阁托福考试研究中心的专家通过对20xx年x月和5月部分综合写作题目的总结发现,掌握以上考点对于应对综合写作起着至关重要的作用:比如在20xx年x月x日的考试中,讨论的内容是the extinction of diprotodon, 最终的原因分析仍然是围绕着我们以上所提到的考点,无论是在词汇方面还是在考点层面-deforestation / hunting / climate change。同样,20xx年x月x日的综合写作讨论的是Harappan Civilization衰落的原因,原因分析中包含了以下信息:climate changes, epidemic disease and other species’ colonization.

新的变化:

如果说以上所总结的完全可以应对目前新托福综合写作中的生物类话题了,这是有点片面的。从大趋势上来看,以上的信息点是必须要在备考中引起注意的。但是更要注意一些新的考点是TPO套题中所没有涉及的,如今年x月x日的综合写作考察的是“并不是所有的海洋生物都比dolphins聪明”,在这个内容中它涉及到了以下新的词汇,诸如cerebral cortex(大脑皮层),brain’s wrinkled surface(大脑褶皱),light action…. Correlate A with B…, 还出现了新的考点body size, be capable of training. 再比如4月x日的考试中也出现了一个新的考点:介绍一种恐龙的crest的功能,以及新的词汇知识:sense of smell, increase the surface area, temporarily reduce fever, brain structure, sensory neuron…..。因此总结出常规考点和新出现的信息后,考生们就不再像以前那样仅仅是走题海战术了。

以上内容是本节主题,下面是上节所讲主题,我们就来回顾一下,希望考生们能在回顾这些所涉及的单词同时组织一些若是有此类话题的话我们应该如何应对!

? 考古话题考点:

关于考古类话题的内容主要分布在TPO 5, TPO 16和TPO 26, 它主要涉及的相关单词有以下一些:

? Buildings / homes / rooms

? Fireplaces / kitchen

? Storeroom / warehouse

? Grain / rice / wheat / maize / sorghum / soy bean / peanut

? …sacrifice / ceremonial centre / religion

? construction projects

? spurred a lot of new construction in British cities, towns, and villages. ? While digging foundations for new buildings, …

? proceeded with the construction and did not preserve the artifacts ? Many archaeologically precious artifacts

? Skeptical / suspicious / cast doubt on

? Organism

? Bacteria / virus / fungi / fungus

? Colonize / attack / invade / invasion

? Traces / tracks

? Moist residue

? Identical / same

? Fossils of primitive animals

? Different origin

从以上呈现的内容来看,考古话题涉到不同的领域:建筑,化石研究和珍贵考古资料的破坏。20xx年x月x日综合写作所考查的信息类似于刚列出的TPO 5, 只不过不同的是建筑的用处改成了城堡的用处。同样在3月x日的那场考试中研究的是fossils, 类似于前面提及到的TPO 24。但是朗阁托福考试研究中心的专家提醒考生们要注意一些新的考点,比如恐龙化石的neck是vertical的还是horizontal的,所涉及的新词有hypertension(高血压),expand energy(消耗能量),skeleton, muscle and robust heart等。

(本文来自朗阁教育托福培训教研组,供广大考生学习使用,转载请注明出处)


第二篇:新托福综合写作万能模板-常用句型总结 2800字

综合写作

Both the lecture and the reading discussed …. However, their viewpoints are strongly contradictory for several reasons.

First, the reading points out that …, but the lecturer supposes that …. And he also argues that …, thus…

Moreover, the author holds that ... The lecturer, however, believes that…. Since it is …, ….

Besides, the professor also refutes the idea that ... from the passage. He provides us with the instance/reason that....

In sum, according to the discussion above, the speaker totally disagrees with the conclusions revealed in the reading passage.

Frequently Used Sentences

1 We are so development-oriented that we almost can sacrifice moral values for the purpose of obtaining a little material gain.

2 It is often reported in our daily newspapers that university undergraduates commit crimes, XXX from XXX University, is a case in point.

3 According to the latest paper published by the Chinese Academy of Social Science, the number of smoking people is increasing at an accelerating speed (alarming rate), especially in China.

4 If this trend continues without control, the short-sighted activities will definitely exert negative (positive) influences on the friendship between China and other countries.

5 What should be done to halt and reverse this disturbing situation (social phenomenon).

6 Citizens are expected to enhance their awareness that animals are indispensable part for the sustainable development of our society.

7 A widespread education campaign should be launched to inform people of the side-effects of bad manners.

8 Federal and State government are supposed to initiate more comprehensive laws to confine people’s behavior.

9 The local and central authorities, in coordination with the press, are obliged to introduce China to the outside world.

10 The press is obliged to expose (highlight) the immorality so that public comments can develop into a mores to guide people’s behavior.

11 Only in this way can human beings enjoy a harmonious and comfortable life (brilliant future).

举例

1 We may cite a common example of

2 A general /recent survey /investigation conducted by officials/ scientists indicates /reveals/ suggests that

比较

1 Although the commonly-accepted belief/ idea is that XXX, a current/ recent study/ survey indicates that

2 It is true that XXX, but it does not mean that

原因

1 The reasons/ causes for XXX are varied/ complicated and perhaps (probably) that they lie in the fact 2 Another contributing factor/ cause of XXX is that

开头

1 There is a general/ public debate/ discussion nowadays on/ over the XXX. Those who criticize/ object to XXX argue that

2 They believe that XXX, however, people who advocate/ favor XXX argue that

结果

1 As it turns out / Indisputably/Accordingly

2 Considering all the factors above, we may safely draw the conclusion that

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