美国文学总结

来源:m.fanwen118.com时间:2021.10.21

Colonial 1607-1765 and Revolutionary 1765-18c末 Period (17世纪-18世纪末)

一、Colonial writers

1. John Smith (约翰·史密斯) “ the first author” in American literature

A True Relation of Virginia 关于佛吉尼亚的真实叙述 “ the first book ” in American literature

2. William Bradford the first governor of Plymouth 普利茅斯

3. John Winthrop A Model of Christian Charity 基督教之爱

清教徒主义作家

Anne Bradstreet The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America 最近在美洲出现的第十位缪斯

Jonathan Edwards The Freedom of the Will The Great Doctrine of Original Sin defended

The Nature of True Virtue

二、启蒙时期和独立战争时期

1. Benjamin Franklin 启蒙运动代表人物 one of the Founding Fathers of the United States of America Poor Richard’s Almanac ( 格言历书) 代表作:The Autobiography 早期美国梦的反映

2. Roger Williams Puritanical dissenter 清教反对者

3. Thomas Paine the Father of American Revolution美国独立之父

The Common Sense the greatest of the Revolutionary pamphlets

The Age of Reason The Rights of Man支持了法国革命 The American Crisis鼓励殖民地抵抗英国军队

4. Philip Freneau 菲利普·弗伦诺

the Father of American Poetry美国诗歌之父 a poet of the American Revolution革命诗人

The Rising Glory of America美洲光辉的兴起 The Wild Honey Suckle 野金银花

The Indian Burying Ground印第安人的殡葬地 首次创造 the Noble Savage 高贵的野蛮人

5. Thomas Jefferson 美第三任总统 Agrarians 重农主义代表人物 Declaration of Independence `````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` American Romanticism (提倡个人主义) 美国的文艺复兴 18世纪末---19世纪中后期

一、早期浪漫主义

1. Washington Irving 华盛顿·欧文 the Father of American Literature美国文学之父indigenous humour The Sketch Book marked the beginning标志美国浪漫主义的开始 第一个赢得国际声誉

包括:The Legend of Sleepy Hollow睡谷传说 Rip Van Winkle The Alhambra等7部

A History of New York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty纽约外史 诙谐杰作

2. James Fennimore Cooper 费尼莫尔·库伯 西进运动 边疆小说

Leatherstocking Tale皮袜子故事集 5部曲 about the frontier life of American settlers

包括:The Pioneers拓荒者 The Last of Mohicans最后的莫西干人(Natty Bumpoo班波) 、

The Prairie草原 The Pathfinder探路者 The Deerslayer杀鹿者

The Spy 间谍 The Pilot 领航者

二、超验主义作家

1. Ralph Waldo Emerson New England Transcendentalism

Nature论自然 the manifesto of American Transcendentalism超验主义宣言 超验主义理论的圣经 The American Scholar美国学者 指出美学者应创造自己的文学风格,不应盲从 Self-Reliance论自立

2. Henry David Thoreau 亨利·大卫·梭罗 Walden瓦尔登湖 超验主义作品

Civil Disobedience论公民之不服从

Nathaniel Hawthorne 霍桑 human soul symbolism象征主义大师

The Scarlet Letter红字代表作 Twice-told Tales尽人皆知的故事 Mosses from an Old Manse古屋青苔 The House of the Seven Gables有七个尖角阁的房子 The Blithedale Romance福谷传奇

The Marble Faun玉石雕像 Young Goodman Brown年轻的古德曼·布朗

Herman Melville 赫尔曼·梅尔维尔 Moby Dick白鲸 Typee泰比 Omoo欧穆

诗人

1. Walt Whitman沃尔特·惠特曼 the father of Free Verse

Leaves of Grass草叶集(标志浪漫主义截止) American Epic美国史诗 Democratic Bible共和圣经 Song of Myself自我之歌 O Captain! My Captain

2. Emily Dickinson 迪金森 美国女诗人

Because I Could Not Stop for Death因为我不能等待死神 I’m Nobody. Who Are You我是无名小卒,你是谁 This Is My Letter to the World I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died

