【中考英语语法大汇总】:代词语法讲解

【中考英语语法大汇总】:代词语法讲解

  (一)代词概述

  代词用来代替名词,在句中充当主语、宾语和表语,有时还可以充当定语。代词在考试命题中主要是代词格的变化、代词单复数形式以及不定代词和it的用法等。

  (二)基本知识梳理

  1. 人称代词:主格作主语,宾格用作及物动词和介词的宾语。

  He often helps me.

  Who is at the door? It's me.

  The bicycle belongs to Tom and me.

  出现并列主语或宾语时,其排列顺序为:单数时是第二、第三、第一人称(简称231)即you,he and I或you,her and me;复数时是第一、第二、第三人称(简称123)即we,you and they或us,you and them。

  2. 物主代词:形容词性物主代词作定语,后加名词;而名词性物主代词等于形容词性物主代词加名词。如: This is my book. = This book is mine.

  名词性物主代词可做主语、宾语和表语。如:

  Your pen is blue.  Mine is blue,too.

  May I use your pen?  I've lost mine.

  She is a classmate of his.

  The bike is hers.

  3. 反身代词:用作宾语和起强调作用。

  1)作宾语

  Help yourself to some cakes.

  I can look at myself in the mirror.

  They should think more of the public health than themselves.

  2)作强调

  We do homework by ourselves.

  I myself go to the airport to meet my uncle.

  4. 指示代词

  1)this,that,these,those

  What's this(that)?  It's a book.

  What are these(those)?  They are books.

  this和these比较靠近,that和those稍远一点。

  2)it的用法

  (1)指物:It's a robot.

  (2)指自然现象: It's raining now, but it will be fine soon.

  (3)指时间:What time is it?  It's 8 o'clock.

  (4)指距离:It's twenty minutes' walk.

  (5)作形式主语:It's important for us to fight pollution.

  It took me half an hour to finish the work.

  It's kind of you to say so.

  (6)作形式宾语: We think it necessary to relax from time to time.

  5. 不定代词

  1)some,any

  some用于肯定句中,any用于否定句和疑问句中。如:

  There are some pens on the desk.

  There aren't any pens on the desk.

  Are there any pens on the desk?

  Some are Chinese.  Others are English.

  在表示请求、建议、反问等句子中,用some而不是用any。如:

  Would you like some drink?

  any也可以表示任何一个。如:

  Do you know any of her friends?

  If you have any questions, you can ask me.

  2)复合不定代词:something, anything,nothing,everything,somebody,anybody,nobody,everybody,someone,anyone,no one,everyone,somewhere,anywhere,nowhere,everywhere这些不定代词都作单数,表示“某物”、“某人”、“某地”。

  (1)作主语:

  Someone is waiting for you.

  No one is in the classroom.

  (2)作宾语:

  Have you got anything to say?

  Did you see anything else in the classroom?

  (3)不定代词被形容词修饰时,定语放在它们的后面。如:

  I’ve got something interesting to tell you.

  There's nothing new in the newspaper.

  3)a few,few,a little,little前两者修饰可数名词,后两者修饰不可数名词。few,little表示否定,意思是几乎没有;a few,a little表示肯定,意思是还有几个、有一点。如:

  There is still a little time left, you needn't hurry.

  I can't buy anything because I have little money on me.

  4)both(两者都,复数),all(三者以上都,复数),neither(两者都不,单数),none(三者以上都不,单复数),either(两者中的一个,单数),both...and, neither...nor, either...or

  (1)作主语:

  Both of the twins are doctors.

  All of them are honest.

  Neither of them is a doctor.

  None of them is/are honest.

  (2)词组:

  Both Li Ping and I are students.

  Neither Li Ping nor I am a student.

  (3)作形容词:

  on both sides of the river

  on either side of the river

  注意下面句子转化:

  Both of them are teachers.

  改成否定句是: Neither of them is a teacher.

  All of us are students.

  改成否定句是: None of us is a student.   或: None of us are students.

  5)one ...the other(s)表示一个……其余的……,是有范围的;some...others 表示一些……另一些……,是无范围的;another 表示很多中的另一个,再……个。如:

  He has two brothers. One is an engineer, the other is a writer.

  Some like football. Others like basketball.

  Some books on the shelf are in Chinese, the others in English.

  She will be in hospital for another two weeks.(她将在医院再住两星期。)

 

第二篇:【中考英语语法大汇总】:连词语法讲解

【中考英语语法大汇总】—连词语法讲解

(一)连词概述

连词是连接单词、短语或句子的一种虚词。在句中不单独作句子成分。历年中考中常考并列连词and,but,neither… nor;从属连词now that,though,when。所以了解状语从句和宾语从句的真正意义有助于正确使用从属连词。

(二)基础知识梳理

1.并列连词用来连接彼此并列的词、短语或句子。并列连词有and,or,but,so,for,nor等。

2.关联连词有both…and,either… or,neither…nor,not only…but also,as well as,as much as等。

3.连接性副词有however,therefore,besides,yet,anyway,still,all the same等。

4.并列连词和连接性副词存在以下的区别:

1)连接两个独立的分句时,并列连词的位置只能放在它所引导的分句的句首,前面通常有逗号。如:

I must work hard, for I still have a long way to go.

They all went, but I didn't go.

2)连接性副词的位置比较灵活,句中、句首、句末都可以。但是放在句首较为普遍。如:

Mother was ill, therefore, she stayed at home yesterday.

= Mother was ill, she therefore, stayed at home yesterday.

= Mother was ill, she stayed at home yesterday, therefore.

3)两个并列连词不可以连用。如:

He tried hard.and but he failed to get the job.此句中的but应改为yet。因为and和but都是连词。

5.从属连词是用来引导从句,如宾语从句、状语从句、定语从句等。从属连词有that,

if, unless, whether, who, whose, what, which, where, than, when, while, as, since, though, although, because, before, after, until, as soon as, now that, so...that, so that, as... as,(not) as/so…as 如:

If it snows tomorrow,we won't go on a picnic.(If引导条件状语从句)

Could you tell me whose PC it is? (whose引导宾语从句)

The man who is talking to my class teacher is my father.(who引导定语从句)

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