埃德加·爱伦·坡Edgar Allan Poe 短篇小说大师 first writer of detective story侦探小说

The Raven乌鸦 The Fall of the House of Usher厄舍古屋的倒塌

The Poetic Principle诗歌原理 The Philosophy of Composition创作哲学

Murders in the Rue Morgue莫各街谋杀案

三、炉边诗人

1. William Cullen Bryant 布莱恩特

To a Waterfowl致水鸟 Thanatopsis死亡随想 The Yellow Violet黄色的堇香花

2. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 朗佛罗 native themes

A Psalm of Life人生礼赞 The Song of Hiawatha海华沙之歌 Evangeline伊凡吉林

`````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` Realistic Period 现实主义时期 19世纪中期----20世纪初

诱因American industrialization 马克·吐温→The Gilded Age镀金年代 Gold Rush淘金热

Harriet Beecher Stowe哈丽特·比彻·斯托 废奴主义者 Uncle Tom’s Cabin汤姆叔叔的小屋

一、现实主义作家

1. William Dean Howells 霍威尔斯

The Rise of Silas Lapham塞拉斯·拉帕姆的发迹 A Modern Instance一个现代的例证

A Hazard of New Fortunes新财富的危害

2. Henry James 亨利·詹姆斯 世态小说novel of manners

The Potrait of a Lady贵妇人的肖像 Daisy Miller黛西·米勒 The Ambassadors大使

The Wings of the Dove鸽翼 The Golden Bowl金碗 Art of Fiction and Other Essays小说艺术

二、 乡土文学作家 Local Literature

1. Mark Twain马克·吐温(Samuel Longhorne Clemens) critic colloquial style localism

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn哈克贝利?费恩历险记 现代美国文学起源

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer汤姆?索亚历险记 Life on the Mississippi密西西比河上

The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County加拉维拉县有名的跳蛙

The Innocent’s Abroad傻瓜出国记 The Gilded Age镀金时代 The Prince and the Pauper王子与贫儿The;A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court亚瑟王宫中的美国佬

The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg败坏哈德莱堡的人 Roughing It苦行记

2. Hamlin Garland 哈姆林·加兰德 Main Traveled Road大路条条

三、自然主义作家 Naturalism自然主义

1. Stephen Crane斯蒂芬?克莱恩 Magie: A Girl of the Streets街头女郎梅姬

The Red Badge of Courage红色英勇勋章 The Open Boat海上扁舟

2. Frank Norris弗兰克·诺里斯 The Octopus章鱼

3. Theodore Dreiser西奥多·德莱塞 An American Tragedy美国的悲剧(被称为美国最伟大的小说)

Sister Carrie嘉莉姐妹 Jennie Gerhardt珍妮姑娘 The Genius天才

Trilogy of Desire欲望三部曲(The Financer金融家 The Titan巨人 The Stoic斯多葛)

4. Edwin Arlington Robinson鲁宾逊 The Man Against the Sky衬托着天空的人

5. Jack London杰克·伦敦 Marti Eden马丁·伊登 The Son of the Wolf狼之子

The Sea-wolf海狼 The Call of the Wild野性的呼唤 White Fang白獠牙

The People of the Abyss深渊中的人们 The Iron Heel铁蹄

What Life Means to Me生命对我意味着什么 Love of Life热爱生命

The Mexican墨西哥人 Under the Deck Awings在甲板的天蓬下 The Law of Life 生活的法则

6. Upton Sinclair厄普顿·辛克莱尔 The Jungle屠场(揭发黑幕运动的代表作家)

Oil石油 Spring and Harvest春天与收获;

O.Henry (William Sidney Porter) the father of the modern short story 美国现代短篇小说之父

The Cop and the Anthem警察与赞美诗 The Gift of Magi麦琪的礼物 The Last Leaf最后一片叶子 `````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````````` American Modernism 现代主义时期

一、二战前诗歌

1. Ezra Pound艾兹拉·庞德 The father of modern American poetry美国现代诗歌创始人

Imagism意象主义 The father of Imagist poetry意象派诗歌之父

Cathay华夏集(英译中国诗) The Cantos诗章 In a Station of the Metro地铁站里 A Pact协约

2. Robert Frost罗伯特·弗罗斯特 New England poet

A Boy’s Wish少年心愿 North of Boston波士顿之北 Mending Wall修墙 Fire and Ice火与冰 Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening雪夜林边小驻 After Apple-picking摘苹果之后

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